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Routing and Switching Essentials Companion Guide [NOOK Book]

Overview

Routing and Switching Essentials Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing and Switching Essentials course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a small network. You learn how to configure a router and a switch for basic functionality. By the end of this course, you will be able to configure and troubleshoot routers and ...

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Routing and Switching Essentials Companion Guide

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Overview

Routing and Switching Essentials Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing and Switching Essentials course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a small network. You learn how to configure a router and a switch for basic functionality. By the end of this course, you will be able to configure and troubleshoot routers and switches and resolve common issues with RIPv1, RIPv2, single-area and multi-area OSPF, virtual LANs, and inter-VLAN routing in both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.

The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:

  • Chapter objectives–Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.
  • Key terms–Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.
  • Glossary–Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 200 terms.
  • Summary of Activities and Labs–Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.
  • Check Your Understanding–Evaluate your readiness with the end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.

Related Title:

Routing and Switching Essentials Lab Manual

How To–Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.

Interactive Activities–Reinforce your understanding of topics by doing all the exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.

Videos–Watch the videos embedded within the online course.

Packet Tracer Activities–Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters.

Hands-on Labs–Work through all the course labs and additional Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Lab Manual.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133476200
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 2/12/2014
  • Series: Companion Guide
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 864
  • Sales rank: 574,750
  • File size: 83 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Cisco Networking Academy teaches hundreds of thousands of students annually the skills needed to build, design, and maintain, networks, improving their career prospects while filling the global demand for networking professionals. With 10,000 academies in 165 countries, it helps individuals prepare for industry-recognized certifications and entry-level information and communication technology careers in virtually every industry -- developing foundational technical skills while acquiring vital 21st-century career skills in problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking. Cisco Networking Academy uses a public-private partnership model to create the "world's largest classroom."
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Table of Contents

Introduction xxviii

Chapter 1 Introduction to Switched Networks 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 2

