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Overview

Increasing use of digital signals for transmitting data in television, photography and printing means the reproduction of pictorial colour in the 21st century continues to drive innovation in its development.

Hunt’s classic text The Reproduction of Colour has been fully revised and updated for the sixth edition to provide a comprehensive introduction to colour imaging and colour reproduction. New illustrations, diagrams and photographs ensure that both students and practising engineers using colour images can gain a full understanding of the theory and practical applications behind the phenomena they encounter.

Key features:

  • Describes the fundamental principles of colour reproduction for photography, television, printing and electronic imaging.
  • Provides detailed coverage of the physics of light and the property of colorants.
  • Includes new chapters on digital printing and digital imaging, which discuss colour reproduction on HDTV and desktop publishing.
  • Presents expanded coverage of the evaluation of colour appearance.

The Reproduction of Colour is already used as a basis for lectures in universities and specialist institutions and continues to be an essential resource for scientists, engineers and developers needing to appreciate the technologies of colour perception.

Reviews of the Fifth Edition:

"The book is beautifully written and superbly presented. It is a credit to both author and publisher, and deserves to be on the shelves of anyone who has any concern with the reproduction of colour."

From The Journal of Photographic Science, Vol. 43 1995

"Using his ability as a teacher, Dr Hunt has made potentially very difficult topics quite readable…he brings the insight that leads the reader to a greater depth of understanding."

From Color Research and Application, Vol. 23 1998

The Society for Imaging Science and Technology is an international society that aims to advance the science and practices of image assessment. A major objective of the Wiley-IS&T series will be to explain the latest scientific and technological developments in the field of imaging at a professional level. The broad scope of the series will focus on imaging in all its aspects, with particular emphasis on digital printing, electronic imaging, photofinishing, image preservation, image assessment, image archiving, pre-press technologies and hybrid imaging systems.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Hunt's ability to transmit complex technical information in a communicable, easy reading manner is to be applauded…will make a difference n the careers of scientists, engineers, color developers, and color technologists, who undertake to study and learn from it." (COLOR research and application, December 2005)

"…a standard…[that] is widely used in research, teaching, and lecturing." (CHOICE, July 2005)

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Robert Hunt, formerly Assistant Director of Research, Kodak Research Laboratories in Harrow, England, is an independent colour consultant and visiting Professor of Colour Science at the University of Derby.
He has been Chairman of the Colour Group of Great Britain (1961-63); Chairman of the Colorimetry Committee of the CIE (1975-83); and President of the International Colour Association (1981-85). He has written over a hundred papers on colour, vision, colour reproduction, and colour measurement. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society and a member of the Royal Institution where he served as Vice-President (1985-87). He has been awarded the Progress Medal of the Royal Photographic Society, the Judd-AIC Medal of the International Colour Association, and the Gold Medal of the Institute of Printing.

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Read an Excerpt

The Reproduction of Colour


By R.W.G. Hunt

John Wiley & Sons

Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-470-02425-9


Chapter One

Spectral Colour Reproduction

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Three hundred and fifty years ago, a physics student at Cambridge University would have been told that

White is that which discharges a copious light equally clear in every direction. Black is that which does not emit light at all or which does it very sparingly. Red is that which emits a light more clear than usual, but interrupted by shady interstices. Blue is that which discharges a rarefied light, as in bodies which consist of white and black particles arranged alternatively.... The blue colour of the sea arises from the whiteness of the salt it contains mixed with the blackness of the pure water in which the salt is dissolved (Houston, 1923).

No wonder that Pope wrote:

'Nature and Nature's Laws lay hid in night God said "Let Newton be!" and all was light.'

In 1666 Newton laid the foundation-stone of colour science, when he discovered that white sunlight was composed of a mixture of all the colours of the spectrum, and this discovery is also the natural starting point to a consideration of the fundamentals of colour reproduction.

