Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry with Website Access / Edition 6

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205516841
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 6/7/2006
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 480
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment

Using the Resources of this Text

            Exploring the Student Resource Website

            Using SPSS for Windows

Science

            Science Is a Way of Thinking

            Asking Questions

            Science and Art

            (Historical Lesson: The three princes of Serendip)

            (Historical Lesson: Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace)

Acquiring Knowledge

            Tenacity

            Intuition

            Authority

            Rationalism

            Empiricism

            Science

            (Historical Lesson: Leonardo da Vinci)

Emergence of Science

            Early Civilization

            Greek Science

            Medieval Science

            The Scientific Revolution

            Ethical Concerns

Psychology

            The History of Psychology

                        Structuralism

                        Functionalism

                        Psychodynamics

                        Gestalt Psychology

                         Behaviorism

                        Humanistic Psychology

                        Cognitive Psychology

            Women and Minorities in Psychology

            Modern Psychology

            The Science of Psychology

            (Cost of Neglect: Science and Pseudoscience)

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

2. Research Is a Process of Inquiry

The Scientific Process

            Basic Assumptions of Science

            Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs

            Inductive and Deductive Thinking

Models and Theories in Science

            (Historical Lesson: The Wright Brothers as Scientists)

A Model of the Research Process

            Phases of Research

                        Idea-Generating Phase

                        Problem-Definition Phase

                        Procedures-Design Phase

                        Observation Phase

                        Data-Analysis Phase

                        Interpretation Phase

                        Communication Phase

             Levels of Constraint

                        Naturalistic Observation

                        Case-Study Research

                        Correlational Research

                        Differential Research

                        Experimental Research

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

3. The Starting Point: Asking Questions

Asking and Refining Questions

            Pursuing Your Personal Interests

            Following up on the Work of Others

            Applied and Basic Research

             Refining Questions for Research

Types of Variables in Research

            Classifying Variables Based on Their Nature

                        Behavioral Variables

                        Stimulus Variables

                        Organismic Variables

            Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Research

                        Independent and Dependent Variables

                        Extraneous Variables

                        Variables as Constants

Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables

Research Ethics

            Ethical Principles for Human Research

                        Institutional Review Boards

                        Ethical Checks

            (Costs of Neglect: Never Let Technology Outrun Ethics)

            Ethics and Diversity Issues in Research

            Ethical Principles for Animal Research

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

4. Data and the Nature of Measurement

Measurement

            (Costs of Neglect: Missing Mars)

Scales of Measurement

            Nominal Scales

            Ordinal Scales

            Interval Scales

             Ratio Scales

Measuring and Controlling Variables

            Measurement Error

            Operational Definitions

Evaluating Measures

            Reliability

                        Interrater Reliability

                        Test-Retest Reliability

                        Internal Consistency Reliability

            Effective Range

            Validity

            The Need for Objective Measurement

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

5. Statistical Analysis of Data

Individual Differences

Organizing Data

            Frequency Distributions

                        Nominal and Ordinal Data

                        Score Data

            Graphical Representation of Data

Descriptive Statistics

            Measures of Central Tendency

            (Cost of Neglect: Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics: A Matter of Ethics)

            Measures of Variability

            Measures of Relationship

                        Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

                        Spearman Rank-Order Correlation

                         Regression

                        Reliability Indices

            Standard Scores

Statistical Inference

            Populations and Samples

            The Null Hypothesis

            Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levels

            Type I and Type II Errors

Inferential Statistics

            Testing for Mean Differences

                        t-Test for Independent Groups

                        Correlated t-Test

                        Analysis of Variance

            The Power of a Statistical Test

            Effect Size

            Statistical versus Practical Significance

            Meta-analysis

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

6. Field Research: Naturalistic and Case-Study Research

The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research

            Examples of Naturalistic Observation

                        Biology

            (Historical Lesson: Naturalistic Research and Evolution)

                        Ethology

                        Sociology

                         Psychology

            Examples of Case-Study Research

                        Sigmund Freud

                        E. L. Witmer

                        Jean Piaget

                        Contemporary Case Studies

The Value of Low-Constraint Methods

            Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Research

            (Historical Lesson: The Therapist as a Scientist)

