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Research Methods: A Modular Approach / Edition 2

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Overview

Research Methods-a subject that can sometimes seem confusing and difficult-becomes easy to understand with Sherri Jackson's friendly, conversational new book that includes helpful outlines, small sections and subsections, plentiful review, and interesting exercises. Jackson presents all the tools you need to gain a true understanding-as well as success in your course-in this unique, modular book that leads you step by step toward true comprehension. Instead of memorizing what you're reading, Jackson's refreshing approach will help you make sense of concepts as you interact with the book's critical thinking checks, self-tests, and section summaries that serve as a built-in study guide. Everything you need to continually evaluate evidence and really understand what you're doing is built right into this interesting book!
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495811190
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 5/14/2010
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 360
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Sherri L. Jackson is professor of psychology at Jacksonville University (JU), where she has taught since 1988 and currently serves as Chair of the Division of Social Sciences. At JU, she has won Excellence in Scholarship (2003), University Service (2004), and Teaching (2009) awards, the university-wide Professor of the Year Award in 2004, the Woman of the Year Award in 2005, and the Institutional Excellence Award in 2007. She received her M.S. and Ph.D. in cognitive/experimental psychology from the University of Florida. Her research interests include human reasoning and the teaching of psychology. She has published numerous articles in both areas. In 1997, she received a research grant from the Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology (APA Division 2) to develop A Compendium of Introductory Psychology Textbooks 1997-2000. She is also the author of STATISTICS PLAIN AND SIMPLE, 3rd Edition (Wadsworth/Cengage, 2014), RESEARCH METHODS: A MODULAR APPROACH, 3rd Edition (Wadsworth/Cengage, 2015) and A CONCISE GUIDE TO STATISTICAL ANALYSES USING EXCEL, SPSS, AND THE TI-84 CALCULATOR (Cengage, 2013).

