RF/Microwave Circuit Design for Wireless Applications / Edition 2

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Overview

With wireless technology rapidly exploding, there is a growing need for circuit design information specific to wireless applications. The second edition of RF/Circuit Design for Wireless Applications is a unique, state-of-the-art guide to wireless integrated circuit design. The authors provide a complete set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for tackling even the newest technologies, such as HBTs, CMOS, BiCMOS, and GaN. It also features updated examples as well as coverage of the design of power amplifiers and new telecommunication standards such as 4G, making this a must-have reference for circuit designers, engineers, researchers, software developers, and graduate students.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Rohde (corporate chairman and microwave and software engineer) provides researchers and engineers with a thorough set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for understanding and working with IC technologies. An introduction to wireless circuit design is followed by chapters covering models for active devices; amplifier design with BJTs and FETs; mixer design; RF/wireless oscillators; and wireless synthesizers. Throughout, the author helps clarify RF theory and tries to reduce it to practical applications in developing RF circuits. Appendices cover HBT high-frequency modeling and integrated parameter extraction and non-linear microwave circuit design using multiharmonic load-pull simulation technique. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From the Publisher
"...recommended for...libraries with collections in electrical and electronic engineering." (E-Streams, Vol. 4, No. 11, November 2001)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470901816
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/26/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 920
  • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Ulrich Rohde, a prolific writer and well-known expert in microwave and software engineering, walks readers through all aspects of wireless circuit design for such applications as radios, mobile and cellular telephones, satellite communications, and pagers.
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Table of Contents

