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Features new to the fifth edition include:
|Pt. I||Orientation to Elementary School Teaching and Learning||1|
|Ch. 1||What Do I Need to Know About Today's Elementary Schools?||3|
|Ch. 2||What Do I Need to Know About Elementary School Children: The Nature of the Challenge?||31|
|Ch. 3||What Are the Expectations, Responsibilities, and Facilitating Behaviors of a Classroom Teacher?||59|
|Ch. 4||What Do I Need to Know to Establish and Maintain an Effective, Safe, and Supportive Classroom Learning Environment?||91|
|Pt. II||Planning for Instruction||137|
|Ch. 5||Why Should I Plan and How Is Curriculum Content Selected?||139|
|Ch. 6||How Do I Prepare an Instructional Plan and Daily Lessons?||187|
|Pt. III||Strategies, Aids, Media, and Resources for Effective Instruction||237|
|Ch. 7||What Do I Need to Know to Effectively Use Questioning as an Instructional Tool?||239|
|Ch. 8||What Guidelines Are Available for My Use of Grouping and Assignments to Promote Positive Interaction and Quality Learning?||267|
|Ch. 9||What Guidelines Are Available for My Use of Teacher Talk, Demonstrations, Thinking, Inquiry, and Games?||298|
|Ch. 10||What Guidelines Are Available for My Use of Aids and Media Resources?||324|
|Pt. IV||Assessment and Professional Development||351|
|Ch. 11||How Do I Assess and Report Student Achievement?||353|
|Ch. 12||How Can I Assess My Teaching Effectiveness and Continue My Professional Development?||396|
|Index of Children's Books, Authors, and Illustrators||435|
Because of all the activity in education today, the research and preparation for this fifth edition was unusually demanding. Major changes for this fifth edition are described below:
Other changes made for this edition are mentioned in the paragraphs that follow.
In the preparation of this book, we saw our task not as making the teaching job easier for you—effective teaching is never easy—but as improving your teaching effectiveness and providing relevant guidelines and current resources. You may choose from these resources and build upon what works best for you. Nobody can tell you what will work with your students; you will know them best. We do share what we believe to be the best of practice, the most useful of recent research findings, and the richest of experiences. The highlighted statements present our beliefs and explain how they are embraced in this resource guide.
The best learning occurs when the learner actively participates in the process, which includes having ownership in both the process and the product of the learning. Consequently, this resource guide is designed to engage you in "hands-on" and "minds-on" learning about effective teaching. For example, rather than simply finding a chapter devoted to an exposition of the important topic of cooperative learning, in each chapter you will become involved in cooperative and collaborative learning. In essence, via the exercises found in every chapter, you will practice cooperative learning, talk about it, practice it some more, and finally, through the process of doing it, learn a great deal about it. This resource guide involves you in it.
The best strategies for learning about teaching are those that model the strategies used in exemplary teaching of children. As you will learn, integrated learning is the cornerstone of effective teaching for the 21st century, and that is a premise upon which this resource guide continues to be designed.
To be most effective, any teacher, regardless of grade level and subject, must use an eclectic style in teaching. Rather than focusing your attention on particular models of teaching, we emphasize the importance of an eclectic model—that is, one in which you select and integrate the best from various instructional approaches. For example, there are times when you will want to use a direct, expository approach, perhaps by lecturing; there are many more times when you will want to use an indirect, social-interactive, or student-centered approach, perhaps through project-based learning. This resource guide provides guidelines that will help you both decide which approach to use at a particular time and develop your skill in using specific approaches.
Learning should be active, pleasant, fun, meaningful, and productive. Our desire is, as it always has been, to present this book in an enthusiastic, positive, and cognitive-humanistic way, in part by providing rich experiences in cooperative and collaborative learning. How this is done is perhaps best exemplified by the active learning exercises found throughout the book. Some exercises have been rewritten, ones that were worn and dated have been deleted, others have been moved to the Companion Website, and some new ones have been added to ensure that you become an active participant in learning the methods and procedures that are most appropriate in facilitating the learning of the active, responsive children present in today's elementary schools.
Teaching skills can be learned. In medicine, certain knowledge and skills must be learned and developed before the student physician is licensed to practice with patients. In law, certain knowledge and skills must be learned and developed before the law student is licensed to practice in a courtroom. So it is in teacher preparation: Knowledge and skills must be learned and developed before the teacher candidate is licensed to practice the art and science of teaching children. We would never consider allowing just any person to treat our child's illness or to defend us in a legal case; the professional education of teachers is no less important! Receiving professional education in how to teach children is absolutely necessary, and certain aspects of that education must precede any interaction with children if teachers are to become truly accomplished professionals.
Competent elementary school teaching is a kaleidoscopic, multifaceted, eclectic process. When preparing and writing a resource guide for use in teacher preparation, by necessity one must separate that kaleidoscopic process into separate topics, which is not always possible to do in a way that makes the most sense to everyone using the book. We believe that there are developmental components involved in becoming a competent teacher. This book is organized around four developmental components: why, what, how, and how well. Each of the four parts of this resource guide clearly reflects one of these four components. Each part is introduced with the objectives of that part and reflective thoughts relevant to topics addressed in its chapters. The visual map on p. iv illustrates how these four developmental elements are divided.