1.2 THE SPECTRUM

Suppose we are taking a colour photograph of a street in daylight. All the light falling on the street comes from thesun, either directly when the sky is clear, or after diffusion by clouds if the sky is overcast, or after scattering in the atmosphere if there is blue sky. Since sunlight is a mixture of all the colours of the spectrum, our street scene is being illuminated by such a mixture, and some of the components of this mixture will be revealed by certain natural objects. Foliage contains a dye called chlorophyll which has the property of absorbing reddish, yellowish and bluish light, but transmits greenish light; hence, when foliage is illuminated by daylight, it suppresses the reddish, yellowish and bluish components of the light so that only the greenish components are seen by the eye, and we say that the foliage looks green. Similarly, if the street contains a greengrocer's shop and tomatoes are displayed, the tomatoes look red, because they absorb most of the bluish, greenish, and yellowish components of the daylight, and reflect mainly the reddish components. It is thus clear that both the quality of the illuminant and the nature of the objects contribute towards the colour seen. If we return to the street after dark, and find that it is lit by sodium lamps, we shall find that the leaves and the tomatoes now look brown because the illuminant contains only yellow light and this is absorbed by the foliage and tomatoes; there being no green light for the foliage to reflect, and no red light for the tomatoes to reflect, these colours cannot be seen.

However, the sodium lamp is very exceptional as far as its colour is concerned, and most sources of light are similar to the sun in that they usually emit a mixture of all the colours of the spectrum. This is true of electric filament lamps, electronic flash, and most fluorescent lamps. This being so, the extent to which an object reflects the different colours of the spectrum provides a very useful measure of its colour properties.

So far we have only spoken loosely of reddish, yellowish, greenish, and bluish light without defining exactly to which part of the spectrum it belongs. Since all light has wave-like properties, and light in different parts of the spectrum corresponds to waves of different length, it is convenient to define each spectral colour by the wavelength of its light. The wavelengths are all extremely short, and convenient units of measurement are: the micron or micro-metre ([micro]m) which is a millionth of a metre, the milli-micron (m[micro]) which is one thousandth of a micron or, which is the same thing, the nano-metre (nm) which is one thousand-millionth ([10.sup.9]) of a metre, and the Ångström (Å) which is one ten-thousandth of a micron. In the rest of this book we shall mostly use the nano-metre. The main spectral colours occupy approximately the following wavelength bands: violet 450 nm and less; blue 450 to 480 nm; blue-green 480 to 510 nm; green 510 to 550 nm; yellow-green 550 to 570 nm; yellow 570 to 590 nm; orange 590 to 630 nm; red 630 nm and greater. These regions are shown in Fig. 1.1(a). There is a gradual transition from one colour to another throughout the spectrum, and the viewing conditions affect where one colour ends, and the next begins.

In Fig. 1.1(b) the amount of light reflected at each wavelength by a particular red surface is plotted as a percentage of the amount of light falling on the surface at each wavelength. The curve thus obtained is called the spectral reflectance curve of the sample, and provides a detailed description of the colour properties of the surface. In the case of this red colour it is clear that about 65 per cent of the red light is reflected, 55 per cent of the orange, 30 per cent of the yellow, 15 per cent of the yellow-green, 10 per cent of the green, 10 per cent of the blue-green, 5 per cent of the blue, and 5 per cent of the violet. And these reflectances result in the particular red colour of this surface, actually that of a red tomato.

Now suppose we take a colour photograph of a scene containing this particular tomato. We shall reproduce it as a patch of colour, perhaps on paper, and it is obvious that if our patch of colour has the same spectral reflectance curve as the original tomato, then it can produce the same effect; for, physically, the two colours will be identical. And since they are physically identical they will look alike in identical circumstances. Thus if the original and the reproduction are viewed in the same surrounds first in sunlight, then in electric filament light, and then in sodium light, they will always look alike, although of course they will both change colour as the illuminant is changed. Moreover, they will look alike in colour to animals and to colourblind persons.

