From the Publisher
“Impressive. . . . An extraordinary story.”
—The New York Times Book Review
“Judicious, comprehensive and reliable. . . . By far the most thorough survey yet written of Oppenheimer’s physics. . . . A convincing portrait.”
—The New Yorker
“Oppenheimer is fortunate to have been given such an exemplary biographer.”
“Essential reading for Oppie enthusiasts, even those who don't know a meson from a cosmic ray (and don't much care).”
“[Robert Oppenheimer] feels suspiciously like the best biography I’ve ever read.”
—Bryan Appleyard, New Statesman
“A masterclass in how biography, done well, gets us closer to the mindset of an age than any other kind of inquiry.”
—The Guardian (London)
“Monk is a levelheaded and congenial guide to Oppenheimer’s life. . . . [His] discussion of Oppenheimer’s work in physics is one of his book’s great contributions to the saga, an area of the man’s life that previous biographies have neglected.”
—The Daily Beast
“Monk’s book is a tour de force. . . . This will, I am sure, establish itself as the definitive biography.”
—Lisa Jardine, Financial Times
“An enigma to many of his contemporaries, Oppenheimer made enemies as easily as friends. Monk is at his best when teasing apart Oppenheimer’s confusing inner life, finding in his ‘enigmatic elusiveness’ and ‘his inability to make ordinary close contact’ with others the source of his acknowledged genius in leading the Manhattan Project.” —San Francisco Chronicle
“An extraordinarily rich biography, superbly researched and written with impressive clarity. It is a considerable achievement of scholarship.”
—The Times (London)
“Does what nothing so far written on the enigmatic physicist has attempted: integrating into a seamless whole a profound inquiry into the formative influences on Oppenheimer’s character, a definitive account of his complex role in the development of the atomic bomb and a penetrating analysis of the philosophical implications of the new physics. It is not just a great biography but a powerful work of art.”
—New Statesman (London)
“Monk describes and explains Oppenheimer’s contributions to physics and places them in their historical context. . . . The permutations of the Oppenheimer enigma are investigated in this nonpareil biography.”
—The Buffalo News
“It is the epic story of the atomic bomb and Oppenheimer’s fall from grace in the McCarthyite era that stir the reader. . . . Science has received short shrift from [Oppenheimer’s] several biographers. It is this that Ray Monk’s life has set out to rectify.”
—The Independent (London)
“A triumph of historical investigation. . . . It is the most personal and sensitive biography of Oppenheimer so far published; the man himself rises from the pages, a figure worthy at times of reverence, but often of contempt.”
—The Telegraph (London)
“Monk retells this great 20th-century tragedy magnificently, in measured English prose, not Time journalese. . . . The tension between Oppenheimer’s two sides—his need to be at the centre of power versus his wish to retain his conscience—lie at the heart of [this] wonderful new biography.”
—The Observer (London)
“[The book paints] a detailed picture of two groups of people who played an important role in Oppenheimer’s life: the tightly knit society of wealthy German New York Jews to which his parents belonged, and the small army of security officers who monitored his social and political activities when he was engaged in secret work in Berkeley and Los Alamos. . . . Monk brings these two groups vividly to life.”
—The New York Review of Books
“It’s not just brilliant, original, and the best biography of Oppenheimer to date, it’s epic. Also totally gripping and immensely satisfying. . . . I’ve read so much about Oppenheimer, but this is the first time I felt I understood why what happened to him happened.”
—Sylvia Nasar, author of A Beautiful Mind and Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
“[Monk is an] inspired philosophical biographer. . . . This is an eagerly awaited and important book which will explore new boundaries in the writing of biography itself.”
—Richard Holmes, author of The Age of Wonder
“Oppenheimer alone is a fascinating subject, but Monk provides copious illuminating detail from the historical surround. . . . [A] superb biography.”
—London Review of Books
“This grand biography illuminates the genius of a fascinating scientist as driven by his own research as he was driven to lead and inspire others.”
“A highly detailed examination. . . . Monk does full justice to Oppenheimer’s irreplaceable contribution to the development of nuclear energy during and after World War II. . . . A top-notch biography.”
