The Road to There: Mapmakers and Their Stories

Overview

Road maps; sailor's charts; quilts; songlines; gilded parchment covered with jewel-like colors; computer printouts – to guide us through the strange, vast, beautiful, and mysterious frontiers of the world of maps, Val Ross presents the men and women who made them.

Here are some of the unexpected stories of history's great mapmakers: the fraud artists who deliberately distorted maps for political gain, Captain Cook, the slaves on the run who found their way thanks to ...

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Overview

Road maps; sailor's charts; quilts; songlines; gilded parchment covered with jewel-like colors; computer printouts – to guide us through the strange, vast, beautiful, and mysterious frontiers of the world of maps, Val Ross presents the men and women who made them.

Here are some of the unexpected stories of history's great mapmakers: the fraud artists who deliberately distorted maps for political gain, Captain Cook, the slaves on the run who found their way thanks to specially-pieced quilts, the woman who mapped London's streets, princes, doctors, and warriors. These are the people who helped us chart our way in the world, under the sea, and on to the stars.

With reproductions of some of the most important maps in history, this extraordinary book, packed with information, is as fascinating and suspenseful as a novel.

About the Author: Val Ross is a renowned journalist. She has won a National Newspaper Award and is highly respected throughout the publishing industry for her coverage of books and the people who create them. She is deputy comment editor at The Globe and Mail. This is her first book. Val Ross lives in Toronto with her husband and children.

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Editorial Reviews

Children's Literature
Mapping the world accurately has been a craft for hundreds of years. This collection of map stories tells the history of the world through its maps. Ross opens up details of mapmakers in history whose stories are not well-known. Some mapmakers had to do their work in secret because they didn't want to be challenged by rulers of the time who didn't want to admit their current maps were wrong. Others were commissioned by their governments to make more accurate maps. This book tells how maps of Vinland, Africa, France, Asia, the South Pacific, North America, and other places were created. The history of other types of mapmaking such as measuring and drawing ocean depths, secret maps on the Underground Railroad, and photographs from space are also covered. Ross chronicles the technologies available and invented during various times in world history and how different tools were used to make maps. This book is dense with historical facts, maps, and diagrams. A useful resource for world history and geography teachers, students, or anyone interested in the unique history of mapmaking. 2003, Tundra Books, Ages 14 to Adult.
— Marcie Flinchum Atkins
School Library Journal
Gr 6 Up-An intriguing look at several cartographers and the way that their work reflected not only physical boundaries, but also important aspects of their lives and times. Enhanced by reproductions of beautiful and historically significant maps, the well-researched, sometimes wry text will inform and entertain readers. Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
From the Publisher
“Filled with details and insights and written with a storyteller’s touch, this book will simultaneously inform and fascinate readers.”
School Library Journal [starred review]

“Ross covers plenty of historical ground in this wide-ranging discussion of maps and mapmakers…. An eclectic presentation…fascinating to young people…”
Booklist

“In 13 chapters (or stories), Ross charts a route, notable for its verve, vitality and scholarship, from There to Here…. Among Ross’s many attributes as a writer is her ability to place her readers inside the story, to envelop them with telling fragments and delectable details…. [N]ew worlds will be sensed if not seen by her readers as they travel with her from There to Here.”
The Globe and Mail

“…fascinating…. [C]ombines extensive research with crisp prose and engaging narratives… [A]n excellent resource for research…. The rich graphics make an impressive-looking volume that’s very ‘grown up’ and stylish. This aesthetic, along with the well-written, compelling narrative, contributes to the book’s crossover potential…”
Quill & Quire

The Road to There will be a valuable addition to any school library collection. Teachers as well as students will benefit by reading its chapters. Highly Recommended”
CM Magazine

“The book is a fun, exciting and adventurous way to learn about maps. It will teach you about the attributes of maps and its makers, while keeping the thrill of a novel still intact.”
Brand New Planet reviewed by Patrick Brown, age 11

“[A] lively, engaging narrative…[with] inviting, conversational prose…. Ross’s book is a treasure trove of fascinating maps and stories.”
Cooperative Children's Book Center, University of Wisconsin

“…informed and informative…. Black-and-white and color photographs nicely embellish this absorbing and highly recommended anthology…”
Children’s Bookwatch