1.3 THE MICRO-DISPERSION METHOD OF COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY

Such colour reproduction would be spectrally correct but can only be achieved in practice by methods that are far too inconvenient for general use. There are two methods that have been suggested and they are both photographic: the micro-dispersion method, and the Lippmann method. The former is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1.2. The camera lens focuses the image on a coarse grating, consisting of parallel slits, alternately opaque and transparent, about 1/300th of an inch apart. A large plano-convex field lens then collects the light from all the slits and passes it through a narrow-angle prism. Lenses on both sides of the prism focus images of the slits on a photographic plate, and the image of each slit is drawn out into a small spectrum by the prism. Thus the light from each part of the picture is spread out into a spectrum and hence the spectral reflectance curve of every part of the picture is recorded on the plate. The plate is then developed and fixed in the normal way and a positive print made on another plate (or alternatively the original plate can be reversed), and the positive thus obtained is replaced in the plane of the spectra in exact registration. By passing white light through the system in the reverse direction (from right to left in the diagram), and by using the camera lens as a projection lens, a colour reproduction is obtained in which each part of the picture has the same spectral reflectance curve as that of the original.

However, the difficulties of the method will at once be appreciated. The more important are: the equipment required is bulky and costly, the grating reduces the amount of light, and an extremely fine-grain (and therefore slow) emulsion has to be used in order to record the minute spectra. But the method is of interest in that it provides colour reproduction that is spectrally correct.

1.4 THE LIPPMANN METHOD

The other method of colour photography that can give spectrally correct colour reproduction is one of the most fascinating photographic inventions ever made. In 1891 Professor Gabriel Lippmann of Paris, by special techniques, made a photographic emulsion with grains (silverhalide crystals) only 0.01 to 0.04 [micro]m in diameter. This emulsion he coated on plates, which he exposed in an ordinary camera, except that the emulsion side of the plate was turned away from the lens, and a layer of mercury was poured against it, as shown in Fig. 1.3(a). The emulsion-mercury interface then acted as a mirror, and the reflected and on-coming waves interfered with one another to produce standing waves in the emulsion. This standing wave pattern was duly recorded in the emulsion as latent image, and, upon development, parallel plates of silver were produced, the distance between successive plates being equal to half the wavelength of the light used in making the exposure. Thus in Fig 1.3(a), the beam perpendicular to the plate represents green light, and the oblique beam, red light. Since red light is of longer wavelength than green light, the plates of silver are more widely spaced for the oblique beam than for the perpendicular beam. The emulsions were made sensitive throughout the spectrum by the use of a sensitizing dye (Eder, 1945).

After processing the plate to a negative, it is viewed by reflected light as shown in Fig. 1.3(b). There is no need to make a positive by reversing the plate, since the developed silver layers of the negative are of such fine grain that they give a positive image when viewed by reflected light. This positive image, moreover, is coloured, for the plates of silver will strongly reflect light of half-wavelength equal to the distance between the plates, and weakly, or not at all, light of other wavelengths. Hence all spectral colours, and in fact all other colours also, are reproduced with spectrally correct colour rendering.

Professor Lippmann and other later workers have produced many beautiful colour photographs by this method, and it is probably the most elegant method that will ever be devised. Its disadvantages, however, are of a severe nature. First, the Lippmann emulsions, because of their extremely fine grain, are extremely slow, and exposures of several minutes are necessary to make a Lippmann colour photograph even in bright sunlight. It is impossible to use a fast emulsion because the interference pattern that has to be recorded is smaller than the grainsize of fast emulsions. Secondly, the necessity for viewing the results by reflected light means that it is difficult to project Lippmann colour photographs on to a screen with adequate light; and even when viewed directly by reflected light the angle of viewing is critical. (Nareid, 1988.)

1.5 USE OF IDENTICAL DYES

In some circumstances it is possible to reproduce the spectral reflectance curves by using the same dyes as were present in the original objects. A textile manufacturer, when trying to reproduce a given colour on an undyed fabric, will achieve spectrally correct colour reproductions if the same dyes are used in the same amounts as were used on the pattern. In this book, however, we will generally understand the phrase colour reproduction to refer to making pictures of original scenes, and the use of identical dyes is then usually possible only in the special case of copying an existing colour photograph or print by means of a process that uses the same dyes or inks (this is discussed in Section 15.7).

1.6 APPROXIMATE SPECTRAL COLOUR REPRODUCTION

By using as many as six differently coloured dyes, inks, or pigments, it is possible to achieve colour reproduction in which the spectral composition appoximates that of many originals (Taplin and Berns, 2001). This procedure can enlarge the gamut of reproducible colours, and this can be useful in copying works of art (see Section 28.16); it can also reduce changes in accuracy of colour rendering when differently coloured illuminants are used, and this is important in the mail-order catalogue business.

