Risk Assessment of Radon in Drinking Water

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Overview

The Safe Drinking Water Act directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate the quality of drinking water, including its concentration of radon, an acknowledged carcinogen.

This book presents a valuable synthesis of information about the total inhalation and ingestion risks posed by radon in public drinking water, including comprehensive reviews of data on the transfer of radon from water to indoor air and on outdoor levels of radon in the United States. It also presents a new analysis of a biokinetic model developed to determine the risks posed by ingestion of radon and reviews inhalation risks and the carcinogenesis process. The volume includes scenarios for quantifying the reduction in health risk that might be achieved by a program to reduce public exposure to radon.

Risk Assessment of Radon in Drinking Water, reflecting research and analysis mandated by 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, provides comment on a variety of methods to reduce radon entry into homes and to reduce the concentrations of radon in indoor air and in water. The models, analysis, and reviews of literature contained in this book are intended to provide information that EPA will need to set a new maximum contaminant level, as it is required to do in 2000.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780309062923
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • Publication date: 6/30/1999
  • Pages: 296
  • Product dimensions: 6.12 (w) x 9.22 (h) x 0.98 (d)

Table of Contents

Public Summary 1
Executive Summary 8
1 Introduction 23
2 Baseline Information on Indoor Radon and Radon in Water in the United States 32
3 Transfer of Radon from Water to Indoor Air 50
4 Dosimetry of Ingested Radon and its Associated Risk 59
5 Dosimetry of Inhaled Radon and its Associated Risk 82
6 Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Radon-Induced Carcinogenesis 105
7 Defining Key Variabilities and Uncertainties 124
8 Mitigation 141
9 Multimedia Approach to Risk Reduction 180
10 Research Recommendations 198
References 200
Glossary 223
App. A Behavior of Radon and Its Decay Products in the Body 233
App. B A Model for Diffusion of Radon Through the Stomach Wall 241
App. C Water-Mitigation Techniques 249
App. D Risks Associated with Disinfection By-products Formed by Water Chlorination Related to Trihalomethanes (THMs) 254
App. E Gamma Radiation Dose from Granular-Activated Carbon (GAC) Water Treatment Units 257
App. F EPA Approach to Analyzing Uncertainty and Variability 260
Index 269
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