—Kirkus Reviews (starred review)
It's difficult to find a more complicated figure in 20th century physics than J. Robert Oppenheimer. While previous biographies have examined Oppenheimer's philosophy and politics, Monk's work stands apart for its attention to his work in physics. Born in 1904 to a well-off German Jewish family, Oppenheimer had a sheltered childhood and grew into an unrepentant "intellectual snob", putting mas-tery above sociability. Monk (Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius) captures Oppenheimer's zeal; a Harvard undergraduate dividing his time between chemistry and literature—until he discovered physics. Clumsiness in the lab and fascination with quantum mechanics led him to theoretical physics where he excelled. Monk connects Oppenheimer's drive to succeed with his skill at building power-house teams of physicists: at Berkeley, where he created the first American school of theoretical phys-ics; at Los Alamos, where he guided the Manhattan Project; and after WWII at the Institute for Ad-vanced Study in Princeton, NJ. Monk explores the tangled politics that surrounded Oppenheimer as well as his weapons work, while celebrating the physicist's work on cosmic rays and stellar collapse. This grand biography illuminates the genius of a fascinating scientist as driven by his own research as he was driven to lead and inspire others. (May)
The New York Times Book Review - George Johnson
…an extraordinary story, and Monk the author of acclaimed biographies of Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein tells it well.
Monk (philosophy, Univ. of Southampton; Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius) sets out to write an "internal" biography of Robert Oppenheimer, one that gives the man's psychological and emotional complexities their due, a difficult task with a subject who was so private. The author also establishes that his goal is to do greater justice to Oppenheimer's physics, placing both Oppenheimer's science and his participation in the public sphere in their historical context. For the most part, Monk succeeds. Drawing on Oppenheimer's own papers and the works of others, he explores the scientist's early life and education, his abilities as a facilitator and motivator of other scientists, and his controversial time at Los Alamos National Laboratory and its aftermath. Yet physics and the development of the atom bomb are Monk's primary focus, with his explanations of these topics accessible and clear. Oppenheimer himself remains elusive, as he has in previous biographies. Those who seek to understand the man more fully might try his Letters and Recollections, edited by Alice Kimball Smith and Charles Weiner. VERDICT As it's likely Oppenheimer will remain an enigma, this title is recommended for anyone interested in the man and his contributions to physics and to the development of the atom bomb.—Jon Bodnar, Emory Univ. Lib., Atlanta
A highly detailed examination of the life and times of Robert Oppenheimer (1904–1967), the man who ushered in the Atomic Age and played a leading role in putting American science on the map. Monk (Philosophy/Southampton Univ.; Bertrand Russell: The Ghost of Madness, 1921–1970, 2001, etc.) does full justice to Oppenheimer's irreplaceable contribution to the development of nuclear energy during and after World War II. The author also addresses his less well-known contributions to nuclear physics, including "a method that is used even now for understanding the physical processes that occur in the interiors of stars." Born to an affluent Jewish family, Oppenheimer had a privileged upbringing (private schools, Harvard University and extensive study abroad), yet he faced a rising tide of anti-Semitism even in America. Among many examples, Monk quotes a reference by George Birkhoff, Harvard's most eminent mathematician, supporting his application: "He is Jewish but I should consider him a very fine type of man." In 1927, Oppenheimer co-authored a paper on quantum chemistry with the leading quantum physicist, Max Born, but in Europe, he faced anti-American prejudice among scientists such as Paul Dirac. Monk explains that experiences such as these prompted Oppenheimer to accept a joint teaching position in California, at Berkeley and Caltech, where he devoted himself to establishing "a world center of theoretical physics in the U.S." The Spanish Civil War drew Oppenheimer into left-wing politics (and surveillance by the FBI), but he also had a distinguished career during WWII as head of the Manhattan Project and after, when he played a key role in shaping American nuclear policy. In 1954, renewal of his security clearance was denied, a miscarriage of justice that President John F. Kennedy reversed by awarding him the prestigious Fermi Prize. A top-notch biography of Oppenheimer to sit alongside Kai Bird and Martin Sherwin's American Prometheus (2006).