1.7 A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH

In view of the difficulties inherent in the micro-dispersion and Lippmann methods of colour photography, it is not surprising that they have never become popularly used, and the feasibility of using as many as six colorants is very limited. Were it not for the fact that when the human eye views colours it simplifies their complexity, none of the present-day methods of colour reproduction would work.

The rest of the book, therefore, is devoted to describing the principles and methods of achieving colour reproduction by an approach that is basically much more simple: instead of all the colours of the spectrum being dealt with wavelength by wavelength, their effects are considered in three groups only, as is the case with the human eye.

Although this approach leads to methods of colour reproduction in photography, television, and printing, which are highly successful in practice, we shall see that a proper understanding of them does sometimes involve some quite complicated considerations. It is therefore suggested that the general reader may prefer to omit Chapters 8, 9, 15, 16, 17, and 22, at the first reading.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from The Reproduction of Colour by R.W.G. Hunt Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. . Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Series Preface.

Preface to the Sixth Edition.

PART ONE. FUNDAMENTALS.

1. Spectral Colour Reproduction.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 The spectrum.

1.3 The micro-dispersion method of colour photography.

1.4 The Lippmann method.

1.5 Use of identical dyes.

1.6 Approximate spectral colour reproduction.

1.7 A simplified approach.

2. Trichromatic Colour Reproduction and the Additive Principle.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Maxwell’s method.

2.3 The physiology of human colour vision.

2.4 Spectral sensitivity curves of the retina.

2.5 Unwanted stimulations.

3. Additive Methods.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 The successive frame method.

3.3 The mosaic method.

3.4 The lenticular method.

3.5 The virtual-image method.

3.6 The diffraction method.

3.7 Errors in additive methods.

4. The Subtractive Principle.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 The subtractive principle.

4.3 Defects of the subtractive principle.

5. Visual Appreciation.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 The basis of judgement.

5.3 Variations of hue.

5.4 Variations of lightness.

5.5 Variations of colourfulness.

5.6 Priorities.

5.7 Factors affecting apparent colour balance.

5.8 Integrating to grey.

5.9 The perception of depth.

6. Tone Reproduction.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Identical viewing conditions.

6.3 Characteristic curves.

6.4 Different luminance levels.

6.5 Different surround conditions.

6.6 Complications with solid objects.

6.7 Comparisons of transparencies and reflection prints.

6.8 Colourfulness.

6.9 Exposure latitude.

6.10 Tone reproduction in duplicating.

6.11 Tone reproduction in television.

6.12 Lighting geometry.

6.13 Conclusions.

7. The Colour Triangle.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Colour terminology.

7.3 Trichromatic matching.

7.4 Colour-matching functions.

7.5 The colour triangle.

7.6 The centre of gravity law.

7.7 Other colour triangles.

7.8 Additive colour reproduction.

7.9 The Ives-Abney-Yule compromise.

7.10 Colour gamuts of reflecting and transmitting colours.

7.11 Two-colour reproductions.

8. Colour Standards and Calculations.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Standard illuminants.

8.3 The Standard Observers.

8.4 Colour transformations.

8.5 Properties of the XYZ system.

8.6 Uniform chromaticity diagrams.

8.7 Nomograms.

8.8 Uniform colour spaces.

8.9 Subjective effects.

8.10 Haploscopic matching.

8.11 Subjective colour scaling.

8.12 Physical colour standards.

8.13 Whiteness.

9. The Colorimetry of Subtractive Systems.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Subtractive chromaticity gamuts.

9.3 Subtractive gamuts in the colour solid.

9.4 Spectral sensitivities for block dyes.

9.5 Spectral sensitivities for real dyes.

9.6 MacAdam’s analysis.

9.7 Umberger’s analysis.

9.8 Two-colour subtractive systems.

9.9 Subtractive quality.

10. Light Sources.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Tungsten lamps.

10.3 Spectral-power converting filters.

10.4 Daylight.

10.5 Fluorescent lamps.

10.6 Sodium, mercury, and metal-halide lamps.

10.7 Xenon arcs.

10.8 Carbon arcs.

10.9 Photographic flash-bulbs.

10.10 The red-eye effect.

10.11 Correlated colour temperatures of commonly used light sources.

10.12 Colour rendering of light sources.

10.13 Visual clarity.

10.14 Polarization.

10.15 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).

