RF Microelectronics / Edition 1

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Overview

This book is designed to give electrical engineers the RF microelectronics background they need to design state-of-the-art consumer electronics and communications devices. RF Microelectronics begins with a thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of RF design, including nonlinearity, interference and noise. It reviews modulation and detection theory; multiple access techniques, and current wireless standards -- including CDMA, TDMA, AMPS and GSM. It presents case studies of transceiver architectures designed by several leading manufacturers. Finally, it offers detailed explanations of low-noise amplifiers, mixers and oscillators; frequency synthesizers and power amplifiers. For electrical engineers working in the communications fields, especially those involved with wireless technology. Also for graduate students.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Written for those with a basic understanding of analog IC design and the theory of signals and systems, this text covers the analysis and design of radio frequency RF microelectronics. Nine chapters include an introduction to RF and wireless technology; and discussions of basic concepts in design, modulation and detection, multiple access techniques and wireless standards, transceiver architectures, low noise amplifiers and mixers, oscillators, frequency synthesizers, and power amplifiers. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

Meet the Author


Behzad Razavi is Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at University of California, Los Angeles. Before joining UCLA, he specialized in designing RF circuits, phase-locked systems, and data converters at AT&T Bell Laboratories and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories.
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Read an Excerpt

Preface

The annual worldwide sales of cellular phones has exceeded $2.5B. With 4.5 million customers, home satellite networks comprise a $2.5B industry. The global positioning system is expected to become a $5B market by the year 2000. In Europe, the sales of equipment and services for mobile communications will reach $30B by 1998. The statistics are overwhelming.

The radio frequency (RF) and wireless market has suddenly expanded to unimaginable dimensions. Devices such as pagers, cellular and cordless phones, cable modems, and RF identification tags are rapidly penetrating all aspects of our lives, evolving from luxury items to indispensable tools. Semiconductor and system companies, small and large, analog and digital, have seen the statistics and are striving to capture their own market share by introducing various RF products. RF design is unique in that it draws upon many disciplines unrelated to integrated circuits (ICs). The RF knowledge base has grown for almost a century, creating a seemingly endless body of literature for the novice.

This book deals with the analysis and design of RF integrated circuits and systems. Providing a systematic treatment of RF electronics in a tutorial language, the book begins with the necessary background knowledge from microwave and communication theory and leads the reader to the design of RF transceivers and circuits. The text emphasizes both architecture and circuit level issues with respect to monolithic implementation in VLSI technologies.

The primary focus is on bipolar and CMOS design, but most of the concepts can be applied to other technologies as well. The reader is assumed to have a basic understanding of analog IC design and the theory of signals and systems. The book consists of nine chapters.

Chapter 1 gives a general introduction, posing questions and providing motivation for subsequent chapters.

Chapter 2 describes basic concepts in RF and microwave design, emphasizing the effects of nonlinearity and noise.

Chapters 3 and 4 take the reader to the communication system level, giving an overview of modulation, detection, multiple access techniques, and wireless standards. While initially appearing to be unnecessary, this material is in fact essential to the concurrent design of RF circuits and systems.

Chapter 5 deals with transceiver architectures, presenting various receiver and transmitter topologies along with their merits and drawbacks. This chapter also includes a number of case studies that exemplify the approaches taken in actual RF products.

Chapters 6 through 9 address the design of RF building blocks: low-noise amplifiers and mixers, oscillators, frequency synthesizers, and power amplifiers , with particular attention to minimizing the number of off-chip components. An important goal of these chapters is to demonstrate how the system requirements define the parameters of the circuits and how the performance of each circuit impacts that of the overall transceiver.

I have taught approximately 80% of the material in this book in a 4-unit graduate course at UCLA. Chapters 3, 4, 8, and 9 had to be shortened in a ten-week quarter, but in a semester system they can be covered more thoroughly. Much of my RF design knowledge comes from interactions with colleagues.Helen Kim, Ting-Ping Liu, and Dan Avidor of Bell Laboratories, and David Su and Andrew Gzegorek of Hewlett-Packard Laboratories have contributed to the material in this book in many ways. The text was also reviewed by a number of experts: Stefan Heinen (Siemens), Bart Jansen (Hewlett-Packard), Ting-Ping Liu (Bell Labs), John Long (University of Toronto), Tadao Nak-agawa (NTT), Gitty Nasserbakht (Texas Instruments), Ted Rappaport (Virginia Tech), Tirdad Sowlati (Gennum), Trudy Stetzler (Bell Labs), David Su (Hewlett-Packard), and Rick Wesel (UCLA). In addition, a number of UCLA students, including Farbod Behbahani, Hooman Darabi, John Leete, and Jacob Rael, test drove various chapters and provided useful feedback. I am indebted to all of the above for their kind assistance. I would also like to thank the staff at Prentice Hall, particularly Russ Hall, Maureen Diana, and Kerry Reardon for their support.

Behzad RazaviJuly 1997

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology.

Complexity Comparison. Design Bottleneck. Applications. Analog and Digital Systems. Choice of Technology. References.

2. Basic Concepts in RF Design.

Nonlinearity and Time Variance. Intersymbol Interference. Random Processes and Noise. Sensitivity and Dynamic Range. Passive Impedance Transformation. References.

