Rice: Origin, History, Technology, and Production / Edition 1

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The third book in this four-volume series, Rice is a single-source reference covering all aspects of rice, including its origins and history, the plants and genetics, production data and practices, and commercial practices. Chapters are written by leading international experts in the field.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471345169
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/26/2002
  • Series: Wiley Series in Crop Science Series , #3
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 664
  • Product dimensions: 7.24 (w) x 10.18 (h) x 1.41 (d)

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Rice, Oryza sativa, also called paddy rice, common rice, lowland or upland rice, not including American wild rice, Zizania palustris L., is the major caloric source for a large portion of the earth's population. This food grain is produced in at least 95 countries around the globe, with China producing 36% of the world’s production in 1999, followed by India at 21%, Indonesia at 8%, and Bangladesh and Vietnam each producing about 5%. The United States produced about 1.5% of the world’s total annual production during the last half of the 1990s. However, the United States accounts for about 15% of the annual world exports of rice.

Although there probably were experimental plots of rice in the colonies prior to 1686, the first recorded effort in rice production was by Henry Woodward of Charleston, South Carolina, in that year. This account of the introduction of rice has John Thurber, a captain of an English brigantine, docking at Charleston Harbor in or before 1686. During this fortuitous occurrence, there being no indication of why the ship docked in Charleston, Woodward obtained about a "peck" of rice seed that had been placed aboard ship in Madagascar. From this humble beginning, rice production soared to 680 mt in only 23 years. The production of rice, and later indigo, made Charleston one of the wealthiest cities in the South during much of the colonial period in America.

Carolina White cultivar resulted from the 1686 Madagascar introduction and Carolina Gold cultivar was selected from Carolina White shortly thereafter, or was a separate introduction at about the same time. There apparently were no additionalintroductions or selections grown for almost 200 years, although logic dictates that producers made additional selections within the original introduction and that additional introductions made their way into South Carolina and Georgia. The next documented cultivar introduced into the United States was Honduras in 1890. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), through the efforts of S.A. Knapp, began systemic introductions of rice in 1899 with the introduction of Kiushu from Japan. The first commercial seedsman to develop commercial cultivars of rice through selection was S.L. Wright of Crowley, Louisiana. Crop improvement programs based on the scientific principles of gene segregation and recombination were established by the USDA in the early 1930s in Arkansas, California, Louisiana, and Texas. State agriculture experiment station programs were initiated later in Florida, Mississippi, and Missouri.

Rice production was limited to the tidewater land regions of South Carolina and Georgia prior to the Civil War because of the ease of adding water to rice paddies via a series of dikes and gates utilizing fluctuations in freshwater levels caused by ocean tides. By 1850, these two states accounted for 90% of the rice produced in the United States. South Carolina and Georgia continued to be major producers of rice after the Civil War, producing about 34,000 mt in 1870, but this was only 34% of 1850 production. However, the movement of rice production that had begun with the expansion of the country prior to 1850 gained momentum, and by 1890, Louisiana was the leading producer of rice, and production in the tidewater regions of the Atlantic coast had ceased to exist. Today, production is concentrated in Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Texas. California produces predominately medium-grain rice and the remaining states produce predominately long-grain rice.

Rice is grown predominately under flooded conditions with water impounded on the rice field, often called a paddy. Only about 15% of total world hectarage is grown as dryland, without water being impounded. In many areas of the world, the water that is impounded within the paddies is from rainwater, whereas in the United States rice is irrigated from wells or surface water such as rivers. Production in the United States is a highly sophisticated operation, with laser leveling of fields and huge combines specially designed for rice harvest. Although much of the rice produced in the world is consumed locally and undergoes little processing prior to consumption, that produced in the United States is perled, or polished, using state-of-the-art machinery to produce whole or nearly whole kernels with an aesthetically pleasing, pure white appearance. This product is coated with vitamins and iron to improve human health and may be treated to make it "quick" cooking, to fit our fast-paced lifestyles.

There are many other fascinating aspects of this crop and its production: such aspects as its genetic diversity, its production of allelochemical exudates that control some aquaticn weeds, the aquatic nature of the plant itself, the methods of applying and removing floods, land preparation, biotic pest control, and many others. We believe that the student of agriculture will find profit and pleasure in this monograph on rice and its origin, history, technology, and production.

-- C. Wayne Smith
-- Robert H. Dilday

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Table of Contents

Sect. I Origin and History 1
Ch. 1.1 Origin, Domestication, and Diversification 3
Ch. 1.2 Biosystematics of the Genus Oryza 27
Ch. 1.3 American Rice Industry: Historical Overview of Production and Marketing 67
Ch. 1.4 Origin and Characteristics of U.S. Rice Cultivars 87
Sect. II The Rice Plant 101
Ch. 2.1 Rice Morphology and Development 103
Ch. 2.2 Rice Physiology 129
Ch. 2.3 Genetics, Cytogenetics, Mutation, and Beyond 153
Ch. 2.4 Techniques for Development of New Cultivars 177
Ch. 2.5 Rice Biotechnology 203
Ch. 2.6 Studies on Rice Allelochemicals 221
Sect. III Production 245
Ch. 3.1 Global Rice Production 247
Ch. 3.2 Rice Production 271
Ch. 3.3 Rice Soils: Physical and Chemical Characteristics and Behavior 297
Ch. 3.4 Soil Fertilization and Mineral Nutrition in U.S. Mechanized Rice Culture 331
Ch. 3.5 Rice Diseases 413
Ch. 3.6 Rice Arthropod Pests and Their Management in the United States 437
Ch. 3.7 Rice Weed Control 457
Ch. 3.8 Rice Marketing 473
Sect. IV Products and Product Processing 489
Ch. 4.1 Rice Harvesting 491
Ch. 4.2 Rice Storage 545
Ch. 4.3 Rough Rice Drying and Milling Quality 567
Sect. V Germplasm Resources 595
Ch. 5.1 Germplasm Collection, Preservation, and Utilization 597
Index 627
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