To better reflect the why component—the reality and challenge of elementary school teaching today—Part I underwent substantial reorganization and updates for this edition. It now includes four rather than three chapters. Chapter 1 presents an important overview of that reality and the challenge of teaching grades elementary school today. Chapter 2 presents a detailed explanation and explicit guidelines for meeting that challenge. In preparing Chapter 2 we considered the developments in cognitive learning theory that enhance and celebrate the differences in students and their styles of learning. Regardless of gender, social or physical abilities, and ethnic or cultural characteristics, all students must have equal opportunity to participate and learn in the classroom. This belief is reflected throughout this resource guide. Chapter 3 reflects the expectations, responsibilities, and classroom behaviors that are characteristic of competent elementary school teachers. Whereas Chapter 2 is about children, Chapter 3 is about teachers and Chapter 4, is about the learning environment, specifically the classroom. Because a teacher must have the students' attention to effectively implement any instructional plan, guidelines for establishing and maintaining a supportive environment for learning are presented in Chapter 4.
Effective teaching is performance-based and criterion-referenced. This resource guide continues to be constructed in this manner. Because we also believe that teaching, indeed living, must allow for serendipity, encourage the intuitive, and foster the most creative aspects of one's thinking, we cannot always be specific about what students will learn as a result of our instruction, and hence the occasional ambiguity must be expected. To reflect the planning, or what, component, Part II includes two chapters.
Chapter 5, on the rationale for planning and selecting the content of the curriculum, contains information about standards that have been developed for subject areas of the elementary school curriculum. The section on preparing and using instructional objectives emphasizes the relationship of objectives to planning and assessment.
Chapter 6 presents instructional planning as a three-level and seven-step process, and introduces the topics of unit planning and lesson planning. Also, to bridge the primary topic of this chapter with the strategies introduced in Part II, Chapter 6 provides the theoretical considerations for the selection of instructional strategies.
Although it is very difficult to predict what the children of today will really need to know to be productive citizens in the middle of this century, we do believe they will always need to know how to learn, how to read, how to communicate effectively, and how to think productively. We believe that young people need skills in how to gain knowledge and how to process information, and they need learning experiences that foster effective communication and productive, cooperative behaviors. We hope all children will feel good about themselves, about others, and about their teachers, schools, and communities. This resource guide continues to emphasize the importance of helping students to develop these skills, feelings, and attitudes.
The appropriate teaching methods for reaching these goals are those that incorporate thoughtful planning, acceptance of the uniqueness of each individual, honesty, trust, sharing, risking, collaboration, communication, and cooperation. Furthermore, we believe children best learn these skills and values from teachers who model the same. This resource guide continues to be faithful to that hope and to that end.
For this edition, the how component, Part III, has been reduced from six to four chapters. Chapter 7 is about the use of questioning, with enhanced emphasis on the encouragement and use of children's questions. The resource guide contains three micro peer teaching exercises; the first of these is in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 emphasizes various ways of grouping children for instruction, using assignments, ensuring equity in the classroom, using project-centered teaching, and writing across the curriculum. For this edition, several sections in this chapter were enhanced, including but not limited to those of cooperative learning, equality in the classroom, and learning from assignments and homework.
Chapter 9 provides guidelines and resources for the use of teacher talk, demonstrations, teaching of thinking, use of inquiry, and educational games. Also in Chapter 9 is the second micro peer teaching exercise.
Chapter 10 reflects the practical use of instructional aids, media, and resources, including current information about the placement and use of computers in schools, the online classroom, and technological resources.
Part IV focuses your attention on the fourth component of competent teaching—how well the students and teacher are doing.
Chapter 11 is about assessing what students know or think they know before, during, and after the instruction. In addition to the use of portfolios, scoring rubrics, checklists, performance assessment, and student self-assessment, the chapter provides practical guidelines for parent-teacher collaboration and for marking and grading.
Chapter 12, traditionally considered an important chapter by student users, emphasizes how well the teacher is doing—the assessment of teaching effectiveness and guidelines for ongoing professional development. It also contains the third and most sophisticated of the three micro peer teaching exercises, which, in essence, is a performance assessment-type final examination for the course or program for which this book is being used. Also in Chapter 12 are other items that have been popular with student users, such as emergency teaching kits (a new one for this fifth edition) and guidelines for student teaching, finding a teaching position, and continued professional development.
To achieve professional competency, you need guided learning, guided practice, productive feedback, encouragement, and positive reinforcement. To reach this goal, this resource guide is organized as follows.
The following ancillaries are available to instructors who adopt this text. To request any of the following ancillaries, contact your Prentice Hall representative or visit our website at http://www.merrilleducation.com. (If you do not know how to contact your local sales representative, please call faculty services at 1-800-526-0485 for assistance.)
We would never have been able to complete this edition had it not been for the valued help of numerous people—former and current students and teachers in our classes who have shared their experiences with us; administrators and colleagues who have debated with us about important issues in education; and authors and publishers who have graciously granted permission to reprint materials. To each we offer our warmest thanks.
Although we take full responsibility for any errors or omissions in this resource guide, we are deeply appreciative to others for their cogent reviews and important contributions in the development of this edition. We express our special appreciation to the following individuals: Linda Current, California State University at Sacramento; Robert W Burke, Ball State University; Margaret M. Ferrara, Central Connecticut State University; Gas R. Johnson, Northern Arizona University; Josefina R. Saavedra, University of South Florida; and Elizabeth A. Simons, George Mason University.
In addition, we want to express our deepest admiration and appreciation to the highly competent professionals at Merrill/Prentice Hall, with whom we proudly have shared a professional relationship for many years. We especially thank Debbie Stollenwerk for her confidence in our ability, her positive attitude, and her healthy sense of humor which she willingly shares with us when we need it the most.
We are indeed indebted and grateful to all the people in our lives, now and in the past, who have interacted with us and reinforced what we have known since the days we began our careers as teachers: Teaching is the most rewarding profession of all.