Research Methods in Education / Edition 6

Research Methods in Education / Edition 6

by William Wiersma
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0205156541

ISBN-13: 9780205156542

Pub. Date: 07/28/1994

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205156542
Publisher:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
07/28/1994
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
480
Product dimensions:
7.23(w) x 9.57(h) x 1.12(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface xi(4)
Acknowledgments xv
1 Educational Research: Its Nature and Characteristics
1(28)
Introduction
1(2)
The Nature of Educational Research
3(7)
The Systematic Process of Research
3(1)
The Validity of Educational Research
4(1)
Internal Validity
5(1)
External Validity
6(3)
The Reliability of Educational Research
9(1)
Research Has a Variety of Forms
9(1)
Classification of Educational Research
10(8)
Basic and Applied Research
10(2)
General Methodology: Qualitative and Quantitative Research
12(2)
Experimental Research
14(1)
Quasi-Experimental Research
15(1)
Survey Research
15(1)
Historical Research
16(1)
Ethnographic Research
16(2)
The Role of Theory
18(2)
The Activities of the Research Process
20(3)
Identification of the Research Problem
21(1)
Data Collection
22(1)
Analysis
22(1)
Summarizing Results and Drawing Conclusions
22(1)
Summary
23(3)
The Function of Educational Research
24(2)
Key Concepts
26(1)
Exercises
26(1)
Notes
27(1)
References
27(2)
2 Identification of a Research Problem
29(26)
Selection of a Research Problem
29(2)
Statement of the Research Problem
31(19)
Constants, Variables, and Operational Definition
34(1)
Independent and Dependent Variables
35(1)
Other Possible Types of Variables
36(2)
Variables as They Are Measured
38(1)
Operational Definition
39(1)
Hypotheses and the Statement of the Problem
40(2)
Types and Forms of Hypotheses
42(3)
Examples of Hypotheses Related to Problem Statements
45(5)
Summary
50(2)
Key Concepts
52(1)
Exercises
52(1)
Notes
53(1)
References
54(1)
3 The Review of the Literature
55(36)
The Activities of the Review of the Literature
56(1)
Sources of Information
57(13)
Periodical Literature
58(1)
Education Index
58(1)
Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)
58(2)
An Example Using CIJE and RIE
60(4)
Other Indexes and Abstracts
64(1)
Review of Educational Research (RER)
65(1)
Other Reviews
65(1)
Reports of Meta-Analysis
66(1)
Abstracts and Reports in Periodicals
66(2)
Theses and Dissertations
68(1)
Selected Books
69(1)
The Encyclopedia of Educational Research (EER)
69(1)
Handbook of Research on Teaching
69(1)
Review of Research in Education
69(1)
Conducting a Computer Search
70(7)
Identifying the Research Problem and the Extent of Search
71(1)
Selecting a Database
71(1)
Selecting and Combining Descriptors
72(1)
Searching the Database for Numbers of References
73(2)
Broadening the Search, if Necessary
75(1)
Use of the CD ROM
75(2)
Selecting Studies for the Review of the Literature
77(1)
Assembling and Summarizing Information
78(5)
Bibliographic Entry
79(1)
Abstract or Summary
80(3)
Organizing Information
83(1)
Interpreting and Using Information
83(4)
Critical Review
84(1)
Writing the Review
85(1)
Referencing
85(1)
Preparing the Bibliography
86(1)
Summary
87(1)
Key Concepts
88(1)
Exercises
88(1)
Notes
89(1)
References
89(2)
4 Research Design in Quantitative Research
91(16)
The Purposes of Research Design
91(1)
The Concept of Controlling Variance
92(9)
Procedures for Controlling Variance
93(1)
Randomization
94(1)
Building in Factors as Independent Variables
95(2)
Holding Factors Constant
97(1)
Statistical Control
97(2)
Using Procedures for Control in Combination
99(2)
Characteristics of Good Research Design
101(2)
Freedom from Bias
102(1)
Freedom from Confounding
102(1)
Control of Extraneous Variables
102(1)
Statistical Precision for Testing Hypotheses
103(1)
Summary
103(1)
Key Concepts
104(1)
Exercises
104(1)
Notes
105(1)
References
105(2)
5 Experimental Research
107(32)
The Meaning of Experimental Design
107(4)
Experimental Variables
109(1)
Use of the Term Subject
110(1)
Criteria for a Well-Designed Experiment
111(4)
Experimental Validity
112(1)
Threats to Experimental Validity
113(2)
Posttest-Only Control Group Design
115(2)
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
117(3)
Solomon Four-Group Design
120(2)
Factorial Designs
122(3)
Repeated Measures Designs
125(3)
Designs Extended in Time
128(2)
Time Series Designs
129(1)
Interpreting Results of Experiments
130(4)
Randomness and Representativeness
134(1)
Summary
135(1)
Key Concepts
135(1)