“This book held my interest from first page to last; Isaac Asimov could not have done a better job on this intrinsically fascinating subject. There are answers here to questions I've wondered about all my life, and stories I'll remember as long as I live. Ross has John McPhee’s clean spare style, and his knack of involving you totally in things you thought you already knew something about. I happened to read this the day after seeing an hour-long Ken Burns documentary about Lewis and Clark, and Ross made their story far more interesting to me in a single chapter.”
Spider Robinson

“[The Road to There] is so well written, interesting and informative. Maps tell interesting stories; some tell the “truth” some are fraudulent, some are pure propaganda and full of lies (British maps of Canada just before the conquest), others are fanciful guess work, wishful thinking and much more. Thanks for bringing some of [your insight] to that part of the public where you can make an impact.”
Conrad Heidenreich, Professor Emeritus, Geography, York University

From the Hardcover edition.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781442075511
  • Publisher: Baker & Taylor, CATS
  • Publication date: 10/5/2009
  • Format: Library Binding
  • Pages: 146

Meet the Author

Val Ross was a renowned journalist and won a National Newspaper Award. She was highly respected throughout the publishing industry for her coverage of books and the people who create them. She was an arts reporter at The Globe and Mail and her first book, The Road to There: Mapmakers and Their Stories was nominated for many awards and won the Norma Fleck Award for Canadian Children’s non-fiction. Val Ross passed away in 2008.

From the Hardcover edition.

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Read an Excerpt

THE MAPMAKER’S SECRET IDENTITY

The Vinland Map

Some time in the first half of the 20th century, someone picks up a pen and begins to fake an antique map. The forgery will “prove” that the Norsemen, or Vikings, had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to America long before Christopher Columbus’s arrival in 1492.

The forger’s pen hovers for a moment above a blank piece of parchment (animal skin prepared as a writing surface). The parchment is no fake. And, although it dates from about 1440long after the Norse voyages to “Wineland” or Vinland (the Norse name for North America) around the year 1000the forger is not worried, since many mapmakers based their maps on earlier maps. What is important is that his map will seem to predate Columbus.

The forger works carefully, writing in Latin and watering his ink so it will appear faded. He knows that medieval mapmakers used inks mixed from iron compounds that erode and leave a rusty stain, and plans to fake such stains with yellowish dye. He might even add holes to the parchment, to make it look like it was eaten by bookworms.

He draws the Mediterranean Sea, Northern Europe, Iceland, and Greenland. Then he dips his pen again, pauses, and commits himself to making the squiggly line that will turn his map into front-page headlines. Beyond Greenland, he draws a line showing the east coast of North America.

He adds notes to his map. One mentions the discovery of “a new land, extremely fertile and having vines” by the Norseman Leif Eriksson. Another note tells of a journey to Vinland around 1100 by Bishop Eirik Gnupsson of Greenland, who claimed the new land for the Holy Church.

The forger knows a lot about mapmakers of the past. He knows that the first map to use the word “America” was drawn by a German priest named Martin Waldseemüller in 1507. And he knows that any map older than Waldseemüller’s that shows North America will be a cartographic bombshell.

In 1957, book dealers tried to sell a “Vinland Map” to the British Museum in London. The map they offered was bound into an old book about an Italian priest’s travels to Mongolia. The British Museum experts took a look at the book. They thought the Italian priest part looked genuine. But as for the Vinland Map – they smelled a rat and said, “No, thank you.”

So the book dealers decided to unload their Vinland Map in North America. This time, the map convinced people – perhaps because people were ready to be convinced. Scholars had speculated for some time that the Norse had beat Columbus to America because old Icelandic sagas, such as the Greenland Saga and Erik the Red’s Saga, described voyages to Vinland around the year 1000. In the late 1950s, archeologists announced that they had found ruins of the Vinland settlement in northern Newfoundland.

North Americans were ready for some hold-in-your-hand proof of the Norse presence in North America. When the book dealers offered the map for sale in North America, a billionaire named Paul Mellon snapped it up for $1 million and donated it to Yale University.

The map was made public in November 1965, just before Columbus Day. This was bad timing for Italian and Spanish Americans who took pride in Columbus, the Italian who had sailed for Spain. They felt it was rude to steal Columbus’s thunder, and joined the chorus of English scientists who were already crying “Fake!”

