Ringside 1925: Views from the Scopes Trial

( 5 )

Overview

The year is 1925, and the students of Dayton, Tennessee, are ready for a summer of fishing, swimming, some working, and drinking root beer floats at Robinson’s Drugstore. But when their science teacher, J. T. Scopes, is arrested for having taught Darwin’s theory of evolution in class, it seems it won’t be just any ordinary summer in Dayton.
As Scopes’ trial proceeds, the small town is faced with astonishing, nationwide publicity: reporters, lawyers, scientists, religious ...
See more details below
Available through our Marketplace sellers.
Other sellers (Hardcover)
  • All (25) from $1.99   
  • New (3) from $8.49   
  • Used (22) from $1.99   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$8.49
Seller since 2010

Feedback rating:

(47)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

New
2008-02-12 Hardcover New A nice new clean copy with a remainder mark. We ship USPS and want your complete satisfaction.

Ships from: Maryville, TN

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$11.98
Seller since 2008

Feedback rating:

(281)

Condition: New
0375840478 New item in stock, may show minimal wear from storage. No remainder mark. I ship daily and provide tracking! 100% Money Back Guarantee!

Ships from: FORT MYERS, FL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$11.98
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(3)

Condition: New
Hardcover New 0375840478 New item in stock, may show minimal wear from storage. No remainder mark. I ship daily and provide tracking! 100% Money Back Guarantee!

Ships from: LEHIGH ACRES, FL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Close
Sort by
Ringside 1925: Views from the Scopes Trial

Available on NOOK devices and apps  
  • NOOK Devices
  • Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 NOOK
  • NOOK HD/HD+ Tablet
  • NOOK
  • NOOK Color
  • NOOK Tablet
  • Tablet/Phone
  • NOOK for Windows 8 Tablet
  • NOOK for iOS
  • NOOK for Android
  • NOOK Kids for iPad
  • PC/Mac
  • NOOK for Windows 8
  • NOOK for PC
  • NOOK for Mac
  • NOOK for Web

Want a NOOK? Explore Now

NOOK Book (eBook)
$6.99
BN.com price
Note: Visit our Teens Store.

Overview

The year is 1925, and the students of Dayton, Tennessee, are ready for a summer of fishing, swimming, some working, and drinking root beer floats at Robinson’s Drugstore. But when their science teacher, J. T. Scopes, is arrested for having taught Darwin’s theory of evolution in class, it seems it won’t be just any ordinary summer in Dayton.
As Scopes’ trial proceeds, the small town is faced with astonishing, nationwide publicity: reporters, lawyers, scientists, religious leaders, and tourists. But amidst the circus-like atmosphere is a threatening sense of tension–not only in the courtroom, but among even the strongest of friends. This compelling novel in poems chronicles a controversy with a profound impact on science and culture in America–and one that continues to this day.
Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
Starred Review, Publishers Weekly, February 25, 2008:
“The colorful facts she retrieves, the personal story lines and the deft rhythm of the narrative are more than enough invitation to readers to ponder the issues she raises.
Publishers Weekly

Why not break the law and bring in some tourists? Conjuring fictionalized inhabitants of crumbling Dayton, Tenn., home of the infamous Scopes "monkey trial," Bryant (The Trial) lets her characters speak directly, in well-honed verse that illuminates a broad range of perspectives. Overheard near a drugstore soda fountain, scheming business owners and a publicity-chasing superintendent get permission from a popular teacher, J.T. Scopes, to arrest him for violating the Butler Act, which bans the teaching of evolution. Adventure-seeking kids, skeptical journalists, erudite scientists, curious townsfolk and one shrill evangelical all have their say on the ensuing battle between silver-tongued prosecutor William Jennings Bryan and sharp-witted defense lawyer Clarence Darrow. Bryant obviously sympathizes with Darrow and the Darwinists, but she doesn't heavily stack the deck: the eloquent insights she attributes to her characters are evenly distributed. Nor does she go out of her way to emphasize the timeliness of the topic. The colorful facts she retrieves, the personal story lines and the deft rhythm of the narrative are more than enough invitation to readers to ponder the issues she raises. Ages 12-up. (Feb.)

Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KLIATT - KLIATT Review
This novel in verse form reminds me of Witness, by Karen Hesse, in that multiple voices describe a single historical event. Ringside 1925 tells about the Scopes trial in Dayton, Tennessee, with ten voices--students and adults who live in Dayton--each describing the trial as they witness it, as they see how the trial changes their small town. The arguments about teaching evolution in a science class are surprisingly still echoing around regions of our country today, so this trial is not about some dusty, long-forgotten historical controversy. Last year the YA novel Monkey Town: The Summer of the Scopes Trial, by Ronald Kidd, covered much the same ground. This is, of course, very different since it is told in verse, with the point of view shifting among the ten narrators. One, or both, of these novels should be available to YA readers. Age Range: Ages 12 to 18. REVIEWER: Claire Rosser (Vol. 42, No. 1)
Children's Literature - Sharon Salluzzo
In 1925, the state of Tennessee passed a bill prohibiting the teaching of evolution. When J. T. Scopes, a substitute high school teacher, was asked if he would be willing to be arrested to challenge the new law, he agreed. Thus began one of the major trials of the early twentieth century. Bryant creates nine voices who recount the events before, during and after the trial. The characters include high school students, the owner of a boarding house, a twelve-year-old Black boy who works for his father because there is no school for him to attend, a member of the ladies' Bible study group, a minister, and a reporter who has come to town to cover the trial. These characters present their observations and feelings in this thought-provoking novel in free verse. The story is separated into eight chapters, and each chapter is introduced with relevant quotes from actual participants. Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryant come to life through the characters' observations. An Epilogue tells what happened to the town and the real people after the trial. The author talks about her research and mentions articles, books, movies, and web sites for further information. Readers are transported back to this small Southern town with its issues of race relations and the Bible vs. evolution. Bryant successfully recreates the setting of the famous "monkey trial." The accessible text makes this a fine choice for a high school biology or history class. Reviewer: Sharon Salluzzo
School Library Journal

Gr 8 Up- Nothing much happened in Dayton, TN, until the summer of 1925. That was the year that J. T. Scopes, a science teacher at Rhea County High School, asked students to read a chapter on evolution from their textbook. Tennessee had recently passed a law against the teaching of evolution in public schools, and the American Civil Liberties Union was seeking an opportunity to prove that this law was unconstitutional. Mr. Robinson, a local store owner, thought that Scopes could bring publicity to the town and boost its stagnant economy, if he would submit to a trial. The ACLU pledged support, and the teacher found himself in the middle of one of the most controversial trials of the century. What ensued was a circuslike atmosphere that surprised and eventually divided the residents of Dayton. This novel in verse chronicles the events and drama of the trial. There is a host of characters, both fictitious and real: J. T. Scopes (real), William Jennings Bryan (real), Mr. Robinson (real), Clarence Darrow (real), Paul Lebrun (fictitious), and many students and citizens (fictitious). The poems are in first person, giving a voice to all primary stakeholders-the citizens, young and old, who are stunned by the chaos that erupts in their tiny town. The epilogue provides information about the events and the people following the trial. Bryant offers readers a ringside seat in this compelling and well-researched novel. It is fast-paced, interesting, and relevant to many current first-amendment challenges. Students who like this novel will also enjoy Robin Brande's Evolution, Me and Other Freaks of Nature (Knopf, 2007).-Pat Scales, formerly at South Carolina Governor's School for theArts and Humanities, Greenville

Copyright 2008 Reed Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
In 1925, the leading citizens of Dayton, Tenn., created a media circus to revive the sagging economy of their small town. John Scopes, the new science teacher, agreed to be arrested so the American Civil Liberties Union could test the Butler Act, which forbade the teaching of any theory that denied the biblical story of the creation. It was faith versus science, and reporters, lawyers and onlookers soon besieged the town. Bryant's novel-in-verse gives voice to many players, and though the theatrics of Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan, the famous orators, seem lost among the many voices, and characters' observations are sometimes repetitive, the participants come across as real individuals with distinct voices and personalities. By the end, the young people demonstrate how the trial opened their eyes and minds, as they seem inspired to launch themselves into the larger world. Eloquent at times and a natural for the classroom, this is a good match with Ronald Kidd's Monkey Town (2006). (epilogue, author's note, bibliography) (Fiction. 11+)
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780375840470
  • Publisher: Random House Children's Books
  • Publication date: 2/12/2008
  • Pages: 240
  • Age range: 10 years
  • Product dimensions: 5.85 (w) x 8.51 (h) x 0.91 (d)