Read an Excerpt
Excerpted from the Hardcover edition
“Amerika, du hast es besser ”:
Oppenheimer’s German Jewish Background
J. Robert Oppenheimer, his friend Isidor Rabi once remarked, was “a man who was put together of many bright shining splinters,” who “never got to be an integrated personality.” What prevented Oppenheimer from being fully integrated, Rabi thought, was his denial of a centrally important part of himself: his Jewishness. As the physicist Felix Bloch, echoing Rabi, once put it, Oppenheimer “tried to act as if he were not a Jew and succeeded well because he was a good actor.” And, because he was always acting (“you carried on a charade with him. He lived a charade,” Rabi once remarked), he lost sight of who he really was. Oppenheimer had an impressive and wide-ranging collection of talents, abilities and personal characteristics, but where the central, united core of his personality ought to have been, Rabi thought, there was a gap and so there was nothing to hold those “bright shining splinters” together. “I understood his problem,” Rabi said, and, when asked what that problem was, replied simply: “Identity.”
Rabi spoke as someone who, by virtue of his background, intelligence and education, was well placed to understand Oppenheimer’s “problem.” He and Oppenheimer had a great deal in common: they were roughly the same age (Rabi was six years older), they were both theoretical physicists, were both brought up in New York City and were both descended from European Jewish families. Behind this last similarity, however, lay a fundamental difference. Rabi was proud of his Jewish inheritance and happy to define himself in terms of it. Though he had no religious beliefs, and never prayed, he once said that when he saw Orthodox Jews at prayer, the thought that came into his mind was: “These are my people.”
No such thought could have entered Oppenheimer’s mind, no matter who he was looking at. There was no group to whom he could point and say, “These are my people,” and not just because of his ambivalence about his Jewish background. It was also because that background itself, regardless of Oppenheimer’s feelings about it, could not have provided him with the sense of belonging and, therefore, the sense of identity that Rabi thought was missing in him. Rabi, despite his lack of religious beliefs, was Jewish in a fairly straightforward and unambiguous way; the Jews simply were “his people.” Theirs was the community to which he belonged. One cannot say the same about Oppenheimer. The sense in which he was Jewish, the sense in which he didand did notcome from, and belong to, a Jewish community, is far more complicated and, as Rabi has perceptively noted, crucial in understanding the fragility of his sense of identity.
For an understanding of the elusive nature of Oppenheimer’s Jewishness, the contrast between his family background and Rabi’s is instructive. Despite their many and important similarities, and despite the fact that they grew up within a few miles of each other, Rabi and Oppenheimer were born into and brought up in families that were culturally worlds apart. Rabi was a “Polish Jew.” Born in Galicia to a poor, Yiddish-speaking family of Orthodox Jews, he came to New York as an infant and was raised, first in the crowded slums of the Lower East Side and then in a tiny apartment in Brooklyn. Oppenheimer was born not in Europe, but in New York City, to a wealthy family that had abandoned its Jewish faith and traditions a generation earlier. The bustling and crowded “Jewish Ghetto” of the Lower East Side would have seemed utterly alien to the young Oppenheimer, who was brought up in an enormous luxury apartment in the genteel Upper West Side. The family had never spoken Yiddish, and, though German was his father’s first language, it was never spoken at home.
And yet, despite regarding himself as neither German nor Jewish, Oppenheimer was seen, by Jews and non-Jews alike, as a “German Jew.” In New York in the early twentieth century the central division among the Jewish community was between, on the one hand, the German Jews and, on the other, the Polish and Russian Jewsthe differences between the two groups accurately mirrored by the differences between Oppenheimer and Rabi. The German Jews, sometimes called “Uptown Jews,” were on the whole wealthier, more assimilated and less religious than their Polish and Russian counterparts, to whom they were notoriously condescending. At the time of Oppenheimer’s birth in 1904 there were more Polish and Russian Jews in New York than German Jews, but the Germans assumed leadership of the Jewish community and took it upon themselves to help “Americanize” the Russians and Poles, who reacted with resentment at what they saw as a dismissal of their religion and their customs.
