Reflecting the recent, extensive changes in special and general education, this new edition examines a range of timely topics as it explains the evolution of inclusive education over the past five years. You'll learn about curriculum, instruction, and assessment in inclusive classrooms strategies for collaborative teaming and co-teaching ways to empower and motivate students a framework for understanding and facilitating systems change Chapter-length case studies show you how a variety of districts have made inclusion work. Special "reflection" chapters provide firsthand accounts of how inclusive education affects different members of the learning community. Throughout, the editors' perceptive writing clarifies the integral roles of students, faculty, and families in creating and maintaining inclusive schools and classrooms.
Jacqueline S. Thousand has been a teacher educator since 1981 and has more than 20 years of experience in training teachers and providing technical assistance to schools to create inclusive educational experiences for children from preschool through high school. At the University of Vermont, she coordinated an early childhood special education teacher preparation program and one of the first Inclusion Facilitator graduate programs (1986-1996) in the United States. As the coordinator of the Vermont Homecoming Project in the early 1980s, she was a pioneer in developing instruction and curriculum modification strategies for including students with moderate and severe disabilities that came to be the staples of inclusive practice in the 1990s. With her move in 1996 to California State University San Marcos, she coordinates a teacher credential program that endorses graduates as general and special educators, thus enabling them to advocate for and support students with disabilities as either classroom teachers or special educators. In addition to directing the college's special education credential and master's programs, she continues her commitment to community development by working with leadership and staff of local schools to restructure special day class programs and move the teachers and students in these classes into the mainstream. She also works closely with families to make inclusive education communities a reality. She sits on the editorial boards of a number of professional journals and is past co-editor of Teacher Education and Special Education. She currently serves on the International Board of TASH (formerly The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps), an international advocacy association of people with disabilities, their family members, other advocates, and people who work in the disabilities field. Dr. Thousand has authored numerous books, research articles, and book chapters on practical how-to strategies for meeting the needs of all students in general education; adapting curriculum, instruction, and assessment; collaborative teaming; and creative problem solving.
Richard A. Villa, Ed.D., has worked with thousands of teachers and administrators throughout North America and the rest of the world in developing and implementing instructional support systems for educating all students within general education environments. Dr. Villa has been a classroom teacher, special education coordinator, pupil personnel services director, and director of instructional services. He has authored more than 70 articles and book chapters regarding inclusive education and has co-edited three previous books for teachers, administrators, and parents: Restructuring for Caring and Effective Education: An Administrative Guide to Creating Heterogeneous Schools (Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 1992), Creativity and Collaborative Learning: A Practical Guide to Empowering Students and Teachers (Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 1994), and Creating an Inclusive School Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, (1995). He has presented at numerous national and international conferences and is known for his enthusiastic, humorous style of presenting.
Setting the Context: History of and Rationales for Inclusive Schooling
In the 1980s and 1990s, researchers, policy makers, parents, consumers, and educators discussed changing the predominant pull-out and separate classroom delivery of special education services, using terms such as mainstreaming, integration, regular education initiative (REI), unified systems, heterogeneous schooling, and inclusion. These discussions highlighted some of the perceived requirements for new types of service delivery to be successful, including restructuring, merging general and special education, creating a unified education system, and developing shared responsibility for students (Gartner & Lipsky, 1987; Lipsky & Gartner, 1997; Reynolds, Wang, & Walberg, 1987; Villa, Thousand, Stainback, & Stainback, 1992; Wang, Reynolds, & Walberg, 1987; Will, 1985). This chapter offers a context for inclusive education through a historical perspective and a presentation of multiple rationales that motivate an increasing number of educators, parents, people with disabilities, and policy makers to advocate for the creation of inclusive schooling.
HISTORICAL TREND TOWARD INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
It is generally acknowledged (Lerner, 1987; Stainback, Stainback, & Bunch, 1989) that the discussion of including students with disabilities in general education was prompted in 1985 by then Assistant Secretary of Education Madeleine Will's Wingspread REI speech and by two subsequent 1986 publications (Will, 1986a, 1986b), even though similar ideas had been published previously (e.g., Stainback & Stainback, 1984). Other authors and their publications became associated with the REI because of similarities in expressed concerns regarding segregated delivery of special education services and proposals for the restructuring or the merger of general and special education (e.g., Gartner & Lipsky, 1987; Lilly, 1986; Reynolds et al., 1987; Stainback & Stainback, 1984; Wang et al., 1987).
Will identified four major negative consequences of the organization and delivery of prevailing separate education services to children with special needs:
Eligibility requirements and procedures resulted in many children being denied access to appropriate supports to succeed in the general classroom.
Performance expectations of students in separate programs often were lowered on the part of the students themselves, their teachers, and the students' peers.
The model of identifying and serving students with learning difficulties tended to be reactive, addressing problems after they occurred, rather than proactive, attempting to prevent learning difficulties from occurring.
"[A] cooperative, supportive partnership" (Will, 1986a, p. 412) among parents, school officials, and teachers did not exist.
Will identified large numbers of children failing to learn in general education, estimating that 20%–30% of school-age children had difficulty learning in school. Given these numbers, Will called for change and advocated for building-level reform. Specifically, "building level administrators must be empowered to assemble appropriate professional and other resources for delivering effective, coordinated, comprehensive services for all students based on educational need rather than eligibility for special programs" (1986a, p. 413).
Will also called for early identification and intervention, curriculum- based assessment,