Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Practice and Applications / Edition 1

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This unique workbook is designed as a stand-alone book or hands-on applications supplement for any of the standard books on research methods in the social sciences. It presents examples from a wide range of current studies, with a research summary explaining how the methodology was used.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780023854514
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/10/1995
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 283
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1.


Objectives of the Manual General Description of the Research Enterprise The Scientific Method The Linkage between Theory and Research Inductive and Deductive Reasoning How to Read a Table Responsibility to Subjects, Colleagues and the Community.



Abstracted Reprints.

Table Reading: David J. Maume, Jr., Inequality and Metropolitan Rape Rates: A Routine Activity Approach, Justice Quarterly, Vol. 6(4), 1989: 513-525. Reading Tables and Creating Typologies: John Klofas, Measuring Jail Use: A Comparative Analysis of Local Corrections, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 27(3), 1990: 295-317 Null and Alternate Hypotheses: Kathleen Daly, Gender and Varieties of White-Collar Crime, Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 27(4), 1989: 769-794.

Chapter 2.

Issues of Measurement.

Why do Social Scientists Measure Variables? Relationships between Variables Levels of Measurement Single Indicators as Measures Scales as Measures Rating Scales.

Questionnaire Based Scales.

Thurston Scales Likert Scales Guttman Scales.

Measures of Central Tendency.

Mode Mean Median Standard Deviation.



Abstracted Reprints.

Scales: Mark Warr, What is the Perceived Seriousness of Crimes? Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 27(4), 1989: 795-821 Scaling-Index Scale: Anthony Walsh and Grace J. Balazs, Love, Sex, and Self-Esteem, Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, Vol. 18(1), 1990: 37-41 Scaling-Likert Scale: Roger Dunham and Geoffrey P. Alpert, Neighborhood Differences in Attitudes Toward Policing: Evidence for Mixed-Strategy Model of Policing in a Multiethnic Setting, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 79(2), 1988: 504-523 Measures of Central Tendency: Kevin M. Thompson, Gender and Adolescent Drinking Problems: The Effects of Occupational Structure, Social Problems, Vol. 36(1), 1989: 30-47.

Chapter 3.

Samples and Sampling Strategies.

Probability Sampling Sample Size: When is a Sample Large Enough? Nonprobability Sampling Convenience Sampling Purposive Sampling Snowballing Techniques Quota Samples.

Types of Research Design.

The Experimental Design Pre-Experimental Design Quasi-Experimental Design The Classical Experiment Descriptive Studies Exploratory Designs.


Validity and Reliability.

Types of Validity.



Abstracted Reprints.

Hypothesis Development and Probability Sampling: David H. Huizinga, Scott Menard, and Delbert S. Elliott, Delinquency and Drug Use: Temporal and Developmental Patterns, Justice Quarterly, Vol. 6(3), 1989: 419-455 Experimental Design: Variables: Carole Wolfe Barnes and Randal S. Franz, Questionably Adult: Determinants and Effects of the Juvenile Waiver Decision, Justice Quarterly, Vol. 6(1), 1989: 116-135 Quasi-Experimental Design: Lonn Lanza-Kaduce and Pamela Richards, Raising the Minimum Drinking Age: Some Unintended Consequences of Good Intentions, Justice Quarterly, Vol. 6(2), 1989: 247-262 Longitudinal Sample: Terence P. Thornberry, Melanie Moore, and R.L. Christenson, The Effect of Dropping Out of High School on Subsequent Criminal Behavior, Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 23(1), 1985 Validity: Ross M. Stolzenberg, Ethnicity, Geography, and Occupational Achievement of Hispanic Men in the United States, American Sociological Review, Vol. 55(1), 1990: 143-154.

Chapter 4.

Technologies of Observation.

Questionnaire Based Surveys Cover Letters Self- Administered Questionnaires Mailed Questionnaires Advantages to Questionnaire Based Surveys Disadvantages to Questionnaires.


Types of Interviews.


