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This text provides comprehensive coverage of research methods and statistics in a readable and student-friendly format. A wide variety of methodologies including descriptive, experimental and quasi-experimental research, historical studies, qualitative methods, and single subject designs are covered. A complete range of research tools as well as descriptive and inferential statistics are also included, making this text the definitive resource for introductory research courses. Research in Education is divided into three parts: Part I, “Introduction to Educational Research,” focuses on the purpose of research, hypotheses, ethics in research, developing a research problem, and writing proposals and reports; Part II, “Research Methods,” is unique in that it integrates chapters on qualitative research methods, historical research and single-subject methods with the more typical chapters on experimental methods; and Part III, “Data Analysis,” includes both descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as examples of analyses using a computer.
Each chapter concludes with "Summary," "Exercises" and "References."
I. INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: DEFINITIONS, RESEARCH PROBLEMS, PROPOSALS, AND REPORT WRITING.
1. The Meaning of Research.
Why Should I Study Research?
The Search for Knowledge
The Role of Theory
Operational Definitions of Variables
The Research Hypothesis
The Null Hypothesis (Ho)
The Simple Random Sample
The Systematic Sample
The Stratified Random Sample
The Area or Cluster Sample
Purposes of Research
Fundamental or Basic Research
Assessment, Evaluation, and Descriptive Research
Types of Educational Research
2. Selecting a Problem and Preparing a Research Proposal.
The Academic Research Problem
Levels of Research Projects
Sources of Problems
Evaluating the Problem
Using the Library
Finding Related Literature
References and Bibliography
Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials
The Research Proposal
The First Research Project
Submitting a Research Proposal to a Funding Agency
Ethics in Human Experimentation
History of Research Ethics
From Regulations to Practice.
3. The Research Report.
Format of the Research Report
Main Body of the Report
References and Appendices
The Thesis or Dissertation
Style of Writing
The Line Graph
The Bar Graph or Chart
The Circle, Pie, or Sector Chart
Evaluating a Research Report
II. RESEARCH METHODS.
4. Historical Research.
Purpose of Histroical Reseach on American Education
History and Science
The Historical Hypothesis
Hypotheses in Educational Historical Research
Difficulties Encountered in Historical Research
Sources of Data
Primary Sources of Data
Primary Sources of Educational Data
Secondary Sources of Data
Examples of Topics for Educational Historical Study
Writing the Historical Report
5. Descriptive Studies: Assessment, Evaluation, and Research.
Public Opinion Surveys
National Center for Education Statistics
Assessment and Evaluation in Problem Solving
Causal Comparative Research
Other Descriptive Research
Replication and Secondary Analysis
The Post Hoc Fallacy
6. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research.
Experimental and Control Groups
Independent and Dependent Variables
Controlling Extraneous Variables
Threats to Internal Experimental Validity
Threats to External Experimental Validity
True Experimental Designs
7. Single-Subject Experimental Research.
Length of Phases
Transfer of Training and Response Maintenance
Data Collection Strategies
Multiple Baseline Designs
8. Qualitative Research.
A Qualitative Research Model.
Themes of Qualitative Research
Document or Content Analysis
The Case Study
Data Collection Techniques
Review of Documents
Other Qualitative Data Collection Techniques
Data Analysis and Interpretation
Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research
9. Methods and Tools of Research.
Reliability and Validity of Research Tools
Psychological and Educational Tests and Inventories
Qualities of a Good Test and Inventory
Types of Tests and Inventories
Validity and Reliability of Observation
Systematizing Data Collection
Characteristics of Good Observation
Inquiry Forms: The Questionnaire
The Open Form
Improving Questionnaire Items
Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire
Preparing and Administering the Questionnaire
A Sample Questionnaire
Validity and Reliability of Questionnaires
Inquiry Forms: The Opinionnaire
Validity and Reliability of the Interview
Scoring Sociometric Choices
Organization of Data Collection
Outside Criteria for Comparison
Limitations and Sources of Error
III. DATA ANALYSIS.
10. Descriptive Data Analysis.
What Is Statistics?
Parametric and Nonparametric Data
Descriptive and Inferential Analysis
The Organization of Data
Grouped Data Distributions
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Spread or Dispersion
Interpreting the Normal Probability Distribution
Practical Applications of the Normal Curve
Measures of Relative Position: Standard Scores
The Z Score (Z)
The T Score (T)
The College Board Score (ZCb).
Measures of Relationship
Pearson's Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation (r)
Rank Order Correlation (r)
Phi Correlation Coefficient (f)
Interpretation of a Correlation Coefficient
Misinterpretation of the Coefficient of Correlation
Standard Error of Estimate
A Note of Caution
11. Inferential Data Analysis.
The Central Limit Theorem
Testing Statistical Significance
The Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Independent Groups
The Null Hypothesis (Ho)
The Level of Significance
Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Tests of Significance
Degrees of Freedom
A One-Sample Z Test
Student's Distribution (t)
Significance of the Difference between Two Small Sample Independent Means
Homogeneity of Variances
Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Matched or correlated Groups (Nonindependent Samples)
Statistical Significance of a Coefficient of correlation
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Partial Correlation
Multiple Regression and Correlation
The Chi Square Test (c2)
The Mann-Whitney Test
Outliers and Missing Data
12. Computer Data Analysis.
Computer Analysis of Data
Results from Analyses of Appendix B Data
Statistics on the World Wide Web
Qualitative Analyses Using Computer Software
Appendix A: Statistical Formulas and Symbols.
Appendix B: Sample Data.
Appendix C: Percentage of Area Lying Between the Mean and Successive Standard Deviation Units Under the Normal Curve.
Appendix D: Critical Values for Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation (r).
Appendix E: Critical Values of Student’s Distribution (t).
Appendix F: Abridged Table of Critical Values for Chi Square.
Appendix G: Critical Values of the F Distribution.
Appendix H: Research Report Evaluation.
Appendix I: Answers to Statistics Exercises.