Reversing the Obesogenic Environment

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Overview

Obesity has become a global crisis. Although most would agree that eating better and being more physically active are the answer to the problem, researchers have recently become aware that the problem goes beyond just changing individual behaviors. We can convince people of the benefits of healthful eating and regular physical activity, but what happens when they go home to a neighborhood where fresh vegetables are not available and opportunities for physical activity are hard to find? If the environment doesn’t help support healthy lifestyles, the change will be next to impossible to sustain. In Reversing the Obesogenic Environment, leading researchers Lee, McAlexander, and Banda introduce the concept of the obesogenic environment—an environment that leads people to become obese—and explore ways that changing our environment can encourage healthier choices.

Although most of the current literature focuses on the food supply and dietary habits, Reversing the Obesogenic Environment takes a broader view of the current obesity problem. It looks at all of the elements that combine to create the obesogenic environment:

•The ways that the built environment, access to resources, and active transportation systems can either foster or discourage regular physical activity

•The multiple factors that encourage consumption of calorie-laden, nutritionally inadequate foods that can lead to obesity

•The positive and negative impact of public policy

•The influence of family, culture, socioeconomic status, and other social factors on an individual’s health behaviors as well as access to physical activity opportunities and healthier food options

•The role that media and marketing play in food purchasing decisions

With Reversing the Obesogenic Environment, readers will get a cutting-edge view of this emerging body of research with applications that can be realistically implemented in their communities. The book goes beyond defining the issues that contribute to the obesity epidemic—it offers tools that will help practitioners start to reverse it. Throughout the book, the authors incorporate practical recommendations based on the latest research. Sample programs and policies, checklists, and potential solutions offer readers a starting point for changes in their own communities.

The obesity epidemic is a multifaceted issue influenced by factors ranging from international trade and national policy to individual behaviors. Reversing the problem will take coordinated multilevel efforts. These efforts may take years to come to fruition, but it isn’t too late to take action. Reversing the Obesogenic Environment is the ideal guide to taking the first steps toward change.

Reversing the Obesogenic Environment is part of the Physical Activity Intervention Series (PAIS). This timely series provides educational resources for professionals interested in promoting and implementing physical activity and health promotion programs to a diverse and often-resistant population.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780736078993
  • Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
  • Publication date: 3/2/2011
  • Pages: 248
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Rebecca E. Lee, PhD, is the founding director of the Texas Obesity Research Center at the University of Houston. Lee is also an associate professor in the department of health and human performance at the University of Houston and holds a courtesy appointment at the University of Texas School of Public Health. She is a community health psychologist who has been principal investigator for numerous federally and privately funded research grants. Her studies have focused on interventions for populations of color, specifically interventions that incorporate social cohesion, ameliorate social injustices, and improve the quality of the neighborhood environment.

Lee serves on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Women’s Health, the American Journal of Health Promotion, and Health Psychology. She has served as a charter member of the community-level health promotion study section of the Center for Scientific Review at the National Institutes of Health and a member and former chair of the Mayor’s Wellness Council Public Policy Committee, which works to improve the health of Houstonians.

Dr. Lee is a fellow of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. She is a member of the Obesity Society and the International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. She received the University of Houston College of Education Research Excellence Award in 2005 and 2008, and she has been recognized by the National Institutes of Health as a National Health Disparities Scholar. In 2009, her Saving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA) program was given the Outstanding Achievement for a Community Program Award by the Texas Council on Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke

Kristen M. McAlexander, PhD, is a lecturer in the department of applied physiology and wellness at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. Dr. McAlexander’s research interests include environmental and sociocultural influences of wellness behaviors and obesity, particularly among vulnerable populations such as women and low socioeconomic populations. McAlexander is also president and founder of Reflections Wellness, a local nonprofit organization designed to promote wellness while fighting local poverty and eliminating health disparities. Her research and nonprofit organization focus on understanding and reducing health disparities and improving wellness opportunities among underserved neighborhoods.

McAlexander received a graduate research award and two graduate fellowships from the University of Houston department of health and human performance. McAlexander is an American Council on Exercise (ACE) certified personal trainer and a member of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the Urban Affairs Association.

Jorge A. Banda, MS, is a PhD candidate in the department of exercise science at the University of South Carolina in Columbia and a research assistant at the university’s Prevention Research Center. Banda holds a master’s degree in exercise science from the University of Houston. His research has focused primarily on underserved populations, including low-income-housing residents, African-American and Latina women, and low-income rural communities.

Banda received a Prevention Research Center Minority Health fellowship from the Association of Schools of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Charles Coker Fellowship from the University of South Carolina. He was twice awarded a Norman Arnold School of Public Health fellowship. Banda also attended the Built Environment Assessment Training Institute sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, San Diego State University, and the University of Pennsylvania. He is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Public Health Association.

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Table of Contents

Part I: Public Health and Obesity

Chapter 1: Emergence of the Obesogenic Environment

Historical Emergence of Obesity as a Public Health Concern

The Case for an Obesogenic Environment

Ecologic Models of Health and the Importance of Supportive Environments

Summary

Chapter 2: Scope of Obesity

Obesity Defined

Causes of Obesity

Vulnerable Populations

Health Risks Associated With Overweight and Obesity

Social and Psychological Costs of Obesity

Summary

Chapter 3: Body Composition Measurements

Field Methods

Laboratory Methods

Summary

Part II: Physical Activity and Obesity

Chapter 4: The Built Environment

Components of the Built Environment

Measuring the Built Environment

Limitations of Research on the Built Environment

Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity

Emerging Research and Recommendations

Summary

Chapter 5: Physical Activity Resources

Parks and Open Spaces

Walking Trails and Bikeways

Home Environment

Factors Influencing the Use of Physical Activity Resources

Measuring Physical Activity Resources

Emerging Research and Implications for the Future

Summary

Chapter 6: Active Transportation

Personal Automobile and Obesity

Walkability

Public Transportation

Active Transport to School

Stair Use

Summary

Part III: Food Accessibility

Chapter 7: Food Supply and Security

Nutrition Transition

Food Production

Imports and Exports

Food Storage

Nutritional Disparities, Obesity, and Undernutrition

Food Security

Government intervention

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

Summary

Chapter 8: Food Technology

Genetic Engineering

Trans-Fatty Acids

Factory Farming

Summary

Part IV: Public Policy, Sociocultural Influences, and Obesity

Chapter 9: Policy and Individual Health Choices

Levels of Preventions

Guidelines

Educating Individuals

Regulations at the Point of Purchase

Incentives for Good Behavior

Other Approaches

Summary

Chapter 10: Policy and the Obesogenic Environment

Agriculture

International Trade

Food Industry and Food Environments

Built Environment

Transportation

Schools

Worksites

Summary

Chapter 11: Cultural and Familial Influences

Family Culture Within the Ecologic Model of Obesity

Cultural Influences

Familial Influences

Summary

Chapter 12: Social Justice, Health Disparities, and Obesity

Socioeconomic Status

SES, Social Injustices, Health Behaviors, and Obesity

Weight Discrimination

Resiliency to Social Injustices

Solutions

Summary

Part V: Media and Marketing

Chapter 13: Point of Purchase

Marketing, Advertising, Branding

The Four Ps

Summary

Chapter 14: Influence of Media and Technology

Biological Responses to Food Images

Television Advertising and Children

Internet Advertising

Billboard Advertising

Sports Sponsorships

Media Interventions Strategies

Summary

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