In 1966 the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC invited experts from all over the world to stop fighting and calmly discuss the map’s authenticity. The assembled experts began by questioning the book dealer who sold the map to Paul Mellon. He refused to reveal his sources, but this was not unusual. During World War II, the Nazis had stolen art and book collections from people in countries they conquered. These art objects found their way to dealers after the war. Dealers were reluctant to reveal too much about where their treasures came from, in case the original owners reclaimed them. All the Vinland Map conference could get from the book dealer was that he had acquired the map from “a private European collector.”

Then the experts discussed how the strange map was found, bound into an old book. Bookbinding experts ran their fingers over the object and put their noses down to literally sniff it. They decided that the binding that attached the book and the map was suspiciously new, possibly even from the early 20th century. Even more puzzling, the Vinland Map wormholes didn’t match the wormholes in the book’s other pages. How could worms stop dead at one page and resume burrowing in a new direction on the next?

The map’s defenders had answers for both these objections: Maybe the book’s pages fell out and got mixed up. Maybe the book was rebound in the early 20th century.

Everyone at the conference spent a surprising amount of time discussing wormholes — because by the early 20th century, antique maps were starting to be worth real money. For example, in 1901, you could have bought a 1482 edition of Ptolemy’s Cosmographia for $350. In 1950, the asking price was $5,000. By 1965, the year before the Vinland Map Conference, it was priced at $28,000. As old maps gained value, forgers learned how to make maps look older by faking wormholes, sometimes drilling them with hot wires. One Yale professor said he knew of an English bookseller who kept “a stable of live worms,” to munch up modern maps so they would appear ancient.

Since the experts couldn’t resolve the worm question, they turned to the map’s contents. Many were very suspicious that the Vinland Map showed Greenland as an island. European sailors didn’t know that for sure until the late 19th century. “No problem,” said the map’s defenders. If the map had been drawn by Bishop Eirik of Greenland, he might have made Greenland an island because it was easier to claim islands for the Church than whole continents.

The scientists heard reports on the map’s ink crusts, and whether the ink was flaking the way old crusts of ink should flake. They examined the map under ultraviolet light. But when the conference broke up after two days of intense talk, the Vinland Map mystery remained unsolved.

Years passed. Some people who believed in the map estimated that, if it was genuine, it would be worth about $25 million.

But not everyone believed in it. In 1974, a Chicago scientist analyzing its ink and the yellowish stains detected the presence of round, whitish crystals. He identified them as anatase, a chemical compound not in use until the 1920s. He said the map was a fraud. Other chemists speculated that the anatase might have somehow settled on the map during its handling by modern scientists. They said that the Vinland Map could still be real.

In 1995, American scientists completed a seven-year-long radiocarbon study of the parchment the map was drawn on. They pinned down its age to the year 1434; the parchment, at least, was genuine. Then chemists from the University of London aimed a laser at the map’s ink and its stains, and detected anatase in the actual pigment itself.

Now most experts agree that the parchment is old, but what’s drawn on it is new. So much for the Vinland Map’s $25-million value. (A few diehards still insist the thing could be genuine, though, and Yale University is hanging on to it.)

But who made it and why?

In 2002, an American historian named Kirsten Seaver came forward with a plausible theory about the Vinland Map’s forger. She named a Jesuit priest, Father Josef Fischer.

Many map dealers and scholars knew that name well. In fact, it was Father Fischer who had found Martin Waldseemüller’s 1507 book on geography, in which he explained why he thought the New World should be named “America.” As a scholar of early mapmaking, Father Fischer had access to old libraries where he could have found a blank piece of parchment. But if he had the knowledge, the connections, and the skills to commit the forgery, what was his motive?

Kirsten Seaver says that in the late 1930s the old priest was living in retirement in an Austrian monastery. Then the Nazis took it over and decided to shut it down. Furious, Father Fischer decided to forge a map that would embarrass them.

He knew that the Nazis refuted Christianity, and that they had bizarre ideas about the superiority of the illiterate, primitive Norse people, regarding them as the “master race.” Father Fischer gambled that the Nazis would champion his fake map because they hungered for anything that showed what heroes the Norse were. But, in championing the map, the Nazis would be forced to publicize the text on the map – including the “fact” that the New World had been claimed by a Christian, the bishop of Greenland. It was all there on the same document. If they accepted one part, they had to accept the other.

The jury is still out on Seaver’s solution to the mystery of the Vinland Map and who made it. But the fact that it was forged, acquired a huge value, and was taken seriously, reveals some of our feelings about maps.