Meet the Author

Jen Bryant teaches Children’s Literature at West Chester University and lives in Pennsylvania.
Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Peter Sykes
That morning, Jimmy and me had hiked clear to Connor's Pond, halfway up the mountain,
and back again. I hooked four bass

and three brown trout. Jimmy, who loves fishing more than just about anything, caught a dozen bluegills and a huge catfish his mother

promised to fry us for dinner. Soon as we got back, we stashed our poles under the porch and ran to Robinson's store for root beer floats.

We were sitting at the soda fountain,
sucking on our straws and listening to
Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue" on the radio,

when Mr. Walter White asked: "You boys seen
Mr. Scopes?" With school being out and it being summer, we figured the new science teacher must be in trouble. But Mr. White is our school superintendent, so we figured we'd be in bigger trouble if we didn't tell.

"We saw him a half hour ago," I said,
"heading over to the school."
"Dressed for tennis," Jimmy added.

He hurried back to the table where
Mr. Robinson and Mr. Rappleyea waited.
Then the Hicks brothers, both Dayton lawyers,

showed up in their jalopy and all five of them jabbered like magpies at a picnic.

Willy Amos
Those big ol' houses at the edge of town . . .
Pa says they were once grand and beautiful.
Now they're mostly heaps of bricks,
wood planks, broken glass. Some got trees growin' right out the roofs, vines twistin' out the doorways.

Pa says back before I was born, when the mines were open and the furnaces made metal for the railroads and tall city buildin's,
white families lived there--
"lace curtains in the windows, easy chairs an' daisies on the porches in summer," Pa says.

Well, that sure ain't how it looks this summer.
There's skunks in the cellar,
bats in the attic,
mice in the kitchen sink.

When I'm not helpin' Pa, I come here to root through the hallways and closets,
searchin' for somethin' I might be able to fix up and sell--a flower vase,
a tin box, a watch face left behind when those families moved to places where jobs come easier.

'Most every year the town council changes the number on the little wooden sign sayin' how many folks live here:
3,000, 2,600, 2,100, . . . and last year 1,800.

Pa and me, we don't got much need for big numbers. I'm not sure what they mean,
'ceptin' I know that the first one is biggest and the last one is smallest and that means people are leavin'.

Twelve. Now that's a number I'm used to.
I was born here twelve years back:
May 1913. I ain't never lived anyplace but Dayton, Tennessee,
so that last number still seems like plenty of folks to me.

But maybe someday, if I move to a big city like New Orleans, Chicago, or Detroit,
get me a steady job,
I'll live near even more people,
and a lot fewer mice and skunks.

Jimmy Lee Davis
Tarnation! Poor Mr. Scopes!
He didn't know why
Mr. White came to fetch him from his tennis game
& bring him into Robinson's.
Me & Pete sipped our sodas & listened as he confessed that back in the spring when we were still in school,
he assigned us the chapter on evolution,
which explained how all the animals on earth had started as simpler creatures millions of years ago,
& how, over time,
they changed & developed into the insects, birds,
fish, & mammals we see today,
& how, even now,
they were still changing.
(I try not to think of fish as my ancestors when I'm cleaning them.)

Mr. Robinson held up a copy of Hunter's Civic Biology,
which is the book we used in school, which is also one of the books he sells in his store, & asked:
"Did you use this in class?"
Calm as Connor's Pond,
Mr. Scopes said: "Sure I did, Fred.
You can't teach science at Rhea County High without using that book!"

Mr. Robinson smiled wide as a catfish unhooked.
"Well, John, the American
Civil Liberties Union will pay to defend the first person who challenges the new law against teaching evolution in Tennessee. So we were wondering if you'd mind being arrested, to get the whole business right out on the table,
right here in Dayton."

Lordy! My ears were burnin' & Pete near choked to death on his root beer.
Mr. Scopes saw us eaves-
dropping. He winked &
tipped his cap. "Sure, I guess that'd be all right--
long as I can finish my tennis match."
The men took turns patting him on the back,
thanking him, telling him not to worry; they'd send someone down to arrest him later that afternoon.