Exercises
136(2)
Notes
138(1)
References
138(1)
6 Quasi-Experimental Research
139(30)
The Problems of Validity
139(1)
Posttest-Only, Nonequivalent Control Group Design
140(3)
Pretest-Posttest, Nonequivalent Control Group Design
143(3)
Time Series Designs
146(6)
Single-Group Time Series Design
146(3)
Multiple-Group Time Series Design
149(2)
Variations in Time Series Designs
151(1)
Single Subject Designs
152(11)
A-B Design
153(2)
A-B-A Design
155(2)
A-B-A-B Design
157(3)
Multiple-Baseline Design
160(1)
Multiple-Baseline Design Across Behaviors
160(1)
Multiple-Baseline Design Across Subjects
160(1)
Multiple-Baseline Design Across Situations
161(2)
Action Research and Quasi-Experimental Research
163(1)
Summary
164(1)
Key Concepts
165(1)
Exercises
165(2)
Notes
167(1)
References
167(2)
7 Survey Research
169(42)
Survey Research: Its Scope and Description
169(3)
Ex post facto Research
170(1)
Examples of ex post facto Research
170(1)
Other Survey Research
171(1)
Survey Designs
172(4)
Longitudinal Designs
172(2)
Cross-Sectional Designs
174(2)
The Methodology of Survey Research
176(2)
Questionnaire Surveys
178(16)
Item Construction
179(2)
Item Format
181(2)
Pilot Run of the Items
183(1)
The Cover Letter
183(3)
Questionnaire Format
186(1)
Procedures for Increasing Response Rate
187(1)
Follow-up Procedures
188(1)
Identifying Sources of Nonresponse
189(1)
Incomplete and Possible Dishonest Response
190(2)
Examples
192(1)
Community Surveys
192(2)
Client Surveys
194(1)
Interview Surveys
194(9)
Interview Items
197(1)
Items from the Gallup/Phi Delta Kappa Poll
198(1)
Conducting the Interview
199(1)
Potential Sources of Error
200(1)
Telephone Interviews
201(1)
A Comment About Branching Items
202(1)
Other Surveys
203(1)
Analyzing and Reporting Survey Results
203(3)
Hypothetical Example 1
204(1)
Hypothetical Example 2
204(1)
Hypothetical Example 3
205(1)
Summary
206(1)
Key Concepts
207(1)
Exercises
207(2)
Notes
209(1)
References
209(2)
8 Research Design in Qualitative Research
211(20)
The Epistemology of Qualitative Research
211(2)
Components of Research Design
213(6)
Working Design
213(1)
Working Hypotheses
214(1)
Data Collection
214(2)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
216(1)
Possible Codes
216(3)
Perspectives for Qualitative Research
219(3)
Example: Funnel Approach
220(1)
Example: Modified Analytic Induction Approach
221(1)
Reliability and Validity of Qualitative Research
222(1)
Use of Computers in Qualitative Research
223(3)
Capabilities of Computer Software in Qualitative Research
224(1)
The ETHNOGRAPH
224(1)
AskSam
225(1)
Sources of Information about Computers in Qualitative Research
225(1)
Summary
226(1)
Key Concepts
227(1)
Exercises
227(1)
Notes
228(1)
References
228(3)
9 Historical Research
231(18)
The Value of Historical Research
232(2)
Sources of Information in Historical Research
234(1)
The Methodology of Historical Research
234(9)
Identification of the Research Problem
235(3)
Collection and Evaluation of Source Materials
238(1)
External Criticism
238(1)
Internal Criticism
239(1)
Synthesis of Information
240(1)
Analysis, Interpretation, and Formulating Conclusions
241(2)
Quantitative Methods in Historical Research
243(1)
Comments on the Reporting of Historical Research
243(2)
Reports in Professional Journals
244(1)
Summary
245(1)
Key Concepts
246(1)
Exercises
246(1)
References
247(2)
10 Ethnographic Research
249(34)
The Nature of Ethnography in Education
249(4)
The Phenomenological Nature
250(1)
The Naturalistic Nature
251(1)
The Holistic and General Perspective
252(1)
A Conceptual Schema for Ethnographic Research
253(1)
The Process of Ethnographic Research
254(15)
Identification of the Phenomenon to Be Studied
258(1)
Identification of Subjects
258(1)
Hypothesis Generation
259(1)
Data Collection
260(1)
Observation
261(1)
Videotaping
262(1)
Interviewing
262(1)
Reviewing Other Sources
263(1)
Triangulation
263(2)
Analysis
265(1)
Coding
266(1)
Use of Numbers
267(2)
Drawing Conclusions
269(1)
Examples of Ethnographic Research in Education
269(3)
The Reliability and Validity of Ethnographic Research
272(5)
Reliability
273(1)
Validity
274(3)
The Role of Ethnographic Research
277(1)
Summary
278(1)
Key Concepts
279(1)
Exercises
280(1)
Notes
281(1)
References
281(2)
11 Sampling Designs
283(24)
The Concept of a Random Sample
283(5)
Random Selection and Random Assignment
284(1)
Use of a Random Number Table
285(2)
Sampling Error and Sampling Bias
287(1)
Criteria for a Sampling Design
288(1)
Stratified Random Sampling
289(3)
Allocation of Sample Size Among Strata
290(2)
Cluster Sampling
292(2)
