Retransmission and US Compliance with TRIPS

Retransmission and US Compliance with TRIPS

by Brennan

ISBN-10: 9041189017

ISBN-13: 9789041189011

Pub. Date: 08/27/2003

Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Legal & Regulatory

This book seeks to answer one central question: do the U.S. cable and satellite retransmission statutory licenses comply with the TRIPs minimum standard? As with all legal problems, the resolution of ambiguity provides the challenge and the interest.


This book seeks to answer one central question: do the U.S. cable and satellite retransmission statutory licenses comply with the TRIPs minimum standard? As with all legal problems, the resolution of ambiguity provides the challenge and the interest.

Product Details

Wolters Kluwer Legal & Regulatory
Publication date:
Product dimensions:
6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.88(d)

Table of Contents

2Retransmission as a TRIPS Minimum Standard3
2.2Treaty Interpretation4
2.3The Basics of the Berne Convention7
2.4The First Countenancing of Statutory Licences in Berne8
2.5The Phenomena of Broadcasting and its Relation to Copyright15
2.6The Inception of the Equitable Remuneration Obligation18
2.6.1The official program of the 1928 Rome Conference18
2.6.2Sub-committee on broadcasting, 8 May 192819
2.6.3Sub-committee on broadcasting, 16 May 192820
2.6.4Sub-committee on broadcasting, 19 May 192822
2.6.5Sub-committee on broadcasting, 29 May 192823
2.6.6Special committee for the examination of a compromise, 29 May 192826
2.6.7The final reports27
2.7The Inception of the Retransmission Right29
2.7.1Developments at the 1928 Rome Conference29
2.7.2Preliminary documents to the 1948 Brussels Conference30
2.7.3The debate at the Brussels Conference34
2.7.4Final position at Brussels36
2.7.5The "new public" controversy at Brussels36
2.8The 1967 Stockholm Conference38
2.9WIPO Working Groups and Committees39
2.9.11977 Report39
2.9.21978 Report41
2.9.31980 Report42
2.9.41983 Annotated Principles43
2.10Application of the Berne Retransmission Regime in Europe48
2.10.1Judicial consideration of the Berne retransmission regime under Swiss law48
2.10.2The Coditel decisions51
2.10.3The 1982 colloquium in Amsterdam54
2.10.4The EC legislative response56
2.11The Berne Convention in TRIPS65
2.11.2Drafting history of Berne-in-TRIPS66
2.12Interpretation of Article 11bis within TRIPS71
2.12.1Contextual matters71
2.12.2The Berne-TRIPS relationship and the recognition of rights74
2.12.3The significance of TRIPS article 13 and the treatment of exceptions75
2.13The "Home-style" Decision76
2.13.2Choice of applicable principle80
2.13.3Application of the three-step test to article 11bis(1)(iii)87
2.13.4Comment on applicability of the three-step test to article 11bis rights92
2.14The WIPO Copyright Treaty 199693
3Retransmission, Equitable Remuneration and Economics99
3.2Copyright as a Public Good100
3.3Coase, Copyright and the Private Supply of Public Goods102
3.4Competing Views of Efficiency in Supplying Public Goods106
3.5Exclusion and Copyright108
3.5.1Copyright and ex ante exclusion measures109
3.5.2Copyright and ex post expectations of enforcement111
3.6The Effect of Exclusion upon Business Models117
3.6.1Broadcast business models relying on advertising117
3.6.2Broadcast business models relying on end recipient access payments120
3.7Rational Market Behaviour for Information Goods121
3.7.1Sold "over and over again"122
3.7.2Relinquishment of control122
3.7.3Retention of added industry value for oneself123
3.8Contingent Valuation Methodologies and Retransmission124
3.8.1Valuations in light of the "free-rider" problem associated with public goods124
3.8.2The Bohm experiment126
3.8.3Bohm and retransmission129
3.9Consequences for Understanding Equitable Remuneration131
3.9.1Total value added: notional retransmitter--consumer market132
3.9.2Share of added value: notional copyright owner--retransmitter market133
4Retransmission, Equitable Remuneration and Restitution137
4.2Restitution as a Normative Construct138
