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This book examines the quantitative role of respiration in the growth and productivity of major field crops, an issue of profound significance for theoretical and applied plant sciences. The biochemistry and physiology of crop plants are coupled to a functional model that considers respiration in terms of growth and maintenance components. Using this model as a framework for evaluating existing data, the author discusses the efficiency of crop respiration and the gains in productivity that may be made by ...
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This book examines the quantitative role of respiration in the growth and productivity of major field crops, an issue of profound significance for theoretical and applied plant sciences. The biochemistry and physiology of crop plants are coupled to a functional model that considers respiration in terms of growth and maintenance components. Using this model as a framework for evaluating existing data, the author discusses the efficiency of crop respiration and the gains in productivity that may be made by manipulating respiration rate through breeding or management. The book also critically evaluates competing theories in areas of research still lacking data and provides an up-to-date summary of the literature on the subject. Readers will gain firm awareness of the important part respiration plays in the growth and carbon economy of crops, as well as of plants in general.
1 Introduction.- 2 A Functional Model of Respiration.- Two-Component Model.- Compartmental Model.- Extensions of the Two-Component Model.- Translocation Costs.- Implications of the Functional Model.- 3 Biochemistry of Respiration.- Cytosolic Hexose Phosphate Pool.- Glycolysis.- Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway.- Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle.- Mihondrial Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation.- Alternative Pathway.- Residual Respiration.- Futile Cycles.- Energetic Yield of Respiration.- Respiratory Quotient.- Quantitative Biochemistry.- 4 Physiology of Respiration.- Temperature.- Q10 of Respiration.- Tissue Nitrogen (Protein) Content.- Respiratory Substrate Levels.- Photosynthesis and Light Environment.- Root Respiration.- Growth Rate and Developmental Stage.- Germinating Seeds.- Leaves.- Roots, Stems, and Whole Plants.- Fruiting Bodies.- Effects of Light on Respiration in Photosynthetic Tissue.- Engagement of the Alternative Pathway.- Translocation and Respiration.- Nitrogen Assimilation.- Diurnal Patterns of Respiration.- Carbon Dioxide Concentration.- 5 Crop Growth and Maintenance Respiration.- Methods of Estimating Growth and Maintenance Respiration.- Regression Method.- Starvation Method.- Mature Tissue Method.- Theoretical Method.- Experimental Estimates of Growth and Maintenance Respiration.- Temperature.- Protein Content.- Growth Rate.- Ontogeny.- Comparison of the Experimental Methods.- Relative Importance of Growth and Maintenance Respiration.- Growth and Maintenance Respiration by Harvested Organs.- Comparison of the Two-Component and Compartmental Models.- Differences Between Shoots and Roots.- Respiration for Ion Uptake and Nitrogen Assimilation.- Application to Crop Growth Models.- Existing Models.- 6 Crop Respiration and Growth Efficiency.- Crop Respiration.- Root and Soil Respiration.- Crop Canopy Respiration.- Crop Respiration and Leaf Area Index.- Crop Growth Efficiency.- Measuring Growth Efficiency.- Estimates of Growth Efficiency.- Case Studies: Seed Crops.- Barley.- Maize.- Pea.- Rice.- Soybean.- Wheat.- Case Studies: Nonseed Crops.- Alfalfa (Lucerne).- Cotton.- Potato.- Ryegrass.- 7 Stress and Respiration.- General Principles.- Water Stress.- Salinity.- Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide.- Pests.- Disease.- Insects.- Nematodes.- Summary of Stress Effects on Respiration.- 8 Respiration and Yield.- Slow Respiration and Increased Productivity.- Maintenance Respiration.- Alternative Pathway Activity.- Rapid Respiration and Increased Productivity.- Methods of Improving Respiratory Efficiency.- 9 Summary.- Two-Component Model.- Biochemistry and Physiology.- Stress.- Implications for Improving Productivity.- Conclusions.- Appendix A Physical Constants and Variables.- Appendix B Expression of Respiration and Growth Rates.- Conversion of Growth and Maintenance Coefficients.- Appendix C List of Species.- Appendix D List of Enzymes.- References.