Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry / Edition 7

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This comprehensive book explores the entire range of research methodologies in psychology, using a programmatic approach to introduce topics and build on earlier presentations to increase understanding. It includes the most extensive package of web-based features of any book in this market.

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Editorial Reviews

An undergraduate textbook dealing with research in science. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205634026
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/9/2009
  • Series: MySearchLab Series for Psychology Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Anthony M. Graziano is Professor Emeritus, Psychology, at the State University of New York, Buffalo. He was Co-Director of the Research Center for Children and Youth and served as the Director of the Clinical Area. Graziano received the B.A. degree from Columbia College and Ph.D. from Purdue University. He completed a clinical internship and a postdoctoral fellowship in child-clinical psychology at the Devereux Foundation. From 1961 to 1968 he developed and operated the first behavioral treatment program in the country for children with autism. Graziano was the first to employ relaxation and systematic desensitization techniques to help teach self-control skills to children with autism. He also served briefly as the Acting Director of the Kennedy Center for children with developmental disabilities. He has been a consultant to agencies in Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania.

Graziano's research and writing has focused on children and families, and has included: child psychopathology; developmental disabilities; the treatment of childhood disorders; children's fears and phobias; behavior modification; parent training; community psychology; child abuse and neglect; family therapy; and cultural history. His most recent research was on the use of corporal punishment in child rearing, and he has been a long-time opponent of corporal punishment. He is editor, co-author, or author of fifteen books, 86 journal articles and presentations at professional meetings, and a dozen op-ed newspaper columns. Dr. Graziano has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Eastern Psychological Association, People, Inc., a Western New York agency serving persons with developmental disabilities, and the editorial board of the journal, Behavior Modification. When not playing with his grandchildren, Graziano passionately pursues cooking, tennis, carpentry, masonry, drawing cartoons, and traveling Europe with Sheila, his wife of 50 years.

Michael Raulin is a clinical associate professor at the State University of New York, Buffalo, where he has been a faculty member since 1978. He received his BS and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin at Madison. At Buffalo, he was the director of the Psychological Services Center--the research and training clinic for the Ph.D. program in clinical psychology--and also headed the Ph.D. clinical psychology program for several years. He founded and directed the department’s Anxiety Disorders Clinic and maintained a small private practice for 20 years.

Dr. Raulin’s research has always focused on psychopathology, with most of his work on risk factors in schizophrenia. He has published 30 articles or chapters and is author of an abnormal psychology text. He served on the editorial board of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and reviewed papers for nearly 20 different journals and grant applications for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. He has been active in psychological affairs, locally, regionally, and nationally. He was president of the Psychological Association of Western New York, chaired the program committees for the Society for Research in Psychopathology and the Eastern Psychological Association, and was president of the National Association of Directors of Psychology Training Clinics and secretary of Society for Research in Psychopathology. He has an excellent reputation for his teaching, with evaluations that consistently place him among the top instructors at the university. He has won awards for teaching and public service and is listed in Who’s Who in Among Rising Young Americans, Who’s Who Among Health Service Professionals, Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, and Who’s Who in Medicine and Health Care.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment


Science Is a Way of Thinking

Asking Questions

Science and Art

Acquiring Knowledge







Emergence of Science

Early Civilization

Greek Science

Medieval Science

The Scientific Revolution


The History of Psychology

Women and Minorities in Psychology

Modern Psychology

The Science of Psychology

Ethical Principles

Using the Resources of this Text

Exploring the Student Resource Website

Using SPSS for Windows


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 2: Research is a Process of Inquiry

The Scientific Process

Basic Assumptions of Science

Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs

Inductive and Deductive Thinking

Models and Theories in Science

A Model of the Research Process

Phases of Research

Levels of Constraint

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 3: The Starting Point: Asking Questions

Asking and Refining Questions

Pursuing Your Personal Interests

Following Up on the Work of Others

Applied and Basic Research

Refining Questions for Research

Types of Variables in Research

Classifying Variables Based on Their Nature

Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Research

Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables

Ethical Principles

Ethical Principles for Human Research

Ethical Principles for Animal Research


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 4: Data and the Nature of Measurement


Scales of Measurement

Nominal Scales

Ordinal Scales

Interval Scales

Ratio Scales

Measuring and Manipulating Variables

Measurement Error

Operational Definitions

Evaluating Measures


Effective Range


The Need for Objective Measurement

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 5: Statistical Analysis of Data