LAN Design (1.1) 2

Converged Networks (1.1.1) 3

Growing Complexity of Networks (1.1.1.1) 3

Elements of a Converged Network (1.1.1.2) 4

Borderless Switched Networks (1.1.1.3) 5

Hierarchy in the Borderless Switched Network (1.1.1.4) 6

Core Distribution Access (1.1.1.5) 7

Switched Networks (1.1.2) 10

Role of Switched Networks (1.1.2.1) 10

Form Factors (1.1.2.2) 11

The Switched Environment (1.2) 14

Frame Forwarding (1.2.1) 14

Switching as a General Concept in Networking and Telecommunications (1.2.1.1) 14

Dynamically Populating a Switch MAC Address Table (1.2.1.2) 15

Switch Forwarding Methods (1.2.1.3) 19

Store-and-Forward Switching (1.2.1.4) 20

Cut-Through Switching (1.2.1.5) 21

Switching Domains (1.2.2) 22

Collision Domains (1.2.2.1) 22

Broadcast Domains (1.2.2.2) 23

Alleviating Network Congestion (1.2.2.3) 25

Summary (1.3) 26

Practice 27

Class Activities 28

Packet Tracer Activities 28

Check Your Understanding Questions 28

Chapter 2 Basic Switching Concepts and Configuration 33

Objectives 33

Key Terms 33

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 35

Basic Switch Configuration (2.1) 36

Switch Boot Sequence (2.1.1.1) 36

Recovering from a System Crash (2.1.1.2) 37

Switch LED Indicators (2.1.1.3) 38

Preparing for Basic Switch Management (2.1.1.4) 40

Configuring Basic Switch Management Access with IPv4 (2.1.1.5) 41

Configure Switch Ports (2.1.2) 44

Duplex Communication (2.1.2.1) 44

Configure Switch Ports at the Physical Layer (2.1.2.2) 45

Duplex and Speed 45

Auto-MDIX (2.1.2.3) 46

Verifying Switch Port Configuration (2.1.2.4) 48

Network Access Layer Issues (2.1.2.5) 50

Troubleshooting Network Access Layer Issues (2.1.2.6) 53

Switch Security: Management and Implementation (2.2) 54

Secure Remote Access (2.2.1) 54

SSH Operation (2.2.1.1) 55

Configuring SSH (2.2.1.2) 56

Verifying SSH (2.2.1.3) 57

Security Concerns in LANs (2.2.2) 59

Common Security Attacks: MAC Address Flooding (2.2.2.1) 59

Common Security Attacks: DHCP Spoofing (2.2.2.2) 63

Common Security Attacks: Leveraging CDP (2.2.2.3) 64

Security Best Practices (2.2.3) 66

Best Practices (2.2.3.1) 66

Network Security Tools and Testing (2.2.3.2) 66

Network Security Audits (2.2.3.3) 67

Switch Port Security (2.2.4) 68

Secure Unused Ports (2.2.4.1) 68

DHCP Snooping (2.2.4.2) 69

Port Security: Operation (2.2.4.3) 71

Port Security: Violation Modes (2.2.4.4) 73

Port Security: Configuring (2.2.4.5) 74

Port Security: Verifying (2.2.4.6) 75

Ports in Error Disabled State (2.2.4.7) 77

Network Time Protocol (NTP) (2.2.4.8) 78

Summary (2.3) 81

Practice 83

Class Activities 83

Labs 83

Packet Tracer Activities 84

Check Your Understanding Questions 84

Chapter 3 VLANs 89

Objectives 89

Key Terms 89

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 90

VLAN Segmentation (3.1) 91

VLAN Definitions (3.1.1.1) 91

Benefits of VLANs (3.1.1.2) 92

Types of VLANs (3.1.1.3) 93

Data VLAN 93

Default VLAN 93

Native VLAN 94

Management VLAN 95

Voice VLANs (3.1.1.4) 96

VLANs in a Multiswitched Environment (3.1.2) 97

VLAN Trunks (3.1.2.1) 97

Controlling Broadcast Domains with VLANs (3.1.2.2) 98

Network Without VLANs 98

Network with VLANs 99

Tagging Ethernet Frames for VLAN Identification (3.1.2.3) 101

Native VLANs and 802.1Q Tagging (3.1.2.4) 102

Tagged Frames on the Native VLAN 102

Untagged Frames on the Native VLAN 102

Voice VLAN Tagging (3.1.2.5) 103

Sample Configuration 104

VLAN Implementations (3.2) 105

VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches (3.2.1.1) 105

Creating a VLAN (3.2.1.2) 106

Assigning Ports to VLANs (3.2.1.3) 108

Changing VLAN Port Membership (3.2.1.4) 109

Deleting VLANs (3.2.1.5) 111

Verifying VLAN Information (3.2.1.6) 112

VLAN Trunks (3.2.2) 114

Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Trunk Links (3.2.2.1) 114

Resetting the Trunk to Default State (3.2.2.2) 116

Verifying Trunk Configuration (3.2.2.3) 118

Dynamic Trunking Protocol (3.2.3) 120

Introduction to DTP (3.2.3.1) 120

Negotiated Interface Modes (3.2.3.2) 121

Troubleshoot VLANs and Trunks (3.2.4) 123

