Resistant Starch: Sources, Applications and Health Benefits [NOOK Book]

Overview

The discovery of resistant starch representsone of the major developments in our understanding of the importance of carbohydrates for health in the past twenty years. There has been a steady increase in knowledge of its sources, uses and physiological effects, but more information is neededon the measurement and complex physiological functions of the various types.

Resistant starch is now being incorporated into commercial foods as an ...

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Resistant Starch: Sources, Applications and Health Benefits

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Overview

The discovery of resistant starch representsone of the major developments in our understanding of the importance of carbohydrates for health in the past twenty years. There has been a steady increase in knowledge of its sources, uses and physiological effects, but more information is neededon the measurement and complex physiological functions of the various types.

Resistant starch is now being incorporated into commercial foods as an ingredient to increase dietary fibre intake. Both commercial and natural sources of resistant starch have been linked to an array of health benefits, especially those related to gut health.

Resistant Starch: Sources, Applications and Health Benefits covers the intrinsic and extrinsic sources of resistant starch in foods, and compares different methods of measuring resistant starch, their strengths
and limitations. Applications in different food categories are addressed by recognized academic researchers and industry experts. The book includes descriptions of how resistant starch performs in bakery, dairy, snack, breakfast cereals, pasta, noodles, confectionery, meat, processed food and beverage products. It also looks at the mechanism for improving intestinal health by resistant starch in comparison to prebiotic oligosaccharides and regular dietary fibres. Other chapters cover the impact of resistant starch on blood glucose response, satiety and gut microbiota composition, as well as metabolism in animal models and individual human subjects, and reviews research conducted into the ways in which resistant starch can support the prevention of colon cancer. Resistant Starch: Sources, Applications and Health Benefits is unique in focusing on this versatile and important ingredient, which will be of great use to a wide range of food professionals, including food scientists, product developers and manufacturers.



 



 



The Authors



Yong-Cheng Shi isAssociate
Professor and Director, Carbohydrate Polymers - Technology and Product
Innovation Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University,
USA.



 



Clodualdo C. Maningat is Vice President, Applications Technology
and Technical Services, MGP Ingredients, Inc., USA



 



 



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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118528754
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/6/2013
  • Series: Institute of Food Technologists Series
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 312
  • File size: 4 MB

Meet the Author


Yong-Chen Shi, PhD,  Associate Professor and Director, Carbohydrate Polymers - Technology and Product Innovation Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University
Ody Maningat, PhD, Vice President, R&D and Technical Services, Manildra Group USA. 
 
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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

About the Editors xix

List of Contributors xxi

Acknowledgements xxv

1 Starch Biosynthesis in Relation to Resistant Starch 1
Geetika Ahuja, Sarita Jaiswal and Ravindra N. Chibbar

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Starch components 1

1.1.2 Resistant starch 2

1.2 Factors Affecting Starch Digestibility 3

1.3 Starch Biosynthesis 4

1.4 Starch Biosynthesis in Relation to RS 6

1.4.1 ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) 6

1.4.2 Starch synthases (SS) 6

1.4.3 Starch branching enzymes (SBE) 11

1.4.4 Starch debranching enzymes (DBE) 13

1.5 Concluding Remarks 13

Acknowledgements 15

References 15

2 Type 2 Resistant Starch in High-Amylose Maize Starch and its Development 23
Hongxin Jiang and Jay-lin Jane

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 RS Formation in High-Amylose Maize Starch 28

2.3 RS Formation During Kernel Development 29

2.4 Elongated Starch Granules of High-Amylose Maize Starch 31

2.4.1 Structures of elongated starch granules 31

2.4.2 Formation of elongated starch granules 33

2.4.3 Location of RS in the starch granule 35

2.5 Roles of High-Amylose Modifier (HAM) Gene in Maize ae-Mutant 36

2.6 Conclusions 37

References 38

3 RS4-Type Resistant Starch: Chemistry, Functionality and Health Benefits 43
Clodualdo C. Maningat and Paul A. Seib

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Historical Account of Starch Indigestibility 44

