Road Ecology: Science and Solutions / Edition 1

Road Ecology: Science and Solutions / Edition 1

by Richard T.T. Forman, Daniel Sperling, John A. Bissonette, Anthony P. Clevenger
     
 

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ISBN-10: 1559639334

ISBN-13: 9781559639330

Pub. Date: 11/22/2002

Publisher: Island Press

A central goal of transportation is the delivery of safe and efficient services with minimal environmental impact. In practice, though, human mobility has flourished while nature has suffered. Awareness of the environmental impacts of roads is increasing, yet information remains scarce for those interested in studying, understanding, or minimizing the ecological

Overview

A central goal of transportation is the delivery of safe and efficient services with minimal environmental impact. In practice, though, human mobility has flourished while nature has suffered. Awareness of the environmental impacts of roads is increasing, yet information remains scarce for those interested in studying, understanding, or minimizing the ecological effects of roads and vehicles.

Road Ecology addresses that shortcoming by elevating previously localized and fragmented knowledge into a broad and inclusive framework for understanding and developing solutions. The book brings together fourteen leading ecologists and transportation experts to articulate state-of-the-science road ecology principles, and presents specific examples that demonstrate the application of those principles. Diverse theories, concepts, and models in the new field of road ecology are integrated to establish a coherent framework for transportation policy, planning, and projects. Topics examined include:

  • foundations of road ecology
  • roads, vehicles, and transportation planning
  • vegetation and roadsides
  • wildlife populations and mitigation
  • water, sediment, and chemical flows
  • aquatic ecosystems
  • wind, noise, and atmospheric effects
  • road networks and landscape fragmentation
Road Ecology links ecological theories and concepts with transportation planning, engineering, and travel behavior. With more than 100 illustrations and examples from around the world, it is an indispensable and pioneering work for anyone involved with transportation, including practitioners and planners in state and province transportation departments, federal agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. The book also opens up an important new research frontier for ecologists.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781559639330
Publisher:
Island Press
Publication date:
11/22/2002
Edition description:
1
Pages:
504
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Acknowledgmentsxvii
The Metric System in North Americaxix
Part I.Roads, Vehicles, and Ecology
Chapter 1.Foundations of Road Ecology3
What Is Road Ecology?7
Earth, Fill, and Soil9
Introducing Ecological Concepts12
The Roots and Emergence of Road Ecology16
Chapter 2.Roads25
History of the U.S. Road System27
The Canadian Road System33
Size, Growth, and Pattern of the U.S. Road Network39
Roadsides, Bridges, and Other Engineering Structures43
Chapter 3.Vehicles and Planning49
Automobility and Its Challenges50
Vehicle Size, Fuel, and Technology Trends55
The Planning and Project Development Process57
Transportation Planning and Air Quality Models63
Project Development, the Environment, and NEPA65
Part II.Vegetation and Wildlife
Chapter 4.Roadsides and Vegetation75
Reading the Roadside76
Vegetation83
Plants86
Roadside Habitats and Animals95
Roadside Management99
Chapter 5.Wildlife Populations113
Wildlife Mortality on Roads114
Factors Affecting Mortality120
Changes in Amount and Quality of Habitat123
Effects on Landscape Connectivity129
Cumulative Effects and Road Density134
Chapter 6.Mitigation for Wildlife139
Mitigation for Mortality, Habitat Loss, and Reduced Habitat Quality140
Types of Wildlife Underpasses and Overpasses147
Factors Affecting the Use of Wildlife Passages151
Wildlife Passages: Summary and Effectiveness156
Mitigation Case Studies165
Part III.Water, Chemicals, and Atmosphere
Chapter 7.Water and Sediment Flows171
Erosion and Sediment Control172
Reciprocal Effect of Road Systems and Water177
A Conceptual Framework for Roads and Water Flow180
Roads and Water on Hillsides and Flat Lands185
Road Types, Land Use, and Water195
Chapter 8.Chemicals along Roads201
Sources of Chemical Pollutants202
Chemicals and Their Dispersion207
Types of Ecological Effects211
Roadsalt213
Best Management Practices for Pollutant Mitigation and Source Control219
Chapter 9.Aquatic Ecosystems225
Habitat Structure, Connectivity, and Roads226
Lakes230
Wetlands238
Streams, Rivers, Bridges, and Culverts244
Estuarine Salt Marshes249
Chapter 10.Wind and Atmospheric Effects253
Microclimate, Wind, and Windbreaks254
Dust and Erosion260
Snow and Snowbreaks265
Vehicle Disturbance and Traffic Noise270
Atmospheric Effects at Local, Regional, and Global Scales279
Part IV.Road Systems and Further Perspectives
Chapter 11.Road Systems Linked with the Land291
Network Theory for Road Ecology294
Spatial Attributes of Road Networks297
Changing Road Networks302
Road System Effects on the Surrounding Land306
Effects of Surrounding Land on Road Systems316
Chapter 12.The Four Landscapes with Major Road Systems319
Built Land and Road Systems320
Forestry Land and Road Systems333
Agricultural Land and Road Systems341
Grazing Land, Arid Land, and Road Systems346
Chapter 13.Roads and Vehicles in Natural Landscapes351
Remote Land, Roads, and Vehicles352
Parkland, Roads, and Vehicles355
The Arctic and Its Roads and Vehicles360
The Tropics and Its Roads and Vehicles368
Chapter 14.Further Perspectives375
Road Ecology and Sustainability376
Toward Policy and Planning Solutions379
An Array of Perspectives for Future Policy, Planning, and Projects387
Whither Road Ecology?397
Bibliography401
About the Authors459
Index467

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