IP Addressing Issues with VLAN (3.2.4.1) 123

Missing VLANs (3.2.4.2) 125

Introduction to Troubleshooting Trunks (3.2.4.3) 127

Common Problems with Trunks (3.2.4.4) 128

Trunk Mode Mismatches (3.2.4.5) 129

Incorrect VLAN List (3.2.4.6) 131

VLAN Security and Design (3.3) 134

Switch Spoofing Attack (3.3.1.1) 134

Double-Tagging Attack (3.3.1.2) 135

PVLAN Edge (3.3.1.3) 136

Design Best Practices for VLANs (3.3.2) 138

VLAN Design Guidelines (3.3.2.1) 138

Summary (3.4) 140

Practice 142

Class Activities 142

Labs 142

Packet Tracer Activities 143

Check Your Understanding Questions 143

Chapter 4 Routing Concepts 149

Objectives 149

Key Terms 149

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 151

Functions of a Router (4.1.1) 152

Characteristics of a Network (4.1.1.1) 152

Why Routing? (4.1.1.2) 153

Routers Are Computers (4.1.1.3) 154

Routers Interconnect Networks (4.1.1.4) 156

Routers Choose Best Paths (4.1.1.5) 158

Packet-Forwarding Mechanisms (4.1.1.6) 158

Connect Devices (4.1.2) 162

Connect to a Network (4.1.2.1) 162

Default Gateways (4.1.2.2) 164

Document Network Addressing (4.1.2.3) 165

Enable IP on a Host (4.1.2.4) 166

Device LEDs (4.1.2.5) 167

Console Access (4.1.2.6) 169

Enable IP on a Switch (4.1.2.7) 171

Basic Settings on a Router (4.1.3) 172

Configure Basic Router Settings (4.1.3.1) 172

Configure an IPv4 Router Interface (4.1.3.2) 175

Configure an IPv6 Router Interface (4.1.3.3) 177

Configure an IPv4 Loopback Interface (4.1.3.4) 181

Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Networks (4.1.4) 183

Verify Interface Settings (4.1.4.1) 183

Verify IPv6 Interface Settings (4.1.4.2) 186

Filter Show Command Output (4.1.4.3) 189

Command History Feature (4.1.4.4) 191

Switching Packets Between Networks (4.2.1) 193

Router Switching Function (4.2.1.1) 193

Send a Packet (4.2.1.2) 194

Forward to the Next Hop (4.2.1.3) 195

Packet Routing (4.2.1.4) 196

Reach the Destination (4.2.1.5) 197

Path Determination (4.2.2) 198

Routing Decisions (4.2.2.1) 198

Best Path (4.2.2.2) 199

Load Balancing (4.2.2.3) 200

Administrative Distance (4.2.2.4) 200

Analyze the Routing Table (4.3.1) 202

The Routing Table (4.3.1.1) 202

Routing Table Sources (4.3.1.2) 203

Remote Network Routing Entries (4.3.1.3) 204

Directly Connected Routes (4.3.2) 205

Directly Connected Interfaces (4.3.2.1) 205

Directly Connected Routing Table Entries (4.3.2.2) 206

Directly Connected Examples (4.3.2.3) 207

Directly Connected IPv6 Example (4.3.2.4) 210

Statically Learned Routes (4.3.3) 214

Static Routes (4.3.3.1) 214

Static Route Examples (4.3.3.2) 214

Static IPv6 Route Examples (4.3.3.3) 216

Dynamic Routing Protocols (4.3.4) 219

Dynamic Routing (4.3.4.1) 219

IPv4 Routing Protocols (4.3.4.2) 220

IPv4 Dynamic Routing Examples (4.3.4.3) 221

IPv6 Routing Protocols (4.3.4.4) 222

IPv6 Dynamic Routing Examples (4.3.4.5) 223

Summary (4.4) 224

Practice 225

Class Activities 225

Labs 226

Packet Tracer Activities 226

Check Your Understanding Questions 226

Chapter 5 Inter-VLAN Routing 231

Objectives 231

Key Terms 231

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 232

Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration (5.1) 232

What Is Inter-VLAN Routing? (5.1.1.1) 233

Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.1.2) 233

Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.1.3) 235

Multilayer Switch Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.1.4) 237

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.2) 239

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Preparation (5.1.2.1) 239

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Switch Configuration (5.1.2.2) 240

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Router Interface Configuration (5.1.2.3) 241

Configure Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (5.1.3) 244

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Preparation (5.1.3.1) 244

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Switch Configuration (5.1.3.2) 245

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Router Subinterface Configuration (5.1.3.3) 246