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Table of Contents


Preface     xviii
Thinking Like a Scientist     1
Science and Psychology     3
Areas of Psychological Research     4
Psychobiology     4
Cognition     5
Human Development     6
Social Psychology     6
Psychotherapy     6
Sources of Knowledge     6
Superstition and Intuition     6
Authority     7
Tenacity     8
Rationalism     8
Empiricism     9
Science     9
The Scientific (Critical Thinking) Approach and Psychology     10
Systematic Empiricism     11
Public Verification     11
Solvable Problems     12
Goals of Science     13
Description     14
Prediction     14
Explanation     14
Basic and Applied Research     14
Summary     15
Review of Key Terms     15
Module Exercises     16
Critical Thinking Check Answers     16
Web Resources     16
An Introduction to Research Methods     17
Descriptive Methods     17
Predictive (Relational) Methods     18
Explanatory Method     19
Doing Science     22
Proof and Disproof     23
The Research Process     24
Summary     24
Review of Key Terms     24
Module Exercises     25
Critical Thinking Check Answers     25
Web Resources     25
Summary and Review     26
Getting Started     29
Research Ideas     32
Reviewing the Literature     33
Library Research     33
Journals     33
Psychological Abstracts     35
PsycINFO and PsycLIT     36
Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index     37
Other Resources     37
Reading a Journal Article: What to Expect     39
Abstract     39
Introduction     39
Method     39
Results     39
Discussion     40
Summary     40
Module Exercise     40
Web Resources     40
Ethical Research     41
Ethical Standards in Research with Human Participants     41
Institutional Review Boards     47
Informed Consent     47
Risk     48
Deception     50
Debriefing     30
Ethical Standards in Research with Children     51
Ethical Standards in Research with Animals     51
Summary     55
Review of Key Terms     56
Module Exercises     56
Critical Thinking Check Answers     56
Web Resources     56
Defining, Measuring, and Manipulating Variables     57
Defining Variables     57
The Properties of Measurement     58
Identity     58
Magnitude     58
Equal Unit Size     58
Absolute Zero     59
The Scales of Measurement     59
Nominal Scale     59
Ordinal Scale     59
Interval Scale     60
Ratio Scale     60
Discrete and Continuous Variables     61
Types of Measures     62
Self-Report Measures     62
Tests     62
Behavioral Measures     63
Physical Measures     64
Summary     65
Review of Key Terms     65
Module Exercises     65
Critical Thinking Check Answers     66
Web Resources     66
Reliability and Validity     67
Reliability     67
Error in Measurement     67
How to Measure Reliability: Correlation Coefficients     68
Types of Reliability     69
Test/Retest Reliability     69
Alternate-Forms Reliability     70
Split-Half Reliability     70
Interrater Reliability     70
Validity     71
Content Validity     72
Criterion Validity     72
Construct Validity     72
The Relationship Between Reliability and Validity     73
Summary     74
Review of Key Terms     75
Module Exercises     75
Critical Thinking Check Answers     75
Web Resources     75
Summary and Review     76
Descriptive Methods     79
Observational and Other Descriptive Methods     81
Naturalistic Observation     81
Options When Using Observation     81
Laboratory Observation     83
Data Collection     84
Narrative Records      84
Checklists     85
Case Study Method     86
Archival Method     87
Qualitative Methods     88
Summary     88
Review of Key Terms     89
Module Exercises     89
Critical Thinking Check Answers     89
Web Resources     90
Lab Resources     90
Survey Methods     91
Survey Construction     91
Writing the Questions     91
Arranging the Questions     94
Administering Surveys     94
Mail Surveys     94
Telephone Surveys     96
Personal Interviews     96
Sampling Techniques     97
Probability Sampling     97
Nonprobability Sampling     99
Summary     101
Review of Key Terms     101
Module Exercises     101
Critical Thinking Check Answers     101
Web Resources     102
Lab Resources     102
Summary and Review     103
Predictive (Relational) Methods     107
Conducting Correlational Research     109
Magnitude, Scatterplots, and Types of Relationships      109
Magnitude     110
Scatterplots     110
Positive Relationships     111
Negative Relationships     111
No Relationship     112
Curvilinear Relationships     112
Misinterpreting Correlations     114
The Assumptions of Causality and Directionality     114
The Third-Variable Problem     115
Restrictive Range     116
Curvilinear Relationships     117
Prediction and Correlation     118
Summary     118
Review of Key Terms     119
Module Exercises     119
Critical Thinking Check Answers     119
Web Resources     120
Lab Resources     120
Quasi-Experimental Designs     121
Nonmanipulated Independent Variables     121
An Example: Snow and Cholera     122
Types of Quasi-Experimental Designs     124
Single-Group Posttest-Only Design     124
Single-Group Pretest/Posttest Design     124
Single-Group Time-Series Design     125
Nonequivalent Control Group Posttest-Only Design     126
Nonequivalent Control Group Pretest/Posttest Design     127
Multiple-Group Time-Series Design     127
Internal Validity and Confounds in Quasi-Experimental Designs     128
Summary     129
Review of Key Terms     130
Module Exercises     130
Critical Thinking Check Answers     130
Web Resources     131
Lab Resources     131
Conducting Single-Case Research     132
Types of Single-Case Designs     133
Reversal Designs     133
ABA Reversal Designs     133
ABAB Reversal Designs     134
Multiple-Baseline Designs     135
Multiple Baselines Across Participants     135
Multiple Baselines Across Behaviors     136
Multiple Baselines Across Situations     137
Summary     138
Review of Key Terms     138
Module Exercises     138
Critical Thinking Check Answers     139