Individual Differences

Organizing Data

Frequency Distributions

Graphical Representation of Data

Descriptive Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Variability

Measures of Relationship

Standard Scores

Statistical Inference

Populations and Samples

The Null Hypothesis

Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levels

Type I and Type II Errors

Inferential Statistics

Testing for Mean Differences

The Power of a Statistical Test

Effect Size

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 6: Field Research: Naturalistic and Case-Study Research

The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research

Examples of Naturalistic Observation

Examples of Case-Study Research

The Value of Low-Constraint Methods

Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Research

Information Gained from Low-Constraint Research

Using Low-Constraint Methods

Problem Statements and Research Hypotheses

Making Observations

Sampling of Participants

Sampling of Situations

Sampling of Behaviors

Evaluating and Interpreting Data

Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods

Poor Representativeness

Poor Replicability

Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Research

Limitations of the Observer

Going Beyond the Data

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 7: Correlational and Differential Methods of Research

Correlational Research Methods

Differential Research Methods

Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research

Artifacts and Confounding

Understanding Correlational and Differential Methods

Comparing These Methods

When to Use These Methods

Conducting Correlational Research

Problem Statements

Secondary Analyses

Measuring the Variables


Analyzing the Data

Interpreting the Correlation

Conducting Differential Research

Problem Statements

Measuring the Variables

Selecting Appropriate Control Groups


Analyzing the Data

Interpreting the Data

Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research

Problems in Determining Causation

Confounding Variables

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 8: Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity

Hypothesis Testing

Starting Research with an Initial Idea

Statement of the Problem

Operational Definitions

Research Hypothesis

The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesis

Testing the Research Hypothesis

Validity and Threats to Validity

Statistical Validity

Construct Validity

External Validity

Internal Validity

Major Confounding Variables





Regression to the Mean



Diffusion of Treatment

Sequence Effects

Examples of Confounding

Subject and Experimenter Effects

Subject Effects

Experimenter Effects

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 9: Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity

General Control Procedures

Preparation of the Setting

Response Measurement


Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects

Single- and Double-Blind Procedures


Using Objective Measures

Multiple Observers

Using Deception

Control through Participant Selection and Assignment

Participant Selection

Participant Assignment

Advantages of Random Assignment

Control through Experimental Design

Ethical principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 10: Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs


Sources of Variance

Controlling Variance in Research

Nonexperimental Approaches

Ex Post Facto Studies

Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studies

Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studies

Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studies

Experimental Designs

Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Design

Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Design

Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Design

Pretest-Manipulation Interaction: A Potential Problem

Analyses of Variance

Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVA

Graphing the Data

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 11: Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs

Within-Subjects Designs

Using Within-Subjects Designs

Analyzing Within-Subjects Designs

Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designs

Matched-Subjects Designs

Using Matched-Subjects Designs

Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designs

Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designs

Single-Subject Experimental Designs

ABA Reversal Design

Multiple-Baseline Design

Single-Subject, Randomized, Time-Series Design

Replication in Single-Subject Designs

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 12: Factorial Designs

Factorial Designs

Main Effects and Interactions

Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designs

An Example: Children’s Dark-Fears Study

Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designs

Variations of Basic Factorial Design

Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorial

Mixed Designs

ANOVA: A Postscript

Analysis of Covariance

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Chapter 13: A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research

Conducting Field Research

Reasons for Doing Field Research

Difficulties in Field Research

Flexibility in Research

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Nonequivalent Control-Group Designs

Interrupted Time-Series Designs

Program Evaluation Research

Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Research

Issues of Control

Typical Program Evaluation Designs

Program Evaluation Research: An Example


Types of Surveys

Steps in Survey Research

Types of Survey Instruments

Developing the Survey Instrument

Sampling Participants

Survey Research Design

Ethical Principles


Putting It into Practice


Final Note

Appendix A: Using the Student Resource Website

Resources Available

What to Do If You Have Problems

Getting Help

Appendix Summary

Appendix B: Writing a Research Report in APA Style

Structure of a Research Article

Writing the Research Report

Writing Style


Appendix C: Conducting Library Research

Using the Library

How Research Materials Are Organized

Finding the Relevant Research

Search Strategies


Appendix D: Selecting Statistical Procedures

Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures



Appendix E: Research Design Checklist

I. Initial Problem Definition

II. Clarity of the Research Hypotheses

III. Statistical Analysis Procedures

IV. Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitions

V. Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulation

VI. Adequacy of Dependent Measures

VII. Are All Controls in Place?

VIII. Participants

IX. Preparation of the Setting

X. Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Procedures

Appendix F: Random Numbers

Appendix G: Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions

Appendix H: Meta-Analysis



Name Index

Subject Index

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