3.3 Starch Modification Yielding Increased Resistance to Enzyme Digestibility 47

3.3.1 Cross-linked RS4 starches 50

3.3.2 Substituted RS4 starches 54

3.3.3 Pyrodextrinized RS4 Starches 56

3.4 Physicochemical Properties Affecting Functionality 57

3.5 Physiological Responses and Health Benefits 60

3.6 Performance in Food and Beverage Products 65

3.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 68

References 68

4 Novel Applications of Amylose-Lipid Complex as Resistant Starch Type 5 79
Jovin Hasjim, Yongfeng Ai and Jay-lin Jane

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Enzyme Digestibility of Amylose-Lipid Complex 80

4.2.1 Effects of lipid structure on the enzyme resistance of amylose-lipid complex 81

4.2.2 Effects of the crystalline structure on the enzyme resistance of amylose-lipid complex 82

4.2.3 Effects of amylose-lipid complex on the enzyme resistance of granular starch 82

4.3 Production of Resistant Granular Starch Through Starch-Lipid Complex Formation 83

4.3.1 Effects of fatty-acid structure on the RS content 83

4.3.2 Effects of debranching on the RS content 85

4.4 Applications of the RS Type 5 86

4.5 Health Benefits of RS Type 5 87

4.5.1 Glycemic and insulinemic control 87

4.5.2 Colon cancer prevention 89

4.6 Conclusion 91

References 92

5 Digestion Resistant Carbohydrates 95
Annette Evans

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Starch Digestion 95

5.3 Physical Structures of Starch 97

5.3.1 Starch helices 98

5.3.2 Crystalline structures 99

5.3.3 Starch granule structure 99

5.4 Resistant Starch due to Physical Structure 100

5.5 Molecular Structure of Starch 102

5.6 Enzyme Resistance due to Molecular Structure 103

5.7 Conclusion 106

References 106

6 Slowly Digestible Starch and Health Benefits 111
Genyi Zhang and Bruce R. Hamaker

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 SDS and Potential Beneficial Health Effects 112

6.2.1 Potential health benefit of SDS relative to RDS 113

6.3 The Process of Starch Digestion 115

6.3.1 Enzyme action 115

6.4 Structural and Physiological Fundamentals of SDS 116

6.4.1 Physical or food matrix structures related to SDS 117

6.4.2 Starch chemical structures leading to SDS 118

6.4.3 Other food factors that decrease digestion rate 120

6.4.4 Physiological control of food motility 121

6.5 Application-Oriented Strategies to Make SDS 121

6.5.1 Starch-based ingredients 121

6.5.2 SDS generation in a food matrix 122

6.6 Considerations 123

References 123

7 Measurement of Resistant Starch and Incorporation of Resistant Starch into Dietary Fibre Measurements 131
Barry V. McCleary

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Development of AOAC Official Method 2002.02 133

7.3 Development of an Integrated Procedure for the Measurement of Total Dietary Fibre 136

References 142

8 In Vitro Enzymatic Testing Method and Digestion Mechanism of Cross-linked Wheat Starch 145
Radhiah Shukri, Paul A. Seib, Clodualdo C. Maningat, and Yong-Cheng Shi

8.1 Introduction 145

8.2 Materials and Methods 148

8.2.1 Materials 148

8.2.2 General methods 148

8.2.3 Conversion of CL wheat starch to phosphodextrins and 31PNMR spectra of the phosphodextrins 148

8.2.4 Digestibility of CL wheat starch 149

8.2.5 Thermal properties 150

8.2.6 Microscopic observation 150

8.2.7 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) 150

8.2.8 Statistical analysis 150

8.3 Results and Discussion 151

8.3.1 Effects of a-amylase/amyloglucosidase digestion on P content and chemical forms of the phosphate esters on starch 151

8.3.2 Thermal properties 152

8.3.3 Starch granular morphology before and after enzyme digestion 153

8.3.4 Digestibility 160

8.4 Conclusions 162

8.5 Acknowledgements 163

8.6 Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 163

References 163

9 Biscuit Baking and Extruded Snack Applications of Type III Resistant Starch 167
Lynn Haynes, Jeanny Zimeri and Vijay Arora