Foreword xiii
Preface xv
1 Introduction to Wireless Circuit Design 1
1-1 Overview 1
1-2 System Functions 3
1-3 The Radio Channel and Modulation Requirements 5
1-3-1 Introduction 5
1-3-2 Channel Impulse Response 7
1-3-3 Doppler Effect 13
1-3-4 Transfer Function 14
1-3-5 Time Response of Channel Impulse Response and Transfer Function 14
1-3-6 Lessons Learned 17
1-3-7 Wireless Signal Example: The TDMA System in GSM 18
1-4 About Bits, Symbols, and Waveforms 29
1-4-1 Introduction 29
1-4-2 Some Fundamentals of Digital Modulation Techniques 38
1-5 Analysis of Wireless Systems 47
1-5-1 Analog and Digital Receiver Designs 47
1-5-2 Transmitters 58
1-6 Building Blocks 81
1-7 System Specifications and Their Relationship to Circuit Design 83
1-7-1 System Noise and Noise Floor 83
1-7-2 System Amplitude and Phase Behavior 88
1-8 Testing 114
1-8-1 Introduction 114
1-8-2 Transmission and Reception Quality 114
1-8-3 Base-Station Simulation 118
1-8-4 GSM 118
1-8-5 DECT 118
1-9 Converting C/N or SNR to E[subscript b]/N[subscript 0] 120
2 Models for Active Devices 123
2-1 Diodes 124
2-1-1 Large-Signal Diode Model 124
2-1-2 Mixer and Detector Diodes 128
2-1-3 PIN Diodes 135
2-1-4 Tuning Diodes 153
2-2 Bipolar Transistors 198
2-2-1 Transistor Structure Types 198
2-2-2 Large-Signal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors 199
2-2-3 Large-Signal Transistors in the Forward-Active Region 209
2-2-4 Effects of Collector Voltage on Large-Signal Characteristics in the Forward-Active Region 225
2-2-5 Saturation and Inverse Active Regions 227
2-2-6 Small-Signal Models of Bipolar Transistors 232
2-3 Field-Effect Transistors 237
2-3-1 Large-Signal Behavior of JFETs 246
2-3-2 Small-Signal Behavior of JFETs 249
2-3-3 Large-Signal Behavior of MOSFETs 254
2-3-4 Small-Signal Model of the MOS Transistor in Saturation 262
2-3-5 Short-Channel Effects in FETs 266
2-3-6 Small-Signal Models of MOSFETs 271
2-3-7 GaAs MESFETs 301
2-3-8 Small-Signal GaAs MESFET Model 310
2-4 Parameter Extraction of Active Devices 322
2-4-1 Introduction 322
2-4-2 Typical SPICE Parameters 322
2-4-3 Noise Modeling 323
2-4-4 Scalable Device Models 333
2-4-5 Conclusions 348
2-4-6 Device Libraries 359
2-4-7 A Novel Approach for Simulation at Low Voltage and Near Pinchoff Voltage 359
2-4-8 Example: Improving the BFR193W Model 370
3 Amplifier Design with BJTs and FETs 375
3-1 Properties of Amplifiers 375
3-1-1 Introduction 375
3-1-2 Gain 380
3-1-3 Noise Figure (NF) 385
3-1-4 Linearity 415
3-1-5 AGC 431
3-1-6 Bias and Power Voltage and Current (Power Consumption) 436
3-2 Amplifier Gain, Stability, and Matching 441
3-2-1 Scattering Parameter Relationships 442
3-2-2 Low-Noise Amplifiers 448
3-2-3 High-Gain Amplifiers 466
3-2-4 Low-Voltage Open-Collector Design 477
3-3 Single-Stage FeedBack Amplifiers 490
3-3-1 Lossless or Noiseless Feedback 495
3-3-2 Broadband Matching 496
3-4 Two-Stage Amplifiers 497
3-5 Amplifiers with Three or More Stages 507
3-5-1 Stability of Multistage Amplifiers 512
3-6 A Novel Approach to Voltage-Controlled Tuned Filters Including CAD Validation 513
3-6-1 Diode Performance 513
3-6-2 A VHF Example 516
3-6-3 An HF/VHF Voltage-Controlled Filter 518
3-6-4 Improving the VHF Filter 521
3-6-5 Conclusion 521
3-7 Differential Amplifiers 522
3-8 Frequency Doublers 526
3-9 Multistage Amplifiers with Automatic Gain Control (AGC) 532
3-10 Biasing 534
3-10-1 RF Biasing 543
3-10-2 dc Biasing 543
3-10-3 dc Biasing of IC-Type Amplifiers 547
3-11 Push-Pull/Parallel Amplifiers 547
3-12 Power Amplifiers 550
3-12-1 Example 1: 7-W Class C BJT Amplifier for 1.6 GHz 550
3-12-2 Impedance Matching Networks Applied to RF Power Transistors 565
3-12-3 Example 2: Low-Noise Amplifier Using Distributed Elements 585
3-12-4 Example 3: 1-W Amplifier Using the CLY15 589
3-12-5 Example 4: 90-W Push-Pull BJT Amplifier at 430 MHz 598
3-12-6 Quasiparallel Transistors for Improved Linearity 600
3-12-7 Distribution Amplifiers 602
3-12-8 Stability Analysis of a Power Amplifier 602
3-13 Power Amplifier Datasheets and Manufacturer-Recommended Applications 611
4 Mixer Design 636
4-1 Introduction 636
4-2 Properties of Mixers 639
4-2-1 Conversion Gain/Loss 639
4-2-2 Noise Figure 641
4-2-3 Linearity 645
4-2-4 LO Drive Level 647
4-2-5 Interport Isolation 647
4-2-6 Port VSWR 647
4-2-7 dc Offset 647
4-2-8 dc Polarity 649
4-2-9 Power Consumption 649
4-3 Diode Mixers 649
4-3-1 Single-Diode Mixer 650
4-3-2 Single-Balanced Mixer 652
4-3-3 Diode-Ring Mixer 659
4-4 Transistor Mixers 678
4-4-1 BJT Gilbert Cell 679
4-4-2 BJT Gilbert Cell with Feedback 682
4-4-3 FET Mixers 684
4-4-4 MOSFET Gilbert Cell 693
4-4-5 GaAsFET Single-Gate Switch 694
5 RF/Wireless Oscillators 716
5-1 Introduction to Frequency Control 716
5-2 Background 716
5-3 Oscillator Design 719
5-3-1 Basics of Oscillators 719
5-4 Oscillator Circuits 735
5-4-1 Hartley 735
5-4-2 Colpitts 735
5-4-3 Clapp-Gouriet 736
5-5 Design of RF Oscillators 736
5-5-1 General Thoughts on Transistor Oscillators 736
5-5-2 Two-Port Microwave/RF Oscillator Design 741
5-5-3 Ceramic-Resonator Oscillators 745
5-5-4 Using a Microstrip Inductor as the Oscillator Resonator 748
5-5-5 Hartley Microstrip Resonator Oscillator 756
5-5-6 Crystal Oscillators 756
5-5-7 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators 758
5-5-8 Diode-Tuned Resonant Circuits 765
5-5-9 Practical Circuits 771
5-6 Noise in Oscillators 778
5-6-1 Linear Approach to the Calculation of Oscillator Phase Noise 778
5-6-2 AM-to-PM Conversion 788
5-6-3 Nonlinear Approach to the Calculation of Oscillator Phase Noise 798
5-7 Oscillators in Practice 813
5-7-1 Oscillator Specifications 813
5-7-2 More Practical Circuits 814
5-8 Design of RF Oscillators Using CAD 825
5-8-1 Harmonic-Balance Simulation 825
5-8-2 Time-Domain Simulation 831
5-9 Phase-Noise Improvements of Integrated RF and Millimeter-Wave Oscillators 831
5-9-1 Introduction 831
5-9-2 Review of Noise Analysis 831
5-9-3 Workarounds 833
5-9-4 Reduction of Flicker Noise 834
5-9-5 Applications to Integrated Oscillators 835
5-9-6 Summary 842
6 Wireless Synthesizers 848
6-1 Introduction 848
6-2 Phase-Locked Loops 848
6-2-1 PLL Basics 848
6-2-2 Phase/Frequency Comparators 851
6-2-3 Filters for Phase Detectors Providing Voltage Output 863
6-2-4 Charge-Pump-Based Phase-Locked Loops 867
6-2-5 How to Do a Practical PLL Design Using CAD 876
6-3 Fractional-N-Division PLL Synthesis 880
6-3-1 The Fractional-N Principle 880
6-3-2 Spur-Suppression Techniques 882
6-4 Direct Digital Synthesis 889
Appendixes
A HBT High-Frequency Modeling and Integrated Parameter Extraction 900
A-1 Introduction 900
A-2 High-Frequency HBT Modeling 901
A-2-1 dc and Small-Signal Model 902
A-2-2 Linearized T Model 904
A-2-3 Linearized Hybrid-[pi] Model 906
A-3 Integrated Parameter Extraction 907
A-3-1 Formulation of Integrated Parameter Extraction 908
A-3-2 Model Optimization 908
A-4 Noise Model Validation 909
A-5 Parameter Extraction of an HBT Model 913
A-6 Conclusions 921
B Nonlinear Microwave Circuit Design Using Multiharmonic Load-Pull Simulation Technique 923
B-1 Introduction 923
B-2 Multiharmonic Load-Pull Simulation Using Harmonic Balance 924
B-2-1 Formulation of Multiharmonic Load-Pull Simulation 924
B-2-2 Systematic Design Procedure 925
B-3 Application of Multiharmonic Load-Pull Simulation 927
B-3-1 Narrowband Power Amplifier Design 927
B-3-2 Frequency Doubler Design 933
B-4 Conclusions 937
B-5 Note on the Practicality of Load-Pull-Based Design 937
Index 939
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