Peter Sykes
I helped Marybeth Dodd with her groceries and told her about Mr. Scopes. "Poor man,"
she said. "If he's a criminal, then I'm Babe Ruth."

We both laughed at the thought of that.
"Thanks a lot, Pete," she said, her smile flashing in the sunlight. "Anytime, Marybeth," I said,

feeling the color rise in my cheeks. I quick pedaled to the end of her street so she didn't see. (What's gotten into me?)

Turning the corner, I rode fast and hard across the tracks, up the hill, till there were no more stores and houses,

just the farms spread out on either side,
like patchwork blankets as far as I could see.
I pedaled faster. Just about the time my thighs ached

and I needed a break, I came to the big oak at the foot of Walton's Ridge. I leaned the bike against the trunk, laced my shoes on tight, hiked

the steep dirt path made by the Cherokee before there even was a Tennessee. At the top,
there's a flat rock called Buzzard's Point, where you

can stand and look out over the Tennessee River Valley,
watch the steam rise from the Southern Railway line as it snakes its way from one end to the other.

Used to be, I'd climb up there to dream about my future . . . running my own hardware store,
settling down with someone from school.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Average Rating 5
( 5 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(4)

4 Star

(1)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously
Sort by: Showing all of 5 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted December 21, 2013

    Awesome

    This book is the best book ever

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Posted June 18, 2009

    more from this reviewer

    Reviewed by Natalie Tsang for TeensReadToo.com

    Jen Bryant's RINGSIDE 1925 explores the Scopes Trial, one of the most controversial trials in American history, through nine diverse characters and is told through vivid verse.

    One memorable summer, the sleepy town of Dayton, Tennessee, population 1,800, is turned upside down by the trial of a well-liked high school teacher. His crime is teaching evolution, a subject that the state of Tennessee had forbidden in the newly passed Butler Law.

    William Jennings Bryan, a talented orator, preacher, and three time presidential nominee, will speak against evolution,
    and Clarence Darrow, a brilliant lawyer, comes to defend Mr. Scopes.

    News of the trial spreads quickly and, almost overnight, the town fills with news reporters, scientists, religious leaders, and tourists. Many residents, such as twelve-year-old Willy Amos and drugstore owner Mr. Robinson, see it as an opportunity to make some quick easy money. Since Darwin's theory of evolution suggests that man evolved from monkeys, Dayton begins selling everything from paper monkeys to Simian Sodas.

    At first, the atmosphere is friendly and fun. Though they are on opposing sides of the "monkey trial," W. J. Bryan and Mr. Darrow are friends and share a dinner together at Tillie Stackhouse's boarding house. But as the trial drags on in the muggy summer weather, tensions rise. Not only do the two men's friendship become strained, but many of the residents become embroiled in the increasingly bitter God vs. science debate.

    Many young readers may have learned about the Scopes Trial in school, but Bryant brings a new level of relevance by telling the story primarily through the eyes of Dayton's residents and observing the smaller but no less significant changes to a small town in addition to the broad historical significance.

    Jimmy Lee Davis and Peter Sykes have been fishing buddies and best friends for years, but their personal beliefs lead them to support opposite sides of the trial. Marybeth Todd is a smart but restless teenager. When several professors come to stay at the boarding house she works at, they ask her to participate in their discussions of geology, anthropology, and other unfamiliar and wonderful topics. The influx of visitors brings in money, but also new ideas and opportunities.

    Readers who usually dislike historical fiction will find Bryant's characters fresh, familiar, often insightful, and sometimes silly. The story feels real and full-fleshed, but never gets bogged down by its research.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Posted October 16, 2008