9.1 Introduction 167

9.2 Thermal Characteristics of Heat-Shear Stable Resistant Starch Type III Ingredient 168

9.3 Application to Biscuit Baking: Cookies 172

9.4 Cracker Baking 175

9.5 Extruded Cereal Application 178

9.5.1 Preparation of extruded RTE cereal and analysis 179

References 189

10 Role of Carbohydrates in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes 191
Thomas M.S. Wolever

10.1 Introduction 191

10.2 Background 191

10.2.1 Definition of diabetes 191

10.2.2 Types of diabetes 192

10.2.3 Complications of diabetes 192

10.2.4 Prevalence of diabetes 192

10.2.5 Risk factors for type 2 diabetes 193

10.3 Carbohydrates and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes 193

10.3.1 Markers of carbohydrate quality 193

10.4 Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes 195

10.5 Effect of Altering Source or Amount of Dietary Carbohydrate on Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Secretion and Disposition Index 197

10.6 Mechanisms by Which Low-GI Foods Improve Beta-Cell Function 199

10.6.1 Glucose toxicity 199

10.6.2 Reduced serum free fatty acids (FFA) 200

10.6.3 Increased GLP-1 secretion 201

10.7 Conclusions 202

References 202

11 Resistant Starch on Glycemia and Satiety in Humans 207
Mark D. Haub

11.1 Introduction 207

11.2 Diet and Resistant Starch 208

11.3 Resistant Starch and Insulin Sensitivity 209

11.4 Current Theoretical Mechanism 209

11.5 Satiety 211

11.6 Fermentation and Gut Microbiota 212

11.7 Effect of RS Type 212

11.8 Summary 213

References 213

12 The Acute Effects of Resistant Starch on Appetite and Satiety 215
Caroline L. Bodinham and M. Denise Robertson

12.1 Appetite Regulation 215

12.2 Measurement of Appetite in Humans 216

12.3 Proposed Mechanisms for an Effect of Resistant Starch on Appetite 217

12.4 Rodent Data 218

12.5 Human Data 221

References 225

13 Metabolic Effects of Resistant Starch 229
Martine Champ

13.1 Fermentation of RS and Its Impact on Colonic Metabolism 230

13.2 Resistant Starch, Glycemia, Insulinaemia and Glucose Tolerance 235

13.3 RS Consumption and Lipid Metabolism 236

13.4 RS Consumption, GIP, GLP-1 and PYY Secretion 238

13.5 RS Consumption, Satiety and Satiation and Fat Deposition 239

13.6 Conclusion 242

References 244

14 The Microbiology of Resistant Starch Fermentation in the Human Large Intestine: A Host of Unanswered Questions 251
Harry J. Flint

14.1 Introduction 251

14.2 Identifying the Major Degraders of Resistant Starch in the Human GI Tract 252

14.2.1 The human colonic microbiota 252

14.2.2 Cultural studies 252

14.2.3 16S rRNA-based studies 253

14.3 Systems for Starch Utilization in Gut Bacteria 254

14.3.1 Bacteroides spp. 255

14.3.2 Bifidobacterium spp. 255

14.3.3 Lachnospiraceae - Roseburia spp., Eubacterium rectale and relatives 256

14.3.4 Ruminococcaceae 256

14.4 Metagenomics 256

14.5 Factors Influencing Competition for Starch as a Growth Substrate 257

14.6 Metabolite Cross-Feeding 258

14.7 Impact of Dietary Resistant Starch upon Colonic Bacteria and Bacterial Metabolites in Humans 259

14.8 Conclusions and Future Prospects 260

Acknowledgements 262

References 262

15 Colon Health and Resistant Starch: Human Studies and Animal Models 267
Suzanne Hendrich, Diane F. Birt, Li Li and Yinsheng Zhao

15.1 RS Classification 267

15.2 RS and Colon Health: Overview 267

15.3 RS, Gut Microbes and Microbial Fermentation 268

15.3.1 RS and laxation 269

15.3.2 RS, IBS and diverticulosis 270

15.3.3 RS and IBD 270

15.3.4 RS and colon cancer risk – human studies 271

15.4 Colon Cancer Prevention – Animal Models 272

15.5 Conclusions 275

References 275

Index 279

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