Maps have authority. They make claims, stake out territory, and confirm history. We decide that they are worth huge amounts of money when they tell us the history that we want to hear.

The people who originally composed the Vinland sagas did not record things by writing them down, and the history most of us learn doesn’t usually give credit to pre-literate peoples for their land claims. We are used to reserving our respect for documents and charts. The sagas, and the Vinland Map, are reminders that maps can come in many forms, and so can mapmakers. The story of the Vinland Map is also proof that the best way to read a map is to learn what you can about the mapmakers, and figure out what they were really trying to show you.

Only then are you ready to find your own way.

From the Hardcover edition.

Read More Show Less

First Chapter

THE MAPMAKER'S SECRET IDENTITY

The Vinland Map

Some time in the first half of the 20th century, someone picks up a pen and begins to fake an antique map. The forgery will "prove" that the Norsemen, or Vikings, had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to America long before Christopher Columbus's arrival in 1492.

The forger's pen hovers for a moment above a blank piece of parchment (animal skin prepared as a writing surface). The parchment is no fake. And, although it dates from about 1440
long after the Norse voyages to "Wineland" or Vinland (the Norse name for North America) around the year 1000the forger is not worried, since many mapmakers based their maps on earlier maps. What is important is that his map will seem to predate Columbus.

The forger works carefully, writing in Latin and watering his ink so it will appear faded. He knows that medieval mapmakers used inks mixed from iron compounds that erode and leave a rusty stain, and plans to fake such stains with yellowish dye. He might even add holes to the parchment, to make it look like it was eaten by bookworms.

He draws the Mediterranean Sea, Northern Europe, Iceland, and Greenland. Then he dips his pen again, pauses, and commits himself to making the squiggly line that will turn his map into front-page headlines. Beyond Greenland, he draws a line showing the east coast of North America.

He adds notes to his map. One mentions the discovery of "a new land, extremely fertile and having vines" by the Norseman Leif Eriksson. Another note tells of a journey to Vinland around 1100 by Bishop Eirik Gnupsson of Greenland, who claimed the new landfor the Holy Church.

The forger knows a lot about mapmakers of the past. He knows that the first map to use the word "America" was drawn by a German priest named Martin Waldseemüller in 1507. And he knows that any map older than Waldseemüller's that shows North America will be a cartographic bombshell.

In 1957, book dealers tried to sell a "Vinland Map" to the British Museum in London. The map they offered was bound into an old book about an Italian priest's travels to Mongolia. The British Museum experts took a look at the book. They thought the Italian priest part looked genuine. But as for the Vinland Map – they smelled a rat and said, "No, thank you."

So the book dealers decided to unload their Vinland Map in North America. This time, the map convinced people – perhaps because people were ready to be convinced. Scholars had speculated for some time that the Norse had beat Columbus to America because old Icelandic sagas, such as the Greenland Saga and Erik the Red's Saga, described voyages to Vinland around the year 1000. In the late 1950s, archeologists announced that they had found ruins of the Vinland settlement in northern Newfoundland.

North Americans were ready for some hold-in-your-hand proof of the Norse presence in North America. When the book dealers offered the map for sale in North America, a billionaire named Paul Mellon snapped it up for $1 million and donated it to Yale University.

The map was made public in November 1965, just before Columbus Day. This was bad timing for Italian and Spanish Americans who took pride in Columbus, the Italian who had sailed for Spain. They felt it was rude to steal Columbus's thunder, and joined the chorus of English scientists who were already crying "Fake!"

In 1966 the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC invited experts from all over the world to stop fighting and calmly discuss the map's authenticity. The assembled experts began by questioning the book dealer who sold the map to Paul Mellon. He refused to reveal his sources, but this was not unusual. During World War II, the Nazis had stolen art and book collections from people in countries they conquered. These art objects found their way to dealers after the war. Dealers were reluctant to reveal too much about where their treasures came from, in case the original owners reclaimed them. All the Vinland Map conference could get from the book dealer was that he had acquired the map from "a private European collector."

Then the experts discussed how the strange map was found, bound into an old book. Bookbinding experts ran their fingers over the object and put their noses down to literally sniff it. They decided that the binding that attached the book and the map was suspiciously new, possibly even from the early 20th century. Even more puzzling, the Vinland Map wormholes didn't match the wormholes in the book's other pages. How could worms stop dead at one page and resume burrowing in a new direction on the next?