Web Resources     139
Lab Resources     139
Summary and Review     140
Explanatory Methods     143
Between-Participants Experimental Designs     145
Control and Confounds     148
Threats to Internal Validity     148
Nonequivalent Control Group      149
History     149
Maturation     149
Testing     150
Regression to the Mean     150
Instrumentation     150
Mortality or Attrition     150
Diffusion of Treatment     151
Experimenter and Participant Effects     151
Floor and Ceiling Effects     153
Threats to External Validity     155
Generalization to Populations     155
Generalization from Laboratory Settings     156
Summary     156
Review of Key Terms     156
Module Exercises     157
Critical Thinking Check Answers     157
Web Resources     157
Lab Resources     157
Correlated-Groups and Developmental Designs     158
Within-Participants Experimental Designs     158
Matched-Participants Experimental Designs     161
Developmental Designs     163
Cross-Sectional Designs     163
Longitudinal Designs     164
Sequential Designs     164
Summary     164
Review of Key Terms     165
Module Exercises     165
Critical Thinking Check Answers      165
Web Resources     165
Lab Resources     165
Advanced Experimental Designs     166
Using Designs with More Than Two Levels of an Independent Variable     166
Comparing More Than Two Kinds of Treatment in One Study     166
Comparing Two or More Kinds of Treatment with the Control Group (No Treatment)     167
Comparing a Placebo Group with the Control and Experimental Groups     169
Using Designs with More Than One Independent Variable     169
Factorial Notation and Factorial Designs     170
Main Effects and Interaction Effects     171
Possible Outcomes of a 2 X 2 Factorial Design     173
Summary     177
Review of Key Terms     177
Module Exercises     177
Critical Thinking Check Answers     177
Web Resources     178
Lab Resources     178
Summary and Review     179
Statistical Concepts     183
Data Organization and Descriptive Statistics I     185
Organizing Data     185
Frequency Distributions     185
Graphs     187
Bar Graphs and Histograms     187
Frequency Polygons     189
Descriptive Statistics     190
Measures of Central Tendency     190
Mean     190
Median     192
Mode     193
Summary     194
Review of Key Terms     194
Module Exercises     195
Critical Thinking Check Answers     195
Web Resources     196
Statistical Software Resources     196
Descriptive Statistics II     197
Measures of Variation     197
Range     197
Standard Deviation     197
Types of Distributions     201
Normal Distributions     201
Kurtosis     202
Positively Skewed Distributions     202
Negatively Skewed Distributions     203
z-Scores     204
z-Scores, the Standard Normal Distribution, Probability, and Percentile Ranks     206
Correlation Coefficients     213
Advanced Correlational Techniques: Regression Analysis     216
Summary     217
Review of Key Terms     218
Module Exercises     218
Critical Thinking Check Answers     219
Web Resources     219
Statistical Software Resources      219
Inferential Statistics I-Hypothesis Testing     220
Null and Alternative Hypotheses     220
One- and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests     221
Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing     222
Statistical Significance and Errors     223
Parametric Statistics for Two-Group Designs     225
t Test for Independent Groups (Samples): What It Is and What It Does     226
Calculations for the Independent-Groups t Test     227
Interpreting the t Test     229
Graphing the Means     230
Effect Size: Cohen's d     231
Assumptions of the Independent-Groups t Test     231
Summary     232
Review of Key Terms     233
Module Exercises     233
Critical Thinking Check Answers     234
Web Resources     235
Statistical Software Resources     235
Inferential Statistics II     236
Comparing More Than Two Kinds of Treatment in One Study     236
Analyzing the Multiple-Group Experiment     237
Between-Participants Designs: One-Way Randomized ANOVA     237
One-Way Randomized ANOVA: What It Is and What It Does     238
Calculations for the One-Way Randomized ANOVA      241
Interpreting the One-Way Randomized ANOVA     245
Graphing the Means and Effect Size     246
Assumptions of the One-Way Randomized ANOVA     247
Tukey's Post Hoc Test     247
One-Way Repeated Measure and Two-Way ANOVAs     249
Summary     250
Review of Key Terms     250
Module Exercises     250
Critical Thinking Check Answers     252
Web Resources     252
Lab Resources     252
Statistical Software Resources     252
Summary and Review     253
APA Communications Guidelines     259
Communicating Research Findings     261
Writing Clearly     261
Avoiding Grammatical Problems     261
Reporting Numbers     263
Citing and Referencing     264
Citation Style: One Author     265
Citation Style: Multiple Authors     265
Reference Style     265
Typing and Word Processing     267
Organizing the Paper     267
Title Page     267
Abstract     268
Introduction     268
Method     269
Results      269
Discussion     269
References     270
Appendixes and Author Note     270
Tables and Figures     270
The Use of Headings     271
APA Formatting Checklist     272
Conference Presentations     273
Oral Paper Presentations     273
Poster Presentations     273
Summary     274
Module Exercises     274
Critical Thinking Check Answers     274
Web Resources     275
APA Sample Manuscript     276
Summary and Review     294
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises     296
Statistical Tables     304
References     316
Glossary     318
Index     326
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  • Posted June 3, 2011

    Not Your Father's Methodology Book

    Ms. Jackson gives a good lead in to the art of research methodology. Not too complex, Not too simple...Juuuust right. I learned quite a bit. Makes for a good "refresher", if you're already there.

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