3. Modulation and Detection.

General Considerations. Analog Modulation. Digital Modulation. Power Efficiency of Modulation Schemes. Noncoherent Detection. References.

4. Multiple Access Techniques and Wireless Standards.

Mobile RF Communications. Multiple Access Techniques. Wireless Standards. References.

5. Transceiver Architectures.

General Considerations. Receiver Architectures. Transmitter Architectures. Transceiver Performance Tests. Case Studies. References.

6. Low-Noise Amplifiers and Mixers.

Low-Noise Amplifiers. Down conversion Mixers. Cascaded Stages Revisited. References.

7. Oscillators.

General Considerations. Basic LC Oscillator Topologies. Voltage-Controlled Oscillators. Phase Noise. Bipolar and CMOS LC Oscillators. Monolithic Inductors. Resonatorless VCOs. Quadrature Signal Generation. Single-Sideband Generation. References.

8. Frequency Synthesizers.

General Considerations. Phase-Locked Loops. RF Synthesizer Architectures. Frequency Dividers. References.

9. Power Amplifiers.

General Considerations. Classification of Power Amplifiers. High-Efficiency Power Amplifiers. Large-Signal Impedance Matching. Linearization Techniques. Design Examples.

References.

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Preface

Preface

The annual worldwide sales of cellular phones has exceeded $2.5B. With 4.5 million customers, home satellite networks comprise a $2.5B industry. The global positioning system is expected to become a $5B market by the year 2000. In Europe, the sales of equipment and services for mobile communications will reach $30B by 1998. The statistics are overwhelming.

The radio frequency (RF) and wireless market has suddenly expanded to unimaginable dimensions. Devices such as pagers, cellular and cordless phones, cable modems, and RF identification tags are rapidly penetrating all aspects of our lives, evolving from luxury items to indispensable tools. Semiconductor and system companies, small and large, analog and digital, have seen the statistics and are striving to capture their own market share by introducing various RF products. RF design is unique in that it draws upon many disciplines unrelated to integrated circuits (ICs). The RF knowledge base has grown for almost a century, creating a seemingly endless body of literature for the novice.

This book deals with the analysis and design of RF integrated circuits and systems. Providing a systematic treatment of RF electronics in a tutorial language, the book begins with the necessary background knowledge from microwave and communication theory and leads the reader to the design of RF transceivers and circuits. The text emphasizes both architecture and circuit level issues with respect to monolithic implementation in VLSI technologies.

The primary focus is on bipolar and CMOS design, but most of the concepts can be applied to other technologies as well. The reader is assumed to have a basic understanding of analog IC design and the theory of signals and systems. The book consists of nine chapters.

Chapter 1 gives a general introduction, posing questions and providing motivation for subsequent chapters.

Chapter 2 describes basic concepts in RF and microwave design, emphasizing the effects of nonlinearity and noise.

Chapters 3 and 4 take the reader to the communication system level, giving an overview of modulation, detection, multiple access techniques, and wireless standards. While initially appearing to be unnecessary, this material is in fact essential to the concurrent design of RF circuits and systems.

Chapter 5 deals with transceiver architectures, presenting various receiver and transmitter topologies along with their merits and drawbacks. This chapter also includes a number of case studies that exemplify the approaches taken in actual RF products.

Chapters 6 through 9 address the design of RF building blocks: low-noise amplifiers and mixers, oscillators, frequency synthesizers, and power amplifiers , with particular attention to minimizing the number of off-chip components. An important goal of these chapters is to demonstrate how the system requirements define the parameters of the circuits and how the performance of each circuit impacts that of the overall transceiver.

I have taught approximately 80% of the material in this book in a 4-unit graduate course at UCLA. Chapters 3, 4, 8, and 9 had to be shortened in a ten-week quarter, but in a semester system they can be covered more thoroughly. Much of my RF design knowledge comes from interactions with colleagues.Helen Kim, Ting-Ping Liu, and Dan Avidor of Bell Laboratories, and David Su and Andrew Gzegorek of Hewlett-Packard Laboratories have contributed to the material in this book in many ways. The text was also reviewed by a number of experts: Stefan Heinen (Siemens), Bart Jansen (Hewlett-Packard), Ting-Ping Liu (Bell Labs), John Long (University of Toronto), Tadao Nak-agawa (NTT), Gitty Nasserbakht (Texas Instruments), Ted Rappaport (Virginia Tech), Tirdad Sowlati (Gennum), Trudy Stetzler (Bell Labs), David Su (Hewlett-Packard), and Rick Wesel (UCLA). In addition, a number of UCLA students, including Farbod Behbahani, Hooman Darabi, John Leete, and Jacob Rael, test drove various chapters and provided useful feedback. I am indebted to all of the above for their kind assistance. I would also like to thank the staff at Prentice Hall, particularly Russ Hall, Maureen Diana, and Kerry Reardon for their support.

Behzad RazaviJuly 1997

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 8, 2003

    Well Written

    Covers most of the aspects in recievers designs and gives a good idea about different components used and their functionality and working. Definetly helps in understandanding overall receiver design.

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