Systematic Sampling
294(1)
Possible Problem of Periodicity
294(1)
Considerations in Determining Sample Size--Random Sampling
295(2)
Purposeful Sampling
297(6)
Comprehensive Sampling
298(1)
Maximum Variation Sampling
299(1)
Extreme Case Sampling
299(1)
Typical Case Sampling
300(1)
Homogeneous Sampling
300(1)
Other Variations of Purposeful Sampling
300(1)
Sample Size of Purposeful Samples
301(2)
Summary
303(1)
Key Concepts
304(1)
Exercises
305(1)
Notes
306(1)
References
306(1)
12 Measurement and Data Collection
307(30)
Concepts of Measurement
308(7)
Types of Measurement Scales
308(1)
Reliability of Measurement
309(1)
Empirical Procedures for Estimating Reliability
310(1)
Expected Reliability Coefficients for Various Types of Tests
311(1)
Validity of Measurement
311(2)
Content-Related Evidence
313(1)
Criterion-Related Evidence: Concurrent and Predictive
313(1)
Construct-Related Evidence
313(2)
The Variables Measured in Educational Research
315(1)
Tests and Inventories Used for Measurement
315(12)
Achievement Tests in Academic and Skills Areas
316(1)
Attitude Inventories
317(1)
Likert Scale
318(1)
Semantic Differential
319(2)
Aptitude Tests
321(2)
Personality Measures
323(1)
Rating Scales
323(2)
Observation Systems
325(1)
Measures Involving Holistic Scoring
326(1)
Where to Find Test Information
327(1)
Quantitative Data Preparation
328(3)
Coding Data
329(1)
An Example of a Data File
330(1)
Summary
331(3)
Key Concepts
334(1)
Exercises
334(1)
Notes
335(1)
References
336(1)
13 Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics
337(26)
The Multiple Meanings of Statistics
337(1)
Distributions
338(7)
Describing a Distribution of Scores
339(1)
Measures of Central Tendency
340(1)
Measures of Variability
340(1)
Shapes of Distributions
341(1)
Standard Scores
342(1)
Properties of Standard Scores
343(1)
Determining Standard Scores
343(2)
Correlation--A Measure of Relationship
345(7)
Uses of Correlation
348(1)
Different Correlation Coefficients
349(3)
Using the Computer for Data Analysis
352(7)
General Procedure for Computer Use
354(5)
Summary
359(1)
Key Concepts
360(1)
Exercises
360(1)
Notes
361(1)
Reference
361(2)
14 Data Analysis: Inferential Statistics
363(38)
Testing Hypotheses and Estimating Parameters
364(7)
Concept of Sampling Distribution
365(3)
Building a Confidence Interval--The Example Continued
368(2)
Possible Errors in Hypothesis Testing
370(1)
Inferences from Statistics to Parameters: A Review
371(1)
Parametric Analyses
372(6)
The t-Distribution--Another Sampling Distribution
373(3)
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
376(2)
Nonparametric Analyses
378(3)
The Chi-Square (X^2) Test and Distribution
378(3)
Correlational Analyses
381(5)
Analysis of Covariance
384(2)
The Role of Statistical Analysis
386(3)
Selecting an Appropriate Statistical Analysis
389(1)
Comments About Statistical Analysis
390(4)
Meta-Analysis
394(1)
Summary
394(1)
Key Concepts
395(1)
Exercises
396(2)
Notes
398(1)
References
398(3)
15 Communicating About Research
401(30)
Major Sections of the Research Proposal
402(9)
Identification of the Problem
403(2)
Review of the Literature
405(1)
Methods or Procedures
406(3)
Significance of the Proposed Research
409(1)
Other Sections of the Research Proposal
410(1)
Cover Page
410(1)
Abstract
410(1)
Budget
410(1)
Staff Resumes
411(1)
Appendices
411(1)
The Evaluation of Proposals
411(1)
Major Sections of the Research Report
412(7)
Introduction, Including the Statement of the Problem
413(1)
Review of the Literature
414(1)
Methods or Procedures
415(1)
Results
416(1)
Use of Tables
417(1)
Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
418(1)
Other Sections of the Research Report
419(2)
Abstract
420(1)
Bibliography and Reference List
420(1)
Appendix
421(1)
Putting a Report Together
421(3)
Software for Word Processing
423(1)
Guidelines for Presenting Papers at Meetings
424(2)
Presentations to Dissertation and Thesis Committees
426(1)
Summary
427(1)
Key Concepts
428(1)
Exercises
429(1)
Notes
429(1)
References
430(1)
Appendix 1. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Conducting Research 431(6)
Appendix 2. Solutions to Exercises 437(14)
Appendix 3. Tables 451(12)
Table A. Ordinates and Areas of the Normal Curve 452(2)
Table B. Critical Values of t 454(1)
Table C. Upper Percentage Points of the X^2 Distribution 455(1)
Table D. Upper Percentage Points of the F-Distribution 456(6)
Table E. Critical Values of the Correlation Coefficient 462(1)
Glossary of Research Methods Terms 463(8)
Name Index 471(2)
Subject Index 473

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