            Information Gained from Low-Constraint Research

Using Low-Constraint Methods

            Problem Statements and Research Hypotheses

            Making Observations

                        How to Observe

                        Unobtrusive Measures

                        Ethics of Unobtrusive Measures

                        Archival Measures

            Sampling of Participants

            Sampling of Situations

            Sampling of Behaviors

            Evaluating and Interpreting Data

Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods

            Poor Representativeness

            Poor Replicability

            Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Research

             Limitations of the Observer

            Going beyond the Data

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

7. Correlational and Differential Methods of Research

Correlational Research Methods

Differential Research Methods

            Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research

            Artifacts and Confounding

Understanding Correlational and Differential Methods

            Comparing These Methods

            When to Use These Methods

Conducting Correlational Research

            Problem Statements

            Detecting Demographic, Gender, or Cultural Effects

            Measuring the Variables

            Sampling

             Analyzing the Data

            Interpreting the Correlation

Conducting Differential Research

            Problem Statements

            Measuring the Variables

            Selecting Appropriate Control Groups

            Sampling

            Analyzing the Data

            Interpreting the Data

Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research

            Problems in Determining Causation

            Confounding Variables

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

8. Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity

Hypothesis Testing

            Starting the Research with an Initial Idea

            Statement of the Problem

            Operational Definitions

            Research Hypothesis

            The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesis

            Testing the Research Hypothesis

                        Null Hypothesis

                        Confounding Variable Hypothesis

                        Causal Hypothesis

Validity and Threats to Validity

            Statistical Validity

            Construct Validity

            External Validity

            Internal Validity

Major Confounding Variables

            Maturation

            History

            Testing

            Instrumentation

            Regression to the Mean

            Selection

            Attrition

            Diffusion of Treatment

            Sequence Effects

Subject and Experimenter Effects

            Subject Effects

            Experimenter Effects

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

9. Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity

General Control Procedures

            Preparation of the Setting

            Response Measurement

            Replication

Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects

            Single- and Double-Blind Procedures

            Automation

            Using Objective Measures

            Multiple Observers

            (Historical Lesson: Reliable Reliability)

            Using Deception

Control through Participant Selection and Assignment

            Participant Selection

                        Random Sampling

                        Stratified Random Sampling

                         Ad Hoc Samples

            Participant Assignment

                        Free Random Assignment

                        Matched Random Assignment

                        Other Matching Procedures

Control through Experimental Design

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

10. Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs

Variance

            Sources of Variance

                        Systematic Between-Groups Variance

                        Nonsystematic Within-Groups Variance

            Controlling Variance in Research

                        Maximizing Experimental Variance

                        Controlling Extraneous Variance

                        Minimizing Error Variance

Nonexperimental Approaches

            Ex Post Facto Studies

            (Costs of Neglect: Seeing All Sides)

            Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studies

            Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studies

            Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studies

Experimental Designs

            Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Design

            Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Design

             Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Design

            Solomon’s Four-Group Design

Statistical Analyses

            t-Test

            Analysis of Variance

            Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVA

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

11. Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs

Within-Subjects Design

            Using Within-Subjects Designs

            Analyzing Within-Subjects Designs

            Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designs

Matched-Subjects Design

            Using Matched-Subjects Designs

            Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designs

            Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designs

Single-Subject Experimental Designs

            (Historical Lesson: Neuropsychological Cases)

            ABA Reversal Design

            Multiple-baseline Design

            Single-Subject, Randomized, Time-Series Design

            Replication in Single-Subject Research

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

12. Factorial Designs

Factorial Designs

            Main Effects and Interactions

            Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designs

            An Example: Children’s Dark-Fears Study

            Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designs

Variations of Basic Factorial Design

             Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorial

            Mixed Designs

                        Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Factors

                        Manipulated and Nonmanipulated Factors

                        Mixed in Both Ways

            Solomon’s Four-Group Design

ANOVA: A Postscript

            Analysis of Covariance

            Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

13. A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research

Conducting Field Research

            Reasons for Doing Field Research

                         Testing External Validity

                        Studying Effects in the Field

                        Improving Generalization

            Difficulties in Field Research

            Flexibility in Research

Quasi-experimental Designs

            Nonequivalent Control-Group Design

            Interrupted Time-Series Design

Program Evaluation

            (Historical Lesson: From Head Start to Heads Up)

            Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Research

            Issues of Control

                        Selecting Appropriate Dependent Measures

                        Minimizing Bias in Dependent Measures

                        Control through Research Design in Program Evaluation

            Typical Program Evaluation Designs

                        Randomized Control-group Design

                        Nonequivalent Control-group Design

                        Single-Group, Time-Series Design

                        Pretest-posttest Design

            Program Evaluation: An Example

Surveys

            Types of Surveys

                         Status Survey

                        Survey Research

            Steps in Survey Research

            Types of Survey Instruments

            Developing the Survey Instrument

            Sampling Participants

                        Sampling Considerations

            (Cost of Neglect: Political Polling and Sampling)

                        Sampling Procedures

                        Sample Size and Confidence Intervals

            Survey Research Design

                        Cross-Sectional Design

                        Longitudinal Design

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

14. Final Preparations before Data Collection

Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures

            An Initial Example

            A Decision-Tree Model

                        Decision-Tree Flowcharts

                        Identify Research Variables

                        Describe the Study

                        Identify the Study’s Major Characteristics

                        Select the Appropriate Statistics

             Secondary Analyses

                        Post Hoc Analyses

                        Secondary Analyses to Help to Explain the Results

                        Data Snooping

            Caveats and Disclaimers

            (Historical Lesson: Robust Nature of Parametric Statistics)

Pre-Data Check

            I. Initial Problem Definition

            II. Clarity of the Research Hypotheses

            III. Statistical Analysis Procedures

            IV. Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitions

            V. Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulation

            VI. Adequacy of Dependent Measures

            VII. Are All Controls in Place?

            VIII. Participants

                        Participant Selection

                        Sample Size

                        Participant Assignment

                        Participant Availability

                        Research Ethics Considerations

            IX. Preparation of the Setting

                        Space and Equipment

                        Personnel

             X. Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Procedures

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

15. Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline

New Directions in Research Methodology

            The Evolution of Research Questions and Methods

            New Statistical Methods

                        Analysis of Variance

                        Multidimensional Scaling

                        Statistical Analysis of Neuro-images

            Meta-analysis and Cumulative Knowledge

                        Literature Reviews

                         Alpha Levels and Knowledge

                        Beta Levels and Knowledge

                        Meta-Analysis and the Problem of Type II Errors

            The Impact of Other Disciplines

            Interdisciplinary Research

            Moving Research out of the Laboratory

            The Impact of Computers

            Scientific Research and Society

Science: An Interaction between Empiricism and Rationalism

            The Growth of Science

            Ethical Conduct in Research

            The Essence of Science: A Reminder

Putting It into Practice

Chapter Summary

Exercises

Appendix A: Using the Textbook Website

Resources Available

What to Do If You Have Problems

Getting Help

Appendix Summary

Appendix B: Writing a Research Report: APA Publication Style

Structure of a Research Article

Writing the Research Report

            Using Levels of Headings to Organize

            Sections of a Research Report

                        Title Page

                        Abstract

                        Introduction

                        Method

                        Results

                         Discussion

                        References

Writing Style

Appendix Summary

Appendix C: Conducting Library Research

Using the Library

            Library Resources

            The Reference Librarian

How Research Materials Are Organized

            Primary Sources

                        Journal Articles

                        Dissertations

            Secondary Sources

                        Review Articles

                        Books and Chapters in Books

                         Annual Reviews

Finding the Relevant Research

            Abstracting Services

                        Psychological Abstracts

                        ERIC

            Subject or Keyword Services

                        Library Catalogs

                        Books in Print

                        Index Medicus

                        Readers’ Guide to Periodic Literature

            Literature Citation Indexes

Search Strategies

             Searching by Topic

                        Identifying Key Terms

                        Computer Searches

            Searching Backward

            Searching Forward

Appendix Summary

Appendix D: Random Numbers

 

Appendix E: Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions

 

Glossary

 

References

 

Author Index

 

Subject Index

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