4.3Different Restitutionary Awards and Different Values139
4.4Aims and Objectives of the Model142
4.5Proceeds Awards143
4.5.1Proceeds awards generally--England143
4.5.2Proceeds awards generally--Australia146
4.5.3Proceeds awards generally--US146
4.5.4Copyright-specific proceeds awards148
4.6Profit Awards151
4.6.1Profit awards generally--England152
4.6.2Profit awards generally--Australia156
4.6.3Profit awards generally--US157
4.6.4Copyright-specific profit awards162
4.7Fair Market Value Awards172
4.7.2Fair market value awards generally--England174
4.7.3Fair market value awards generally--Australia183
4.7.4Fair market value awards generally--US186
4.7.5Copyright-specific fair market value awards190
4.8Measuring Equitable Remuneration for Retransmission198
4.8.1Proceeds awards198
4.8.2Profit and fair market value awards199
4.8.3Applicable methodology203
5The US Cable Retransmission Royalty Rates209
5.2The Rate Scale and the "April 1976 Agreement"210
5.3Cable and Submission to Copyright Fees211
5.4Retransmission Reform between 1965 and 1975213
5.5April 1976 Agreement: Payment Basis217
5.6April 1976 Agreement: Rate Quantum219
5.7April 1976 Agreement: Rate Basis219
5.7.1Local and national signals220
5.7.2Non-network and syndicated signals221
5.7.3Teleprompter proposal223
5.8The Impact of Early Broadcast Regulation on the Copyright Licence226
5.8.2Syndex rules227
5.8.3Distant signal carriage rules229
5.9Section 111 Royalty Rates as Enacted229
5.9.1Rates applied in respect of distant signals229
5.9.2Treatment of local area retransmission230
5.9.3Concessional treatment of small cable systems232
5.10The Role of the Copyright Royalty Tribunal232
5.11Copyright Royalty Tribunal: Inflation Adjustments233
5.12Copyright Royalty Tribunal: FCC Rule Change Adjustments234
5.12.1The signal carriage rules235
5.12.2The syndex rules238
5.13Gross Receipts, "Basic Service" and Commercial Practices240
5.13.2"Tie-in" arrangements243
5.14.1The 1984 regulations and tiering243
5.14.2The 1984 regulations and tie-ins246
5.15Must-Carry and Retransmission Consent248
5.15.2Retransmission consent252
5.16The 1992 Reform Proposals255
6The US Satellite Retransmission Royalty Rates261
6.1Context of the Satellite Retransmission Statutory Licence261
6.2The Evolution of the Section 119 Licence264
6.2.1Satellite Home Viewer Bill of 1986--H R 5126264
6.2.2Satellite Home Viewer Bill of 1996--H R 5572 and Satellite Home Viewer Copyright Bill of 1997--H R 2848268
6.2.3Section 119 as enacted273
6.31992 Rate Adjustment273
6.3.1The superstation rate274
6.3.2The network rate275
6.41994 "Fair market value" Reform277
6.51997 Rate Adjustment282
6.5.1"Fair market value"283
6.5.2Superstation and network signals286
6.5.3A separate "local area retransmission" rate288
6.5.4Syndicated exclusivity290
6.5.5Final outcome of determination290
6.61999 Reforms291
6.6.2The 27 cent rate and future CARP review292
6.6.3Local area satellite retransmission295
7.1Outline of Chapter305
Part 1
7.2US Accession to Berne in 1989 and its Effect on US Copyright Law306
7.2.1Background to the US joining Berne306
7.2.2Is Berne a self-executing or non-self-executing treaty under US law?307
7.2.3Retransmission and the absence of change to US domestic law311
7.3US Adherence to TRIPS in 1994 and its Effect on US Copyright Law314
Part 2
7.4Retransmission Regimes and US TRIPS Compliance316
7.4.1The TRIPS retransmission regime316
7.4.2Violation and non-violation complaints under TRIPS317
7.4.3Construction of US statutes in light of international obligations319
7.5Section 111--Cable Retransmission of Distant Signals320
7.6Section 111--Cable Retransmission within Local Area322
7.7Section 119--Satellite Retransmission of Distant Signals324
7.8Section 122--Satellite Retransmission within Local Area325
7.8.1Confinement to certain special cases326
7.8.2No conflict with a normal exploitation of the work327
7.8.3No unreasonable prejudice to right holders' legitimate interests328

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