11. Objectives in Colour Reproduction.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Comparative methods.

11.3 Absolute methods.

11.4 Spectral colour reproduction.

11.5 Colorimetric colour reproduction.

11.6 Exact colour reproduction.

11.7 Equivalent colour reproduction.

11.8 Colorimetric colour reproduction as a practical criterion.

11.9 Corresponding colour reproduction.

11.10 Preferred colour reproduction.

11.11 Degree of metamerism.

11.12 Conclusions.

PART TWO. COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY.

12. Subtractive Methods in Colour Photography.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Relief images.

12.3 Colour development.

12.4 Integral tripacks.

12.5 Processing with the couplers incorporated in the film.

12.6 Reversal processing.

12.7 Processing with the couplers in developers.

12.8 The philosophy of colour negatives.

12.9 Subtractive methods for amateur use in still photography.

12.10 Subtractive methods for professional use in still photography.

12.11 Subtractive methods for motion-picture use.

12.12 Motion-picture frame rates.

13. Reflection Prints in Colour.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Direct reflection-print systems.

13.3 Reversal-reversal (positive-positive) systems.

13.4 Negative-positive systems.

13.5 Internegative systems.

13.6 Printing from electronic images.

13.7 Basic difficulties in reflection prints.

13.8 Effect of surround.

13.9 Inter-reflections in the image layer.

13.10 Luminance ranges.

13.11 Luminance levels.

13.12 Geometry of illumination and viewing.

14. Quantitative Colour Photography.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Sensitometric pictures.

14.3 Sensitometric wedges.

14.4 Uniformity of illumination.

14.5 Exposure time.

14.6 Light sources for sensitometry.

14.7 Transmission colour of lenses.

14.8 Selective exposure of layers.

14.9 Latent image changes.

14.10 Controlled processing.

14.11 Visual evaluation.

14.12 Logarithmic scales.

14.13 Densitometers.

14.14 Specular and diffuse transmission densities.

14.15 Printing densities.

14.16 Integral densities.

14.17 Some effects of curve shape.

14.18 Colorimetric densities.

14.19 Spectral densities.

14.20 Analytical densities.

14.21 Reflection densities.

14.22 Analytical reflection densities.

14.23 Exposure densities.

14.24 Scales of equal visual increments.

14.25 Tri-linear plots.

14.26 Stability of dye images.

14.27 Photographic speed.

15. Masking and Coloured Couplers.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Contrast masking.

15.3 Unsharp masking.

15.4 Coloured couplers.

15.5 Inter-image effects.

15.6 Masking when making separations.

15.7 Masking for colorimetric colour reproduction.

15.8 Masking for approximate colour reproduction.

15.9 Calculation of mask gammas.

16. Printing Colour Negatives.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Printing studio negatives.

16.3 Printing motion-picture negatives.

16.4 Printing amateurs’ negatives.

16.5 The variables to be corrected.

16.6 Early printers.

16.7 Integrating to grey.

16.8 The 1599 printer.

16.9 Variable time printers.

16.10 Subtractive printers.

16.11 Colour enlargers.

16.12 Automatic classification.

16.13 Factors affecting slope control.

16.14 Methods of slope control.

16.15 Electronic printing.

17. The Chemistry of Colour Photography.

17.1 Colour development.

17.2 Developing agents.

17.3 Couplers.

17.4 Coloured couplers.

17.5 The dye-coupling reaction.

17.6 The physical form of dye images.

17.7 Colour developing solutions.

17.8 Silver bleaching.

17.9 Processing sequences.

17.10 Dye-bleach and dye-removal systems.

17.11 Development-inhibitor-releasing (DIR) couplers.

18. Image Structure in Colour Photography.

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Magnifications.