The map's defenders had answers for both these objections: Maybe the book's pages fell out and got mixed up. Maybe the book was rebound in the early 20th century.

Everyone at the conference spent a surprising amount of time discussing wormholes — because by the early 20th century, antique maps were starting to be worth real money. For example, in 1901, you could have bought a 1482 edition of Ptolemy's Cosmographia for $350. In 1950, the asking price was $5,000. By 1965, the year before the Vinland Map Conference, it was priced at $28,000. As old maps gained value, forgers learned how to make maps look older by faking wormholes, sometimes drilling them with hot wires. One Yale professor said he knew of an English bookseller who kept "a stable of live worms," to munch up modern maps so they would appear ancient.

Since the experts couldn't resolve the worm question, they turned to the map's contents. Many were very suspicious that the Vinland Map showed Greenland as an island. European sailors didn't know that for sure until the late 19th century. "No problem," said the map's defenders. If the map had been drawn by Bishop Eirik of Greenland, he might have made Greenland an island because it was easier to claim islands for the Church than whole continents.

The scientists heard reports on the map's ink crusts, and whether the ink was flaking the way old crusts of ink should flake. They examined the map under ultraviolet light. But when the conference broke up after two days of intense talk, the Vinland Map mystery remained unsolved.

Years passed. Some people who believed in the map estimated that, if it was genuine, it would be worth about $25 million.

But not everyone believed in it. In 1974, a Chicago scientist analyzing its ink and the yellowish stains detected the presence of round, whitish crystals. He identified them as anatase, a chemical compound not in use until the 1920s. He said the map was a fraud. Other chemists speculated that the anatase might have somehow settled on the map during its handling by modern scientists. They said that the Vinland Map could still be real.

In 1995, American scientists completed a seven-year-long radiocarbon study of the parchment the map was drawn on. They pinned down its age to the year 1434; the parchment, at least, was genuine. Then chemists from the University of London aimed a laser at the map's ink and its stains, and detected anatase in the actual pigment itself.

Now most experts agree that the parchment is old, but what's drawn on it is new. So much for the Vinland Map's $25-million value. (A few diehards still insist the thing could be genuine, though, and Yale University is hanging on to it.)

But who made it and why?

In 2002, an American historian named Kirsten Seaver came forward with a plausible theory about the Vinland Map's forger. She named a Jesuit priest, Father Josef Fischer.

Many map dealers and scholars knew that name well. In fact, it was Father Fischer who had found Martin Waldseemüller's 1507 book on geography, in which he explained why he thought the New World should be named "America." As a scholar of early mapmaking, Father Fischer had access to old libraries where he could have found a blank piece of parchment. But if he had the knowledge, the connections, and the skills to commit the forgery, what was his motive?

Kirsten Seaver says that in the late 1930s the old priest was living in retirement in an Austrian monastery. Then the Nazis took it over and decided to shut it down. Furious, Father Fischer decided to forge a map that would embarrass them.

He knew that the Nazis refuted Christianity, and that they had bizarre ideas about the superiority of the illiterate, primitive Norse people, regarding them as the "master race." Father Fischer gambled that the Nazis would champion his fake map because they hungered for anything that showed what heroes the Norse were. But, in championing the map, the Nazis would be forced to publicize the text on the map – including the "fact" that the New World had been claimed by a Christian, the bishop of Greenland. It was all there on the same document. If they accepted one part, they had to accept the other.

The jury is still out on Seaver's solution to the mystery of the Vinland Map and who made it. But the fact that it was forged, acquired a huge value, and was taken seriously, reveals some of our feelings about maps.

Maps have authority. They make claims, stake out territory, and confirm history. We decide that they are worth huge amounts of money when they tell us the history that we want to hear.

The people who originally composed the Vinland sagas did not record things by writing them down, and the history most of us learn doesn't usually give credit to pre-literate peoples for their land claims. We are used to reserving our respect for documents and charts. The sagas, and the Vinland Map, are reminders that maps can come in many forms, and so can mapmakers. The story of the Vinland Map is also proof that the best way to read a map is to learn what you can about the mapmakers, and figure out what they were really trying to show you.

Only then are you ready to find your own way.
Read More Show Less

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