What Rabi called Oppenheimer’s problemthe problem of identitywas, in fact, a problem for the entire American Jewish community, perhaps its central problem. Certainly it was the issue at the heart of the tension between the two groups of Jews in New York City. For the Russian and Polish Jews, their sense of identity was bound up with their Jewishness: their Orthodox religious beliefs, their Yiddish language and their Jewish culture and traditions. That sense of identity, that culture, however, had been abandoned by the German Jews before they even came to America.
The mass migration of German Jews to America that occurred in the mid-nineteenth century was intimately bound up with their earlier abandonment of the traditional trappings of Jewish identity. Haskalah, the Jewish Enlightenment of the late eighteenth century, was an essentially German movement, its prophet being the great Prussian Jewish thinker Moses Mendelssohn. Haskalah, which led in turn to that other essentially German movement, Reform Judaism, encouraged Jews to, literally and metaphorically, leave the ghettos in which they had been confined and embrace the modernizing ideas of the wider Western European Enlightenment. This meant using German rather than Hebrew as the language of worship, abandoning traditions and customs that served to isolate Jews from the rest of society, and reforming Jewish education so that it prepared people for the world at large rather than schooling them in a separate culture. The hope that inspired these changes was that, in return for abandoning those aspects of their culture that identified them as radically different from others, the Jews would receive from the gentile world a lifting of the discriminatory laws that affected almost every aspect of their lives, and a full acceptance as members of society with the same legal, financial and political rights as other citizens. Thus fully assimilated, Jews would no longer think of themselves as a separate race or nation, but rather as adherents of a religion. Their nationality would be German, and they would be not a bit less German for worshipping in a synagogue rather than a church.
It was the dashing of this hope that persuaded hundreds of thousands of German Jews in the middle decades of the nineteenth century to turn their backs on their home country and look to Americaa country founded upon the proposition that the equality of all men and the inalienability of the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness were self-evident truthsto find the freedom and equality they had failed to achieve in Germany. Thus, in the eyes of German Jews, America became not only a refuge from discrimination and prejudice, but also the national embodiment of Enlightenment ideals, the ideals of Haskalah. Many of them therefore ceased trying to become accepted as Germans and sought instead to become accepted as Americans.
“Amerika, du hast es besser.” These famous words of Goethe are contained in the poem “Den Vereinigten Staaten” (“To the United States”), written in 1827, when, as an old man, he reflected upon the advantages that youthful America had over the “Old Continent” in having no tradition, no “decaying castles,” and being therefore free from the continuous strife that comes from long memories. The image of America that Goethe’s poem conjures up is one of a tabula rasa, waiting, so to speak, to have its history written upon it. This was an image perfectly suited to arouse the interest and expectations of the German Jews, a group who longed to start afresh, free from the tensions and prejudices of the past.
And so, beginning in the 1820s, the rallying cry “On to America” echoed throughout the Jewish community in Germany. A whole movement grew up dedicated to the encouragement of migration to the United States, publicizing the financial, social and political advantages of the New World, and providing hope and support to those prepared to make what must have been an alarming as well as an exciting fresh start. In books by Europeans who had been to America, in letters to relatives from those who had migrated, and in village meetings where people gathered to hear firsthand accounts of American life from migrants who had returned to visit families, the image of America as “the common man’s utopia” was spread, inspiring more and more Jews to set sail for the United States.
A typical example of such inspirational firsthand accounts is a letter written in November 1846 by the journalist and academic Max Lilienthal, which was published in the German Jewish weekly newspaper Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums. Extolling “the beautiful ground of civil equality” that he had discovered in America, Lilienthal announced: “The old Europe with its restrictions lies behind me like a bad dream . . . At last I breathe in liberty . . . Jew or Christian, Christian or Jewthis old strife is forgotten, and only the man as such is respected and loved.” Encouraging others to follow his example, he urged: “Shake off the centuries-old dust of Jew-pressure . . . become a human being like everybody else.” And, he promised, in America: “Jewish hearts are open in welcome. Jewish organisations ready to help anyone. Why should you go on carrying the burden of legal exclusion?”