18.3 Graininess and granularity.

18.4 Granularity of silver images.

18.5 Noise power spectra.

18.6 Graininess in prints.

18.7 Granularity of colour images.

18.8 Reducing granularity of colour systems.

18.9 Sharpness.

18.10 Focusing.

18.11 Depth of field.

18.12 Modulation transfer functions.

18.13 Photographic modulation transfer functions.

18.14 Acutance.

18.15 Sharpness of colour images.

18.16 Increasing sharpness of colour films.

18.17 Mottle on papers.

18.18 Image structure in transfer systems.

PART THREE . COLOUR TELEVISION.

19. The Transmission of Colour Television Signals.

19.1 Historical introduction.

19.2 Bandwidth.

19.3 Interlacing.

19.4 Single side-band transmission.

19.5 The field sequential system.

19.6 Blue saving.

19.7 Band saving.

19.8 Colour-difference signals.

19.9 Band sharing.

19.10 The effect of band sharing on monochrome receivers.

19.11 Carrier sharing.

19.12 The effects of signal processing on colour reproduction.

19.13 Gamma correction.

19.14 Noise reduction.

19.15 Direct broadcasting by satellite (DBS).

19.16 High definition television (HDTV).

19.17 Signals used in video-compression systems.

19.18 Videoconferencing.

20. Electronic Cameras.

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 Early camera tubes.

20.3 Tubes suitable for colour.

20.4 Spectral sensitivities of television camera tubes.

20.5 Charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors.

20.6 Camera arrangements.

20.7 Image equality in colour cameras.

20.8 R-Y-B cameras.

20.9 Four-sensor cameras.

20.10 Automatic registration.

20.11 Spectral sensitivities used in cameras.

20.12 Aperture correction.

20.13 Electronic news gathering (ENG).

20.14 Camcorders.

20.15 Electronic still cameras.

21. Display Devices for Colour Television.

21.1 Introduction.

21.2 The trinoscope.

21.3 Triple projection.

21.4 The shadow-mask tube.

21.5 The Trinitron.

21.6 Self-converging tubes.

21.7 Light-valve projectors.

21.8 Liquid crystal displays (LCDs).

21.9 Laser displays.

21.10 Beam-penetration tubes.

21.11 Light emitting diode (LED) displays.

21.12 Plasma displays.

21.13 Phosphors for additive receivers.

21.14 The chromaticity of reproduced white.

21.15 The luminance of reproduced white.

21.16 Reflective displays.

22. The N.T.S.C. and Similar Systems of Colour Television.

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 N.T.S.C. chromaticities.

22.3 The luminance signal.

22.4 (R)(G)(B) to (X)(Y)(Z) transformation equations.

22.5 The effects of variations in chrominance-signal magnitude.

22.6 The effect of gamma correction on ER − EY and EB − EY.

22.7 The effect of gamma correction on EY.

22.8 The P.A.L. and S.E.C.A.M. systems.

22.9 The N.T.S.C. system.

22.10 Blue saving in the N.T.S.C. system.

22.11 Gamma correction in the N.T.S.C. system.

22.12 Maximum signal amplitudes.

22.13 Cross-talk between EI′ and EQ ′.

22.14 The effect of the chrominance sub-carrier on the display.

22.15 Comparison of the N.T.S.C., P.A.L., and S.E.C.A.M. systems.

22.16 Some useful graphical constructions.

22.17 Some useful equations.

23. The Use of Colour Film in Colour Television.

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Filming and televising techniques.

23.3 Combined film and television cameras.

23.4 Choice of film.

23.5 Deriving television signals from colour film.

23.6 Telecines using fast pull-down.

23.7 Telecines using camera-tubes.

23.8 Telecines giving 6o fields per second.

23.9 Flying-spot scanners.

23.10 Telecines using solid-state sensors.

23.11 Telerecording.

23.12 Electronic adjustment of signals derived from colour film.

23.13 Electronic masking.

23.14 Overall transfer characteristics.

23.15 Reviewing colour films for television.

24. Video Cassettes.

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Magnetic tape.