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Subinterfaces (5.1.3.4) 248

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Routing (5.1.3.5) 250

Ping Test 251

Tracert Test 251

Troubleshoot Inter-VLAN Routing (5.2) 252

Inter-VLAN Configuration Issues (5.2.1) 252

Switch Port Issues (5.2.1.1) 252

Verify Switch Configuration (5.2.1.2) 254

Interface Issues (5.2.1.3) 255

Verify Router Configuration (5.2.1.4) 256

IP Addressing Issues (5.2.2) 258

Errors with IP Addresses and Subnet Masks (5.2.2.1) 258

Verifying IP Address and Subnet Mask Configuration Issues (5.2.2.2) 260

Layer 3 Switching (5.3) 261

Introduction to Layer 3 Switching (5.3.1.1) 261

Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces (5.3.1.2, 5.3.1.3) 263

Inter-VLAN Routing with Routed Ports (5.3.1.4) 265

Routed Ports and Access Ports on a Switch 265

Configuring Static Routes on a Catalyst 2960 (5.3.1.5) 266

Troubleshoot Layer 3 Switching (5.3.2) 274

Layer 3 Switch Configuration Issues (5.3.2.1) 274

Example: Troubleshooting Layer 3 Switching (5.3.2.2) 275

Summary (5.4) 278

Practice 279

Class Activities 279

Labs 279

Packet Tracer Activities 279

Check Your Understanding Questions 280

Chapter 6 Static Routing 283

Objectives 283

Key Terms 283

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 285

Static Routing (6.1.1) 286

Reach Remote Networks (6.1.1.1) 286

Why Use Static Routing? (6.1.1.2) 286

When to Use Static Routes (6.1.1.3) 288

Types of Static Routes 289

Static Route Applications (6.1.2.1) 289

Standard Static Route (6.1.2.2) 289

Default Static Route (6.1.2.3) 290

Summary Static Route (6.1.2.4) 290

Floating Static Route (6.1.2.5) 291

Configure IPv4 Static Routes (6.2.1) 292

ip route Command (6.2.1.1) 292

Next-Hop Options (6.2.1.2) 293

Configure a Next-Hop Static Route (6.2.1.3) 297

Configure a Directly Connected Static Route (6.2.1.4) 299

Configure a Fully Specified Static Route (6.2.1.5) 301

Verify a Static Route (6.2.1.6) 304

Configure IPv4 Default Routes (6.2.2) 306

Default Static Route (6.2.2.1) 306

Configure a Default Static Route (6.2.2.2) 307

Verify a Default Static Route (6.2.2.3) 308

Configure IPv6 Static Routes (6.2.3) 310

The ipv6 route Command (6.2.3.1) 310

Next-Hop Options (6.2.3.2) 311

Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route (6.2.3.3) 315

Configure a Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route (6.2.3.4) 317

Configure a Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route (6.2.3.5) 319