The Ethnographic Record Observation in Field Settings.

Unobtrusive Research.

Archival Research Accretion and Erosion: Products and Traces of Humans Triangulation in Research.



Abstracted Reprints.

Operationalization and Survey Construction: John Hagan and Fiona Kay, Gender and Delinquency in White Collar Families: A Power-Control Perspective, Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 36(3), 1990: 391-407 Survey Construction: Robert M. Regoli, John B. Crank, and Robert G. Culbertson, The Consequences of Professionalism among Police Chiefs, Justice Quarterly, Vol. 6(1), 1989: 47-67 Interviews: Earl Rubington, Drinking in the Dorms: A Study of the Etiquette of RA-Resident Relations, The Journal of Drug Issues, Vol. 20(3), 1990: 451- 462 Telephone Interviews: Randy L. LaGrange and Kenneth F. Ferraro, Assessing Age and Gender Differences in Perceived Risk and Fear of Crimes, Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 27(4), 1989: 697-718 Telephone Survey: William S. Aquilino and Leonard A. Lo Sciuto, Effects of Interview Mode on Self-Reported Drug Use, Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 54, 1990: 362-395 Participant Observation: Barbara Haley, Power in Hospitals: Implications for the Validity of Data, Journal of Applied Sociology, Vol. 6, 1989: 65-76 Scaling-Sociometric Rating Scale: Walter C. Reckless, Simon Dinitz, and Ellen Murray, Self-Concept as an Insulator against Delinquency, American Sociological Review, Vol. 21, 1965: 744-746 Field Experiment: Paul E. Tracy and James Alan Fox, A Field Experiment on Insurance Fraud in Auto Body Repair, Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 27(3), 1989.

Chapter 5.

Data Organization: Quantitative.

Data Coding Data Storage and Retrieval Data Analysis Data Organization: Qualitative Data Coding Data Storage and Retrieval Data Analysis.



Abstracted Reprints.

Content Analysis: Dennis L. Peck and Kimberly A. Folse, Teenage Suicide: An Evaluation of Reactive Responses to Change and a Proposed Model for Proactive Accommodation/Adaptation, Sociological Practice Review, Vol. 1(1), 1990: 33-39 Time Series Analysis: George W. Dowdall, James Marshall and Wayne A. Morris, Economic Antecedents of Mental Hospitalization: A Nineteenth-Century Time Series Test, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 31(2), 1990: 141-147 Locating Source Material: Scott H. Decker and Carol W. Kohfeld, The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment in the Five Most Active Execution States: A Time Series Analysis, Criminal Justice Review, Vol. 15(2), 173-191

Chapter 6.

Research Ethics.

Introduction Responses of Organizations and Agencies to Ethical Issues in Research Federal Agencies Responses to Ethical Issues in Research Value Neutral Research and the Role of the Researcher.



Abstracted Reprints.

Ethical Issue: Richard Tewksbury, Patrons of Porn: Research Notes on the Clientele of Adult Bookstores, Deviant Behavior, Vol. 11(3), 1990: 259-272 IRB's and Scientific Research: Bruce L. Berg, W. Timothy Austin, and Glenn Zeurn, Institutional Review Boards: Virtue Machines or Villains, Criminal Justice Policy Review, Vol. 6(2), 1992.

Chapter 7.

Policy Implications.

The Use of Research Findings Gatekeepers and the Powerful Institutional Review Boards Sex and Research Politics.



Abstracted Reprints.

Interpreting Patterns of Crime-Analysis: Alfred Blumstein and Jacqueline Cohen, Estimation of Individual Crime Rates from Arrest Records, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 70(4), 1979: 561-585 Policy-Likert Scale: Robert M. Bohm, Death Penalty Opinions: A Classroom Experience and Public Commitment, Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 60(3), 1990: 285-295.

Appendix A: Drugs, Alcohol, and Social Styles of Life Questionnaire.

Appendix B: Random Numbers Table.

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