24.3 Magnetic tape with helical scanning.

24.4 Recording on discs.

24.5 The Teldec system.

24.6 Capacitance discs.

24.7 Discs using lasers.

24.8 Photo CD.

24.9 The duplication of programmes on video cassettes and discs.

25. Pictures from Computers.

25.1 Introduction.

25.2 Coloured captions.

25.3 Chroma-key.

25.4 Teletext.

25.5 Colour video display units.

25.6 Video graphics.

25.7 Computer assisted cartoons.

25.8 Colour coding in pictures.

25.9 Colour ranges.

25.10 Colorization and restoration of films.

PART FOUR. COLOUR PRINTING.

26. Photomechanical Principles.

26.1 Introduction.

26.2 Letterpress.

26.3 Lithography.

26.4 Gravure (Intaglio).

26.5 Superimposed dye images.

26.6 Superimposed dot images.

26.7 Colorimetric colour reproduction with dot images.

26.8 Colour correction by masking.

26.9 Contact screens.

26.10 Autoscreen film.

26.11 Colour photocopying.

27. Preparing the Copy and Checking the Results.

27.1 Introduction.

27.2 Duplicating and converting originals.

27.3 Duplicating transparencies.

27.4 Converting reflection prints to transparencies.

27.5 Producing second originals on paper.

27.6 Working from colour negatives.

27.7 Facsimile transmission.

27.8 A practical system of transparency duplication.

27.9 Comparing transparencies.

27.10 Comparing reflection prints and transparencies.

27.11 Prepress colour proofing.

28. Practical Masking in Making Separations.

28.1 Introduction.

28.2 A two-mask system.

28.3 A four-mask system.

28.4 Masking procedures.

28.5 Special colour films for masking.

28.6 A direct screening system.

28.7 Two-stage masking.

28.8 Highlight masking in making separations.

28.9 Camera-back masking.

28.10 Choice of filters for making masks and separations.

28.11 Patches for controlling masking procedures.

28.12 Inks used in practice.

28.13 The subtractive colour triangle.

28.14 Standard inks.

28.15 Effects of printing procedures.

28.16 The use of extra coloured inks.

29. Colour Scanners.

29.1 Introduction.

29.2 The Hardy and Wurzburg scanners.

29.3 The P.D.I. scanner.

29.4 Other drum scanners.

29.5 Other flat-bed mechanical scanners.

29.6 Optical feed-back scanners.

29.7 Scanners with variable magnification.

29.8 Scanner outputs.

29.9 Electronic retouching.

29.10 Electronic page make-up.

29.11 Logic circuits in scanners.

29.12 Unsharp masking in scanners.

29.13 Differential masking in scanners.

29.14 Grey component replacement (GCR).

29.15 Under colour correction.

29.16 Typical scanner signal sequences.

29.17 Monitor image display.

29.18 Spectral sensitivities of scanners.

29.19 Calibration targets.

29.20 Scanners for desktop publishing.

PART FIVE DIGITAL IMAGING.

