Revolutionary Movements in Latin America: El Salvador's FMLN and Peru's Shining Path / Edition 1

Revolutionary Movements in Latin America: El Salvador's FMLN and Peru's Shining Path / Edition 1

by Cynthia McClintock
     
 

ISBN-10: 1878379763

ISBN-13: 9781878379764

Pub. Date: 06/28/1998

Publisher: United States Institute of Peace Press (USIP Press)

Why were El Salvador's FMLN and Peru's Shining Path able to mount such serious revolutionary challenges in the 1980s and early 1990s? And why were they able to do so despite the fact that their countries' elected governments were widely considered democratic? These two guerrilla groups were very different, but both came close to success. To explain why, the author…  See more details below

Overview

Why were El Salvador's FMLN and Peru's Shining Path able to mount such serious revolutionary challenges in the 1980s and early 1990s? And why were they able to do so despite the fact that their countries' elected governments were widely considered democratic? These two guerrilla groups were very different, but both came close to success. To explain why, the author examines the complex interplay among political and economic factors, the nature of the revolutionary organization, and international actors. McClintock emphasizes that the end of the Cold War does not mean the end of revolutionary groups, and that the United States can play an important role in determining the outcome of future confrontations. The book concludes with practical policy options for the U.S. government as it looks to foster peace and democracy in the western hemisphere.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781878379764
Publisher:
United States Institute of Peace Press (USIP Press)
Publication date:
06/28/1998
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
416
Product dimensions:
5.91(w) x 9.06(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables xi

Foreword Richard H. Solomon xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

Maps

El Salvador 3

Peru 4

Introduction 5

1 Analytical Framework 21

Theories of Revolution 21

Research Design and Methodology 35

Definitions 40

2 Two Revolutionary Organizations: The FMLN and the Shining Path 45

The FMLN 48

The Shining Path 63

The Challenges Mounted by the FMLN and the Shining Path 73

An Assessment 90

3 Political Trends: Military Repression? Electoral Fraud? Or Democracy? 93

The Militaries prior to the Elections of the 1980s 96

Elections, 1980-91: Free from Political Violence and Fair? 108

The Power of the Militaries in the Elected Regimes 129

Democracy and Counterinsurgency 139

An Assessment 154

4 Economic Trends: Intensified Poverty? 157

Dashed Middle-Class Expectations?

National Economic Trends 162

The Peasantry 166

Educated Aspirants to the Middle Class 185

Economic Decline and State Capabilities 189

An Assessment 199

5 U.S. Policy and Latin American Revolutions 201

The United States and Winning Revolutions during the Cold War 205

The U.S. Role in El Salvador 221

The U.S. Role in Peru 236

An Assessment 245

6 Why Did the Revolutionary Movements Emerge and Expand? 249

The Top Guerrilla Leaders: Their Backgrounds and Their Explanations 250

The Rank-and-File Guerrillas: Their Backgrounds and Their Explanations 265

Scholarly Explanations: The Interplay among Politics, Economics, Revolutionary Organization, and International Actors 281

7 Conclusion: U.S. Policy and Paths toward Political Peace in Latin America 299

Appendixes

I Survey Research in Peru, El Salvador, and Ecuador 313

II Data on Political Violence in Peru and El Salvador 321

Notes 325

Bibliography 423

Index 463

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