    more from this reviewer

    Courtesy of Mother Daughter Book Club.com

    Remember learning about the Scopes Monkey trial in history class? The trial pitted the state of Tennessee against a high school science teacher, J.T. Scopes, who challenged the legality of the state's rule against teaching Darwin's theory of evolution. Ringside 1925: Views from the Scopes Trial by Jen Bryant brings the event to life in a way that your history book never could.<BR/><BR/>The story is told through the voices of several characters, mainly three students from the high school where Mr. Scopes taught. You also hear from a reporter who's in town covering the trial, the town's constable, a member of the ladies' Bible study group, and a preacher from out of town who comes in to see the event. Little Dayton, Tennessee, is transformed into a veritable circus of activity.<BR/>There are lots of characters in the book, but Bryant helps the reader keep them straight with a list of narrators at the front. I referred back to the list in the beginning, until I had gotten to know the characters well.<BR/><BR/>Because Ringside 1925 presents different sides of the story, it gives you lots to think about and discuss. Friendships are tested as the characters talk about their beliefs, and everyone steps out of their usual roles even if only for a few weeks.<BR/><BR/>It's interesting to hear the perspective of a young black boy who works with his father as a handyman and dreams of rising beyond the limitations put on him. It's also interesting to read actual quotes from the trial by lawyers and historical greats William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow.<BR/><BR/>I loved being transported back to small town life in 1925, and hearing stories of how the townspeople of Dayton benefitted financially from all the extra visitors.<BR/><BR/>We never really hear the voice of J.T. Scopes, and it seems appropriate that we see the trial from the perspectives of all those around him. The event was less about him than it was about teaching evolution in school¿a conflict that continues on in some cases today. <BR/><BR/>The story is aimed at ages 12 and up, but I think some younger children will certainly be able to appreciate the very approachable story and learn about the historical case at the same time. I've also recommended it to my daughter who's a senior in high school, because I think the writing is interesting to all ages. I've heard about the Scopes Trial for years, and occasionally hear it mentioned, but this book brought it to life for me. I highly recommend it.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted August 1, 2008

    Interesting Version of the Monkey Trial

    The time is 1925, and the Butler Act of Tennessee was recently passed. This act bans the teaching of evolution in the classroom. The state of Tennessee felt that teaching that mankind evolved from lower animals would imply that the bible was wrong about creationism. One day in Dayton, TN, twenty-four year old J.T. Scopes substituting as a science teacher teaches the section about evolution that is in the class¿s biology text. He is asked to comply with being arrested for breaking the law. He agrees. This incident puts Dayton on the map. The notoriety of the case causes people to pour in from all over. Encouraged by this influx, simian-like statues and masks are selling like hotcakes. Rooms are rented out to reporters and restaurants are doing really well. It appears like the circus has come to town, the media circus that is. The author of ¿Ringside,¿ Jen Bryant tells a fictional story of the Scopes Trial using some real historical elements and characters. She wrote ¿Ringside¿ for children ages 12 and up. Much of it is written in poetic form which makes the words flow and very easy to read. The tale is also written in the form of narratives which were taken from characters involved with the trial. The narrators are of different ages, races and genders. The reader gets to view the case as it might have appeared from someone like them. I loved this touch because it really brought the issues with the case to life. You get to see the Scopes Trial from all angles. I found ¿Ringside¿ to be a fascinating way to learn about a real event that took place in our history. It taught me a lot about a case that I hear mentioned frequently, but actually had little background. It was also incredible to see what people were allowed to get away with. Even the judge who was a part time minister was allowed to ban scientific witnesses from the trial. It never had any hope of being won. Scope¿s attorney, Clarence Darrow, demonstrated his brilliance during a case that had no hope. I highly recommend this book. It would be a great addition to a summer reading list for children, or an awesome book to be read by history or science students who will be introduced to evolution or the Scopes trial.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted June 21, 2008

    A fictionalized account of a historic trial¿

    In 1925, Tennessee passed a state law against teaching ¿any theory that denies the story of creation of man as taught in the bible, and to teach instead that man descended from a lower order of animals.¿. John Scopes, high school science teacher, was charged with teaching evolution. So began the trial that would long be remembered. Two famous lawyers challenged each other in court. William Jennings Bryan argued for the prosecution, and Clarence Darrow represented the defense. For a short time, the eyes of the world were on Dayton, TN. The town had a short economic boom thanks to the journalists. Jen Bryant utilizes prose to tell the story of the Scopes trial. She shares the account through the eyes of various people. Bryant successfully educates and entertains readers in her book Ringside 1925. I found her style intriguing and unique. Bryant takes a true event and fictionalized. She uses just the right amount of humor to keep the reader interested. History buffs will enjoy reading Ringside 192.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
Sort by: Showing all of 5 Customer Reviews

If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
Why is this product inappropriate?
Comments (optional)