30. Bit Requirements.

30.1 Introduction.

30.2 Tonal digitisation.

30.3 Spatial digitisation.

30.4 Tonal and spatial digitisation.

30.5 Allowing for overall image density.

30.6 Using non-linear scales for tonal digitisation.

30.7 Allowing for the limited reproduction gamut.

30.8 Using luminance and chrominance signals to achieve bit reduction.

30.9 Allowing for the modulation transfer function of the eye.

30.10 High definition television (HDTV).

30.11 Digital cinema.

30.12 Conclusions.

31. Camcorders and Digital Still Cameras.

31.1 Introduction.

31.2 Filter arrays.

31.3 Memory.

31.4 Spectral sensitivities.

31.5 Speed.

31.6 Numbers of pixels.

31.7 Electronic camera flow chart.

31.8 Digital still camera signal processing.

31.9 White balance in electronic cameras.

31.10 A proposed standard default colour space, sRGB.

32. Digital Scanners.

32.1 Introduction.

32.2 Scanning Methods.

32.3 Light sources.

32.4 Detectors.

32.5 Obtaining the red, green, and blue signals.

32.6 Colorimetry.

32.7 Scanner targets.

32.8 Spatial resolution.

32.9 Tonal resolution.

33. Digital Printing.

33.1 Introduction.

33.2 Number of tone levels required.

33.3 Dot gain.

33.4 Comparison of visual, continuous tone, half-tone, and micro-dot resolutions.

33.5 Digital proofing.

33.6 Desktop printing methods.

33.7 Photographic imaging.

33.8 Laser electrophotography.

33.9 Thermal dye transfer.

33.10 Thermal wax transfer.

33.11 Ink jet.

33.12 Hybrid continuous-tone and half-tone systems.

33.13 Colour management systems.

33.14 Device dependency.

33.15 Viewing conditions.

33.16 Gamut mapping.

33.17 Device stability 582

33.18 Electronic image enhancement.

33.19 Glossary of terms used in desktop printing.

PART SIX. EVALUATING COLOUR APPEARANCE.

34. Chromatic Adaptation Transforms and a Colour Inconstancy Index.

34.1 Introduction.

34.2 Illuminant colorimetric shift.

34.3 Adaptive colour shift.

34.4 Chromatic adaptation transforms.

34.5 The 1997 chromatic adaptation transform (CAT97).

34.6 The 1997 colour inconstancy index (CON97).

34.7 Reversing the 1997 chromatic adaptation transform (CAT97).

35. CIECAM97s Model of Colour Appearance.

35.1 Introduction.

35.2 Visual areas in the observing field.

35.3 Chromatic adaptation.

35.4 Spectral sensitivities of the cones.

35.5 Cone response functions.

35.6 Luminance adaptation.

35.7 Criteria for achromacy and for constant hue.

35.8 Effects of luminance adaptation.

35.9 Criteria for unique hues.

35.10 Redness-greenness, a, and yellowness-blueness, b.

35.11 Hue angle, h.

35.12 Correlate of saturation, s.

35.13 Correlates of hue, H and HC.

35.14 Comparison with the Natural Colour System (NCS).

35.15 The achromatic response, A.

35.16 Correlate of lightness, J.

35.17 Correlate of brightness, Q.

35.18 Correlates of chroma, C, and colourfulness, M.

35.19 Testing model CIECAM97s.

35.20 Filtration of projected slides.

35.21 Effect of screen luminance on quality of projected pictures.

35.22 Steps for using the CIECAM97s model.

35.23 Steps for using the CIECAM97s model in reverse mode.

35.24 Worked example for the model CIECAM97s.

35.25 Using reversed colour models.

36 Models of Colour Vision for Comprehensive Purposes and for Unrelated Colours.

36.1 Introduction.

36.2 Steps for using the 1997 comprehensive colour appearance model, CAM97c.

36.3 Reversing the 1997 comprehensive colour appearance model, CAM97c.

36.4 Unrelated colours, model CAM97u.

36.5 Steps involved in using the model CAM97u for unrelated colours.

37. Colour Reproduction Indices.

37.1 Introduction.

37.2 Steps in using a colour reproduction index.

37.3 Using the colour reproduction index in practice.

APPENDICES.

Appendix 1. Matrix Algebra.

A1.1 General principles.

A1.2 Application to colorimetry.

Appendix 2 . Colorimetric Tables.

A2.1 Calculating colorimetric measures.

A2.2 Formulae and tables.

Appendix 3 Photometric Units.

A3.1 Relations between units of luminance.

A3.2 Relations between units of luminance and illumination.

A3.3 Some useful conversion factors.

A3.4 Typical levels of luminance and illumination.

A3.5 Typical levels of illumination from projectors.

Appendix 4. Photographic Parameters.

A4.1 Film speeds.

A4.2 Film dimensions.

A4.3 Motion picture parameters.

A4.4 Lens apertures.

A4.5 Flash guide numbers.

Appendix 5. Advanced Colour Difference Formulae.

A5.1 Introduction.

A5.2 CIE 94 colour difference formula.

A5.3 CMC (l:c) colour difference formula.

A5.4 CIEDE2000 colour difference formula.

Appendix 6. A Replacement for CIECAM97s.

A6.1 Introduction.

A6.2 Forward model.

A6.3 Reverse model.

A6.4 Worked example.

Appendix 7. Spectral Luminous Efficiency Functions.

Index.

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