Research Methods in Psychology / Edition 3

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Overview

Research Methods in Psychology third edition has been significantly expanded, revised and restructured. It is now oriented around three parts focusing on the major processes of conducting research in sequence - from research design and initial planning, to data gathering and data analysis. A rich diversity of methods is presented by psychologists with detailed knowledge of their practical application. Extended coverage of qualitative methods is also a significant development in this third edition as these methods are now increasingly important on psychological methods courses. As a result, the book is perfect for students taking this course for the first time in psychology and neighbouring disciplines. Book jacket.

"...a nontechnical introduction to key research methods... explains how to gather, structure, and analyze data, as well as the logic of statistical testing and the relationships between methodology and statistics."

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A textbook introduction to key research methods, both quantitative and qualitative, used in psychology and other social sciences. Four sections address the relationship between theory and methodology, how to collect data using major types of research design, traditional and new techniques of data collection, and data analysis. This edition adds increased information on content analysis strategies, structure equation modeling, and qualitative data analysis. All chapters have been revised and updated. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412911283
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 6/28/2006
  • Edition description: Third Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 552
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Dame Glynis M. Breakwell has been a Professor of Psychology for over 20 years and is currently the Vice Chancellor of the University of Bath. Her research focuses upon identity process theory and social representations, leadership in complex organisations, and the psychology of risk management, perception and communication.

