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Rethinking Public Key Infrastructures and Digital Certificates: Building in Privacy

Overview

As paper-based communication and transaction mechanisms are replaced by automated ones, traditional forms of security such as photographs and handwritten signatures are becoming outdated. Most security experts believe that digital certificates offer the best technology for safeguarding electronic communications. They are already widely used for authenticating and encrypting email and software, and eventually will be built into any device or piece of software that must be able to communicate securely. There is a ...

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Overview

As paper-based communication and transaction mechanisms are replaced by automated ones, traditional forms of security such as photographs and handwritten signatures are becoming outdated. Most security experts believe that digital certificates offer the best technology for safeguarding electronic communications. They are already widely used for authenticating and encrypting email and software, and eventually will be built into any device or piece of software that must be able to communicate securely. There is a serious problem, however, with this unavoidable trend: unless drastic measures are taken, everyone will be forced to communicate via what will be the most pervasive electronic surveillance tool ever built. There will also be abundant opportunity for misuse of digital certificates by hackers, unscrupulous employees, government agencies, financial institutions, insurance companies, and so on.In this book Stefan Brands proposes cryptographic building blocks for the design of digital certificates that preserve privacy without sacrificing security. Such certificates function in much the same way as cinema tickets or subway tokens: anyone can establish their validity and the data they specify, but no more than that.
Furthermore, different actions by the same person cannot be linked. Certificate holders have control over what information is disclosed, and to whom. Subsets of the proposed cryptographic building blocks can be used in combination, allowing a cookbook approach to the design of public key infrastructures. Potential applications include electronic cash, electronic postage, digital rights management, pseudonyms for online chat rooms, health care information storage, electronic voting,
and even electronic gambling.

The MIT Press

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780262024914
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • Publication date: 8/28/2000
  • Pages: 356
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface
Summary
List of Figures
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Digital certificates and PKIs 1
1.2 Privacy issues 20
1.3 Outlook 32
2 Cryptographic Preliminaries 41
2.1 Notation, terminology, and conventions 41
2.2 One-way functions 49
2.3 Collision-intractable functions 58
2.4 Proofs of knowledge 66
2.5 Digital signatures 77
2.6 Digital certificates 86
3 Showing Protocols with Selective Disclosure 91
3.1 Introduction 91
3.2 How to commit 92
3.3 Formulae with zero or more "AND" connectives 93
3.4 Formulae with one "NOT" connective 108
3.5 Atomic formulae connected by "OR" connectives 119
3.6 Demonstrating arbitrary Boolean formulae 123
3.7 Optimizations and extensions 128
4 Restrictive Blind Issuing Protocols 131
4.1 Restrictive blinding 131
4.2 Practical constructions 134
4.3 Analysis 146
4.4 Parallelization of protocol executions 163
4.5 Other certificate schemes 171
5 Combining Issuing and Showing Protocols 181
5.1 Integration 181
5.2 Privacy improvements for certificate holders 189
5.3 Privacy improvements for certificate verifiers 193
5.4 Limited-show certificates 197
5.5 Security improvements 208
6 Smartcard Integration 219
6.1 Shortcomings of the smartcard-only paradigm 219
6.2 Combining smartcards and software-only devices 224
6.3 Secure smartcard integration 230
6.4 Privacy protection 238
6.5 Other techniques 247
Epilogue: The Broader Perspective 257
References 273
Index 307
Curriculum Vitae 315
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