Research in Education / Edition 10

Research in Education / Edition 10

by John W. Best, James V. Kahn

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ISBN-10: 0205458408

ISBN-13: 9780205458400

Pub. Date: 05/17/2005

Publisher: Pearson

This text provides comprehensive coverage of research methods and statistics in a readable and student-friendly format. A wide variety of methodologies including descriptive, experimental and quasi-experimental research, historical studies, qualitative methods, and single subject designs are covered. A complete range of research tools as well as descriptive and


This text provides comprehensive coverage of research methods and statistics in a readable and student-friendly format. A wide variety of methodologies including descriptive, experimental and quasi-experimental research, historical studies, qualitative methods, and single subject designs are covered. A complete range of research tools as well as descriptive and inferential statistics are also included, making this text the definitive resource for introductory research courses. Research in Education is divided into three parts: Part I, “Introduction to Educational Research,” focuses on the purpose of research, hypotheses, ethics in research, developing a research problem, and writing proposals and reports; Part II, “Research Methods,” is unique in that it integrates chapters on qualitative research methods, historical research and single-subject methods with the more typical chapters on experimental methods; and Part III, “Data Analysis,” includes both descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as examples of analyses using a computer.

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Table of Contents

Each chapter concludes with "Summary," "Exercises" and "References."



1. The Meaning of Research.

Why Should I Study Research?

The Search for Knowledge


The Role of Theory

Operational Definitions of Variables

The Hypothesis

The Research Hypothesis

The Null Hypothesis (Ho)

Populations Sampling


The Simple Random Sample

Random Numbers

The Systematic Sample

The Stratified Random Sample

The Area or Cluster Sample

Nonprobability Samples

Sample Size

Purposes of Research

Fundamental or Basic Research

Applied Research

Action Research

Assessment, Evaluation, and Descriptive Research

Types of Educational Research

2. Selecting a Problem and Preparing a Research Proposal.

The Academic Research Problem

Levels of Research Projects

Sources of Problems

Evaluating the Problem

Using the Library

Finding Related Literature

References and Bibliography

Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials

The Research Proposal

The First Research Project

Submitting a Research Proposal to a Funding Agency

Thesis Proposal

Ethics in Human Experimentation

History of Research Ethics


From Regulations to Practice.

3. The Research Report.

Style Manuals

Format of the Research Report

Main Body of the Report

References and Appendices

The Thesis or Dissertation

Style of Writing

Reference Form




The Line Graph

The Bar Graph or Chart

The Circle, Pie, or Sector Chart


Organization Charts

Evaluating a Research Report


4. Historical Research.

Purpose of Histroical Reseach on American Education

History and Science

Historical Generalization

The Historical Hypothesis

Hypotheses in Educational Historical Research

Difficulties Encountered in Historical Research

Sources of Data

Primary Sources of Data

Primary Sources of Educational Data

Secondary Sources of Data

Historical Criticism

External Criticism

Internal Criticism

Examples of Topics for Educational Historical Study

Writing the Historical Report

5. Descriptive Studies: Assessment, Evaluation, and Research.

Assessment Studies

The Survey

Social Surveys

Public Opinion Surveys

National Center for Education Statistics

International Assessment

Activity Analysis

Trend Studies

Evaluation Studies

School Surveys

Program Evaluation

Assessment and Evaluation in Problem Solving

Descriptive Research

Causal Comparative Research

Correlational Research

Follow-up Research

Other Descriptive Research

Replication and Secondary Analysis

The Post Hoc Fallacy

6. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research.

Early Experimentation

Experimental and Control Groups


Independent and Dependent Variables

Confounding Variables

Controlling Extraneous Variables

Experimental Validity

Threats to Internal Experimental Validity

Threats to External Experimental Validity

Experimental Design

Pre-experimental Designs

True Experimental Designs

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Factorial Designs

7. Single-Subject Experimental Research.

General Procedures

Repeated Measurement


Manipulating Variables

Length of Phases

Transfer of Training and Response Maintenance


Target Behavior

Data Collection Strategies

Basic Designs

A-B-A-B Designs

Multiple Baseline Designs

Other Designs

Evaluating Data

8. Qualitative Research.

A Qualitative Research Model.

Themes of Qualitative Research

Research Questions

Theoretical Traditions

Research Strategies

Document or Content Analysis

The Case Study

Ethnographic Studies

Data Collection Techniques



Review of Documents

Other Qualitative Data Collection Techniques

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research

9. Methods and Tools of Research.

Reliability and Validity of Research Tools

Quantitative Studies

Qualitative Studies

Psychological and Educational Tests and Inventories

Qualities of a Good Test and Inventory





Types of Tests and Inventories

Achievement Tests

Aptitude Tests

Interest Inventories

Personality Inventories

Projective Devices


Validity and Reliability of Observation

Recording Observations

Systematizing Data Collection

Characteristics of Good Observation

Inquiry Forms: The Questionnaire

Closed Form

The Open Form

Improving Questionnaire Items

Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire

Preparing and Administering the Questionnaire

A Sample Questionnaire

Validity and Reliability of Questionnaires

Inquiry Forms: The Opinionnaire

Thurstone Technique

Likert Method

Semantic Differential

The Interview

Validity and Reliability of the Interview

Q Methodology

Social Scaling


Scoring Sociometric Choices

The Sociogram

"Guess-who" Technique

Social-distance Scale

Organization of Data Collection

Outside Criteria for Comparison

Limitations and Sources of Error


10. Descriptive Data Analysis.

What Is Statistics?

Parametric and Nonparametric Data

Descriptive and Inferential Analysis

The Organization of Data

Grouped Data Distributions

Statistical Measures

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Spread or Dispersion

Normal Distribution

Nonnormal Distributions

Interpreting the Normal Probability Distribution

Practical Applications of the Normal Curve

Measures of Relative Position: Standard Scores

The Z Score (Z)

The T Score (T)

The College Board Score (ZCb).


Percentile Rank.

Measures of Relationship

Pearson's Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation (r)

Rank Order Correlation (r)

Phi Correlation Coefficient (f)

Interpretation of a Correlation Coefficient


Misinterpretation of the Coefficient of Correlation


Standard Error of Estimate

A Note of Caution

11. Inferential Data Analysis.

Statistical Inference

The Central Limit Theorem

Parametric Tests

Testing Statistical Significance

The Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Independent Groups

The Null Hypothesis (Ho)

The Level of Significance

Decision Making

Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Tests of Significance

Degrees of Freedom

A One-Sample Z Test

Student's Distribution (t)

Significance of the Difference between Two Small Sample Independent Means

Homogeneity of Variances

Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Matched or correlated Groups (Nonindependent Samples)

Statistical Significance of a Coefficient of correlation

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Partial Correlation

Multiple Regression and Correlation

Nonparametric Tests

The Chi Square Test (c2)

The Mann-Whitney Test

Outliers and Missing Data

12. Computer Data Analysis.

The Computer

Data Organization

Computer Analysis of Data

Descriptive Statistics


Multiple Regression


Results from Analyses of Appendix B Data

Statistics on the World Wide Web

Qualitative Analyses Using Computer Software

Appendix A: Statistical Formulas and Symbols.

Appendix B: Sample Data.

Appendix C: Percentage of Area Lying Between the Mean and Successive Standard Deviation Units Under the Normal Curve.

Appendix D: Critical Values for Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation (r).

Appendix E: Critical Values of Student’s Distribution (t).

Appendix F: Abridged Table of Critical Values for Chi Square.

Appendix G: Critical Values of the F Distribution.

Appendix H: Research Report Evaluation.

Appendix I: Answers to Statistics Exercises.

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