The number of German Jews willing and eager to “shake off the centuries-old dust of Jew-pressure” was so large that it completely transformed the American Jewish community. In 1840, there were just 15,000 Jews in the United States; by 1880, there were 280,000, most of whom were of German origin. This influx of German Jews is known to Jewish historians as the “Second Migration”the “First Migration” being the arrival in the seventeenth century of a small community of Sephardic Jews. These were descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain and Portugal in the fifteenth century, who, by the nineteenth century, were a well-established part of American life.
These self-styled “old American Sephardic families” took pride in the fact that they had been in America for as many generations as the descendants of the Pilgrim Fathers, and tended to treat the new German arrivals with the kind of lofty disdain with which the German Jews would later treat the Russians and Poles. The first German Jews to arrive in America accepted the leadership of the old Sephardic community and even adopted the Sephardic form of worship. When the number of German Jewish migrants began to increase dramatically, however, the balance of power shifted and the German, Ashkenazi Jews replaced the Sephardim as the leaders of the American Jewish community.
The mass influx into America of Russian and Polish Jews, which took place from 1880 to 1920, formed the “Third Migration,” and was on an entirely different scale from the previous two, being measured not in tens of thousands, or in hundreds of thousands, but in millions. Roughly two and a half million Jews from Eastern Europe arrived in the United States during the Third Migration, bringing with them a very different kind of Jewish culture from that of either the Sephardim or the Germans.
The arrival of these Russian and Polish Jews was such an embarrassment to the established German Jewish community that their first reaction to it was to argue, through editorials in their newspaper, American Hebrew, and direct lobbying from their organization, the United Hebrew Charities of New York, for the introduction of tougher immigration laws. When this came to nothing and the number of Eastern European Jewish immigrants kept rising, the German Jews set up the Education Alliance, which organized Americanization programs in which the new immigrants were instructed in “the privileges and duties of American citizenship.” What drove these measures was not only the German Jews’ love of America, but also a dread of the anti-Semitism which they feared the Eastern European Jews would arouse. The Jewish historian Gerald Sorin points out: “These uptowners were very taken with Israel Zangwill’s play ‘The Melting Pot.’ They saw in it a reinforcement of their own proposed solution for the problems of downtown: the sooner immigrants from eastern Europe gave up their cultural distinctiveness and melted into the homogenized mass, the sooner anti-Semitism would also melt.”
It was a strategy that German Jews had tried unsuccessfully in Germany, but which seemed to be working in the United States. It required, however, constant vigilance with respect to “cultural distinctiveness,” a vigilance that could easily slip into the kind of self-denial of which Rabi accused Oppenheimer. One form this vigilance took was an acute sensitivity among German Jews about their names. Sometimes this led to the abandonment of German-sounding surnames, a notable example being August Schonberg, the son of an impoverished Jewish family from the Rhineland, who would become famous as the millionaire New York banker August Belmont. More often, though, it took the form of changing one’s first name and giving to one’s children names that sounded reassuringly “American.” Joseph Seligman, another millionaire New York banker, brought his brothers, Wolfgang, Jacob and Isaias, over from Germany, but on arrival they became William, James and Jesse. The names of Joseph Seligman’s children look like a roll call of American heroes: George Washington Seligman, Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman and Alfred Lincoln Seligman (evidently “Abraham” was considered too Judaic).
Of the American heroes commemorated in these names, the least well known today is undoubtedly Robert Anderson. He was a major in the U.S. army at the time of the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861 and was involved in the opening hostilities, when Fort Sumter in South Carolina, which was then under his command, came under fire from the Confederates. For holding his ground and defending the fort for thirty-four hours Major Anderson was promoted by Abraham Lincoln to Brigadier General and became a national hero, not just for the duration of the war, but also for many decades afterward. Because of him, the name “Robert” became immensely popular. For anyone wanting to affirm the American identity of their offspring, it was the natural choice. Indeed J. Robert Oppenheimer was to like it so much that he ignored the “J” in his name and was known, by family and friends, simply as “Robert” or “Bob.” When he was asked what the “J” stood for, he would reply that it stood for nothing. In fact, as his birth certificate shows, it stands for “Julius,” his father’s name. For anyone striving to avoid “cultural distinctiveness,” the name “Robert Oppenheimer,” or even “J. Robert Oppenheimer,” had obvious advantages over “Julius Oppenheimer.”