She has published more than 20 books, several of which are on research methods. She is an adviser to government and private sector companies on the use of psychological methods and theories.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors
Preface
How to Use This Textbook and Companion Website
Part 1 The Bases of Research 1
1 Theory, Method and Research Design 2
1.1 Theory Building and Theory Testing 4
1.2 Matching Methodologies to Theory 17
1.3 Integrating Findings from Different Methodologies 22
1.4 Further Reading 23
2 Practical and Ethical Issues in Planning Research 24
2.1 Introduction 26
2.2 Formulating Research Questions 26
2.3 Assessing the Practical Feasibility of the Research 33
2.4 Assessing the Ethical Feasibility of the Research 38
2.5 Considering the Possible Outcomes of the Research in Advance 43
2.6 Applying for Research Funding 43
2.7 Conclusion 47
2.8 BPS and APA Addresses and Websites 48
2.9 Further Reading 48
3 Levels of Measurement 50
3.1 Introduction 52
3.2 Classifying Measurements 53
3.3 Discrete Versus Continuous Variables 58
3.4 Measurement Errors 59
3.5 Choices over Levels of Measurement 60
3.6 The Relationship Between Level of Measurement and Statistics 61
3.7 Conclusion 63
3.8 Further Reading 63
4 The Experimental Method in Psychology 64
4.1 Introduction 66
4.2 Experimentation and the Scientific Method 66
4.3 What is an Experiment? 67
4.4 Causality and Experimentation 69
4.5 Variables 69
4.6 Reliability and Validity 73
4.7 Experimental Manipulation and Control 74
4.8 Basic Experimental Designs 74
4.9 Evaluating the Experimental Method 85
4.10 Conclusion 86
4.11 Further Reading 87
5 Quasi-Experimental Designs 88
5.1 Introduction 90
5.2 Pre-Experiments 90
5.3 Quasi-Experiments 92
5.4 Non-Equivalent Control Group Designs 93
5.5 Time Series Designs 96
5.6 Time Series with Non-Equivalent Control Group Designs 98
5.7 Modifications to the Basic Designs 102
5.8 Conclusion 103
5.9 Further Reading 103
6 Surveys and Sampling 104
6.1 Introduction 106
6.2 Statistical Inference: From Sample to Population 106
6.3 Nonresponse 111
6.4 Sampling Strategies 113
6.5 Survey Mode 118
6.6 Small-Sample Issues 119
6.7 Conclusion 121
6.8 Further Reading 121
Part 2 Data Gathering 123
7 Observational Methods 124
7.1 Introduction 126
7.2 What is Observational Research? 126
7.3 Levels of Observation: Behaviour and Talk 132
7.4 Observation and Theoretical Lenses 133
7.5 Deciding what to Observe - Coding Schemes 134
7.6 Interpretative Orientation to Observation 138
7.7 Participant Observation Research 139
7.8 Validity 144
7.9 Conclusion 145
7.10 Further Reading 145
8 Psychophysiological Methods 146
8.1 Introduction 148
8.2 The Principal Areas of Physiological Data Acquisition 149
8.3 Quantifying Biosignal Data 156
8.4 Conclusion 159
8.5 Further Reading 159
9 Psychophysical Methods 160
9.1 Introduction 162
9.2 Principles of Absolute Thresholds 162
9.3 Forced-Choice Techniques 167
9.4 Methods for Measuring Absolute Thresholds 168
9.5 Difference Thresholds 174
9.6 Sensational Measurements 175
9.7 Some General Tips on Running Experiments 178
9.8 Conclusion 181
9.9 Further Reading 181
10 Using Psychometric Tests 182
10.1 Introduction 184
10.2 Types of Psychometric Test 185
10.3 Classical Test Theory 189
10.4 The Problem of Validity 199
10.5 Item Response Theory 203
10.6 Conclusion 208
10.7 Further Reading 209
11 Questionnaire Design 210
11.1 Introduction 212
11.2 What Information do You Want? 212
11.3 Open Versus Closed Response Formats 214
11.4 Common Response Formats 215
11.5 Common Wording Problems 218
11.6 Types of Information Gleaned from Questionnaires 223
11.7 Existing Scales and Measures 228
11.8 Questionnaire Layout 228
11.9 Conclusion 231
11.10 Further Reading 231
12 Interviewing Methods 232
12.1 Introduction 234
12.2 The Interview Structure 235
12.3 Piloting the Interview 240
12.4 Conducting the Interview 241
12.5 Medium of the Interview 243
12.6 Interviewing Children 244
12.7 Validity and Reliability of Interview Data 247
12.8 Analysing Interview Data 250
12.9 Reporting Interview Research 252
12.10 Conclusion 253
12.11 Further Reading 253
13 Using Self-Recording: Diary and Narrative Methods 254
13.1 Introduction 256
13.2 What are Diary Techniques? 256
13.3 What Sorts of Data are Suitable for Diaries? 258
13.4 The Pros and Cons of the Diary Approach 259
13.5 Getting the Best Out of Diary Techniques 263
13.6 What are Narrative Techniques? 266
13.7 Eliciting the Narrative 267
13.8 Analysing Diary and Narrative Records 269
13.9 Conclusion 271
13.10 Further Reading 272
14 Focus Groups 274
14.1 Introduction 276
14.2 The Appropriateness of the Focus Group Method 277
14.3 What Type of Evidence do Focus Groups Yield? 278
14.4 The Focal Stimuli 281
14.5 Focus Group Design and Planning 283
14.6 Focus Group Implementation 286
14.7 Recording the Data 291
14.8 Transcription 291
14.9 Analysis of Focus Group Data 291
14.10 Feedback of Results/Findings 296
14.11 Future Developments in Focus Group Research 296
14.12 Conclusion 297
14.13 Further Reading 298
15 Ethnographic and Action Research 300
15.1 Introduction 302
15.2 What is Ethnography? 302
15.3 Problems in Ethnography 305
15.4 Measuring Quality in Ethnographic Research 309
15.5 Action Research 311
15.6 Distinguishing Criteria of Action Research 315
15.7 Conclusions 319
15.8 Further Reading 320
Part 3 Data Treatment 321
16 Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis 322
16.1 Introduction 324
16.2 Ipa and Psychology 325
16.3 Suitable Research Questions for Ipa 326
16.4 How Many Participants? 327
16.5 Data Collection Methods 329
16.6 Stages of Analysis 332
16.7 Writing Up and Ipa Study 338
16.8 Conclusion 340
16.9 Further Reading 340
17 Grounded Theory 342
17.1 Introduction 344
17.2 Emergent Design, Flexibility and Iteration 346
17.3 The Origin Point and Use of the Prior Literature 348
17.4 Theoretical Sampling 350
17.5 Storage: The Research Record 352
17.6 Open Coding and Constant Comparison 353
17.7 Theoretical Memos 357
17.8 Core Analysis I: Refining and Saturating Categories 358
17.9 Core Analysis II: Building Theory and Models 359
17.10 Writing and Evaluating Grounded Theory Studies 361
17.11 Conclusion 363
17.12 Further Reading 364
18 Discourse Analysis 366
18.1 Introduction 368
18.2 Discourse Analysis: Assumptions, Approaches and Applications 368
18.3 Sampling Discourse 374
18.4 Techniques of Discourse Analysis 375
18.5 Working with Data 377
18.6 Evaluating Discourse Analytic Work 382
18.7 Problems in Discourse Analytic Work 384
18.8 Conclusion 386
18.9 Further Reading 387
19 Principles of Statistical Inference Tests 388
19.1 Introduction 390
19.2 Some Basic Definitions 390
19.3 What are Bivariate Statistical Analyses? 393
19.4 Classical Bivariate Designs 393
19.5 Theories and Hypotheses 396
19.6 Type I and Type II Errors 397
19.7 Probability 398
19.8 Parametric Versus Non-Parametric Tests 406
19.9 Choosing a Statistical Test 407
19.10 Conclusion 413
19.11 Further Reading 413
20 Introduction to Multivariate Data Analysis 414
20.1 Introduction 416
20.2 Examining Differences Between Groups 416
20.3 Making Predictions 424
20.4 Exploring Underlying Structure 430
20.5 The Special Case of Categorical Data 440
20.6 Conclusion 441
20.7 Further Reading 442
21 Introduction to Structural Equation Modelling 444
21.1 Introduction 446
21.2 The Idea of Model Fitting and Model Comparison 447
21.3 Measurement Models and Confirmatory Factor Analysis 450
21.4 Structural Models 458
21.5 Analysis Strategy 460
21.6 Other Things that Can be Done with Sem 461
21.7 Cautionary Notes 463
21.8 Conclusion 464
21.9 Further Reading 464
22 Meta-Analysis 466
22.1 Introduction 468
22.2 Quantifying the Review Process 469
22.3 Steps in Conducting a Meta-Analysis 473
22.4 Conclusion 480
22.5 Further Reading 481
References 482
Index 510
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