Resources and Population: Natural, Institutional, and Demographic Dimensions of Development / Edition 1

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Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the world's population has increased threefold. The "demographic revolution" has not only changed the size of the population; it is radically transforming its age structure and its spatial distribution, with attendant problems and contradictions. Despite measurable advances in human welfare, such as increased longevity, more than one billion people—about a third of the total Third World population—live in poverty. Sharply diverging rates of population growth have been accompanied by increasing disparities in income and quality of life across nations.

These papers examine the relationship between physical and human resources and population within this context of mass poverty, historically unprecedented population growth, and environmental deterioration. Attention focussed on those resources most critical for human well-being, including soil, water, and energy, on the one hand, and education, social organization and economic management, on the other. The discussion is framed by a broad supervision into six parts, examining demographic history and global population prospects; the relationships between population and physical, biological, and human resources; human health; and human settlements. Introductory statements, including an address by Pope John Paul II, and concluding remarks draw out the common threads and point the way towards future action and research.

This book originated in a study week organized by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences to bring the best available scientific evidence to bear on this complex and still inadequately explored topic. The study week brought together experts in demography and from the physical, biological, political, economic, anthropological, religious, cultural, and health sciences, to investigate past experience and observed trends. Through this multidisciplinary analysis, a reference base was assembled that is factual, amply documented, and as scientifically indisputable as possible.

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Product Details

Table of Contents

Address of His Holiness Pope John Paul II
List of Contributors
I History and Prospects
1 Introduction 3
2 A Historical Perspective on Population and Resources 6
3 World Population Growth: Trends and Prospects, 1960-2020 25
II Population and Physical Resources
4 Introduction 51
5 Energy Resources and Population 53
6 Materials and Mineral Resources 64
7 Approaching the Ultimate Constraint: Water Shortage in the Third World 71
III Population and Biological Resources
8 Introduction 85
9 Population and Agricultural Resources in the Developing Countries 88
10 Nutritional Constraints on Human Resources 97
IV Population and Human Resources and Institutions
11 The Impact of Technological Changes on Resources for Growing Populations 113
12 The Evolution of Economic Organization in Contemporary Societies 126
13 Growth and Productive Structure: A Medium-Term Perspective 137
14 Population Change: The Status and Roles of Women 157
15 Population Change, Social Security, and the Family in Sub-Saharan Africa 181
V Human Health and Potential
16 Introduction 195
17 Strategies to Maximize Health and Functioning and Increase Life Expectancy 200
18 The State of Children's Health in the Developing World 224
19 Malnutrition and Human Development 233
VI Space and Settlement
20 Introduction 251
21 The Impact of Population Change on Environment: An Overview 254
22 Internal Migration and Urbanization 269
23 International Population Movements: Imbalances and Integration 286
VII Summations and Recommendations of Participants in the Study Week on Resources and Population
Report of Group 1: Population Problems 305
Report of Group 2: Health Issues 310
Report of Group 3: Resources 316
Report of Group 4: Economic Issues 320
Index of Names 325
Index of Subjects 329
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