RFID Design Principles

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This practical resource serves as a comprehensive introduction to RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), offering a detailed understanding of design essentials and applications and providing a thorough overview of management issues. This book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military applications, and numerous other applications. It explains the design of RFID circuits, antennas, interfaces, data encoding schemes, and complete systems. Offering a broad and detailed view of the subject, this cutting-edge volume presents: A Comparison of Short-Range Communications Systems; Automatic Identification Systems; RFID Standards Development Challenges; Components of the RFID System; RFID Applications; RFID System Design Considerations; Sociocultural Implications.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781596931947
  • Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 1/28/2008
  • Series: Artech House Microwave Library
  • Pages: 293
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 9.28 (h) x 0.85 (d)

Meet the Author

Harvey Lehpamer has been planning, designing, and deploying wireless and wireline networks throughout the world for more than 20 years. He has also been involved in electronic circuit design, testing, and manufacturing. A teacher and seminar leader, he is the author of several books, including Transmission Systems Design Handbook for Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002). He holds an M.S. in radio communications and professional electronics from the University of Zagreb, in Croatia.

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Table of Contents

Introduction     1
Comparison of Short-Range Communications Systems     3
Radio-Frequency Spectrum and Propagation     3
Radio-Frequency Propagation and Interference     3
Basic Antenna Parameters     7
Theory of Electromagnetism and Maxwell's Equations     14
Range of a Radio Communications System     16
Overview of Short-Range Communications Systems     18
Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum Systems     20
Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems     20
Wireless LANs     21
Basics of WLANs     21
WLAN Components     22
Wireless Personal Area Network     23
Bluetooth     24
ZigBee     27
Wireless Body Area Networks     28
About WBANs     28
Inductive Coupling Theory     30
Medical Implant Communication Service and Wireless Medical Telemetry Service Bands     36
Wireless Body Implant Networks     40
Passive Wearable Electrostatic Tags     41
Ultrawideband (UWB) Technology     42
About UWB     42
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing     46
Review Questions and Problems     47
References     49
Automatic Identification Systems     51
Barcodes     51
Card Technologies     52
Magnetic Cards     52
Smart Cards     53
Optical Cards     54
Radio-Frequency Identification     54
RFID Historical Background     54
RFID System Overview     55
Principles of RFID Operation     59
The Electronic Product Code System     65
UWB and RFID     67
RFID and Biometrics     67
Challenges of RFID Implementation     69
Wireless Sensor Networks     72
About Wireless Sensor Networks     72
Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks     73
Sensor Network Design Considerations     75
The Future of RFID Sensing     78
RFID Applications     79
Supply Chain Logistics     80
Product Authentication     81
Agriculture and Animals     83
Intelligent Transportation Systems     84
Document Management     86
Pharmaceutical and Health Care Industry     87
Indoor Localization for First Responders     89
Passive Keyless Entry      90
Military Applications     91
Other RFID Applications     93
Review Questions and Problems     98
References     100
RFID Standards Development Challenges     103
Regional Regulations and Spectrum Allocations     103
Key Players in RFID Standardization     105
ISO and EPC Approaches     107
RFID Systems and Frequencies     109
Power Emissions Conversion     109
North American and International Frequency Bands     110
RFID Interoperability and Harmonization     112
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using the 13.56-MHz Frequency     115
Operation in the 900-MHz Band     117
Operation in the 2.45- and 5.8-GHz Bands     119
ISO/IEC 18000 RFID Air Interface Standards     121
UHF and EPCglobal Gen 2     124
The EPC Class Structure     124
UHF Gen 2     126
UHF RFID Tag Example     128
Review Questions and Problems     130
References     132
Components of the RFID System     133
Engineering Challenges     133
Near- and Far-Field Propagation     134
Far-Field Propagation and Backscatter Principle     135
Near-Field Propagation Systems     145
Tags     153
Tag Considerations     153
Data Content of RFID Tags     155
Passive Tags     157
Active Tags     161
Active Versus Passive Tags     163
Multiple Tag Operation     163
Overlapping Tags     166
Tag Antennas     167
UHF Tag Circuits     173
Tag Manufacturing Process     176
Readers     178
Principles of Operation     178
Reader Antenna     180
Software-Defined Radios in RFID Systems     181
Data Transfer Between a Tag and a Rader     182
UHF Reader Electronic Circuitry     190
RFID Power Sources     193
Power Harvesting Systems     194
Active Power Sources     196
Review Questions and Problems     198
References     200
RFID System Design Considerations     203
RFID System Key Considerations     203
Configuration Design     203
System Design Checklist     205
Carrier Frequency and Bandwidth     207
Frequency Band Selection      209
Power and Range     210
Link Budget     211
Collision Avoidance     215
Tag Reading Reliability     221
RFID Reader-Tag Communication Channel     222
Data Content and Encoding     223
Modulation     227
Data Encryption     230
Testing and Conformance     233
Test Equipment     233
Frequency- and Bandwidth-Related Measurement     234
Polling and Timing Measurements     235
Collision Management     235
Multivendor Interoperability     236
Test Labs     238
Review Questions and Problems     239
References     242
RFID Sociocultural Implications     245
Market Trends and Usage     245
Price Barriers to Adoption     247
Globalization     248
RFID Security and Privacy Aspects     249
Access to Information     249
Privacy Threats and Protection     250
The Blocker Tag     253
Reader Signal Energy Analysis     253
Protecting the Public     253
Fair Information Practices     255
Health Risks from RFID      256
Ethical and Moral Dilemmas of Technology     258
Other Developments in Auto-ID Systems     259
RuBee     259
Visible Light Tags     260
RFID and Printable Electronics     261
RFID and Mobile Phone Integration     261
Review Questions and Problems     262
References     265
Appendix     267
Glossary of Terms     269
About the Author     279
Index     281
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