Verify IPv6 Static Routes (6.2.3.6) 320

Configure IPv6 Default Routes (6.2.4) 322

Default Static IPv6 Route (6.2.4.1) 322

Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route (6.2.4.2) 323

Verify a Default Static Route (6.2.4.3) 323

Review of CIDR and VLSM (6.3) 325

Classful Network Addressing (6.3.1.1) 326

Classful Subnet Masks (6.3.1.2) 327

Classful Routing Protocol Example (6.3.1.3) 328

Classful Addressing Waste (6.3.1.4) 329

CIDR (6.3.2) 331

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (6.3.2.1) 331

CIDR and Route Summarization (6.3.2.2) 332

Static Routing CIDR Example (6.3.2.3) 333

Classless Routing Protocol Example (6.3.2.4) 335

VLSM (6.3.3) 335

Fixed-Length Subnet Masking (6.3.3.1) 336

Variable-Length Subnet Masking (6.3.3.2) 337

VLSM in Action (6.3.3.3) 338

Subnetting Subnets (6.3.3.4) 339

VLSM Example (6.3.3.5) 341

Configure IPv4 Summary Routes (6.4.1) 346

Route Summarization (6.4.1.1) 346

Calculate a Summary Route (6.4.1.2) 346

Summary Static Route Example (6.4.1.3) 348

Configure IPv6 Summary Routes (6.4.2) 352

Summarize IPv6 Network Addresses (6.4.2.1) 352

Calculate IPv6 Summary Addresses (6.4.2.2) 354

Configure an IPv6 Summary Address (6.4.2.3) 356

Configure Floating Static Routes (6.4.3) 358

Floating Static Routes (6.4.3.1) 358

Configure a Floating Static Route (6.4.3.2) 359

Test the Floating Static Route (6.4.3.3) 360

Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues (6.5) 363

Static Routes and Packet Forwarding (6.5.1.1) 364

Troubleshoot a Missing Route (6.5.2.1) 364

Solve a Connectivity Problem (6.5.2.2) 368

Summary (6.6) 373

Practice 374

Class Activities 375

Labs 375

Packet Tracer Activities 375

Check Your Understanding Questions 376

Chapter 7 Routing Dynamically 379

Objectives 379

Key Terms 379

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 381

Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation (7.1.1) 382

The Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols (7.1.1.1) 382

Purpose of Dynamic Routing Protocols (7.1.1.2) 383

The Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols (7.1.1.3) 384

Dynamic Versus Static Routing (7.1.2) 385

Using Static Routing (7.1.2.1) 386

Static Routing Scorecard (7.1.2.2) 386

Using Dynamic Routing Protocols (7.1.2.3) 387

Dynamic Routing Scorecard (7.1.2.4) 388

Routing Protocol Operating Fundamentals (7.1.3) 389

Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation (7.1.3.1) 389

Cold Start (7.1.3.2) 390

Network Discovery (7.1.3.3) 391

Exchanging the Routing Information (7.1.3.4) 392

Achieving Convergence (7.1.3.5) 394

Types of Routing Protocols (7.1.4) 396

Classifying Routing Protocols (7.1.4.1) 396

IGP and EGP Routing Protocols (7.1.4.2) 399

Distance Vector Routing Protocols (7.1.4.3) 401

Link-State Routing Protocols (7.1.4.4) 402

Classful Routing Protocols (7.1.4.5) 402

Classless Routing Protocols (7.1.4.6) 406

Routing Protocol Characteristics (7.1.4.7) 409

Routing Protocol Metrics (7.1.4.8) 410

Distance Vector Routing Protocol Operation (7.2.1) 411

Distance Vector Technologies (7.2.1.1) 411

Distance Vector Algorithm (7.2.1.2) 412

Types of Distance Vector Routing Protocols (7.2.2) 413

Routing Information Protocol (7.2.2.1) 413

Enhanced Interior-Gateway Routing Protocol (7.2.2.2) 415

RIP and RIPng Routing (7.3) 416

Router RIP Configuration Mode (7.3.1.1) 416

Advertising Networks (7.3.1.2) 418

Examining Default RIP Settings (7.3.1.3) 419

Enabling RIPv2 (7.3.1.4) 421

Disabling Auto Summarization (7.3.1.5) 423

Configuring Passive Interfaces (7.3.1.6) 425

Propagating a Default Route (7.3.1.7) 427

Configuring the RIPng Protocol (7.3.2) 429

Advertising IPv6 Networks (7.3.2.1) 429

Examining the RIPng Configuration (7.3.2.2) 430

Link-State Dynamic Routing (7.4) 433

Shortest Path First Protocols (7.4.1.1) 433

Dijkstra’s Algorithm (7.4.1.2) 434

SPF Example (7.4.1.3) 435

Link-State Updates (7.4.2) 438

Link-State Routing Process (7.4.2.1) 438

Link and Link-State (7.4.2.2) 438

Say Hello (7.4.2.3) 442

Building the Link-State Packet (7.4.2.4) 442

Flooding the LSP (7.4.2.5) 443

Building the Link-State Database (7.4.2.6) 443

Building the SPF Tree (7.4.2.7) 445

Adding OSPF Routes to the Routing Table (7.4.2.8) 446

Why Use Link-State Routing Protocols (7.4.3) 447

Why Use Link-State Protocols? (7.4.3.1) 447

Disadvantages of Link-State Protocols (7.4.3.2) 448

Protocols That Use Link-State (7.4.3.3) 449

Parts of an IPv4 Route Entry (7.5.1) 449

Routing Table Entries (7.5.1.1) 449

Directly Connected Entries (7.5.1.2) 451

Remote Network Entries (7.5.1.3) 453

Dynamically Learned IPv4 Routes (7.5.2) 454

Routing Table Terms (7.5.2.1) 454

Ultimate Route (7.5.2.2) 455

Level 1 Route (7.5.2.3) 455

Level 1 Parent Route (7.5.2.4) 456

Level 2 Child Route (7.5.2.5) 458

The IPv4 Route Lookup Process (7.5.3) 460

Route Lookup Process (7.5.3.1) 460

Best Route = Longest Match (7.5.3.2) 462

Analyze an IPv6 Routing Table (7.5.4) 463

IPv6 Routing Table Entries (7.5.4.1) 463

Directly Connected Entries (7.5.4.2) 464

Remote IPv6 Network Entries (7.5.4.3) 466

Summary (7.6) 469

Practice 470

Class Activities 470

Labs 471

Packet Tracer Activities 471

Check Your Understanding Questions 471

Chapter 8 Single-Area OSPF 475

Objectives 475

Key Terms 475

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 477

Characteristics of OSPF (8.1) 477

Evolution of OSPF (8.1.1.1) 477

Features of OSPF (8.1.1.2) 479

Components of OSPF (8.1.1.3) 479

Data Structures 479

Routing Protocol Messages 480

Algorithm 481

Link-State Operation (8.1.1.4) 481

Single-Area and Multiarea OSPF (8.1.1.5) 484

OSPF Messages (8.1.2) 487

Encapsulating OSPF Messages (8.1.2.1) 487

Types of OSPF Packets (8.1.2.2) 489

Hello Packet (8.1.2.3) 489

Hello Packet Intervals (8.1.2.4) 491

Link-State Updates (8.1.2.5) 492

OSPF Operation (8.1.3) 493

OSPF Operational States (8.1.3.1) 493

Establish Neighbor Adjacencies (8.1.3.2) 494

OSPF DR and BDR (8.1.3.3) 496

Synchronizing OSPF Databases (8.1.3.4) 497

Configuring Single-Area OSPFv2 (8.2.1) 500

OSPF Network Topology (8.2.1.1) 500

Router OSPF Configuration Mode (8.2.1.2) 501

Router IDs (8.2.1.3) 502

Configuring an OSPF Router ID (8.2.1.4) 503

Modifying a Router ID (8.2.1.5) 505

Using a Loopback Interface as the Router ID (8.2.1.6) 507

Configure Single-Area OSPFv2 (8.2.2) 507

Enabling OSPF on Interfaces (8.2.2.1) 507

Wildcard Mask (8.2.2.2) 508

The network Command (8.2.2.3) 509

Passive Interface (8.2.2.4) 510

Configuring Passive Interfaces (8.2.2.5) 511

OSPF Cost (8.2.3) 512

OSPF Metric = Cost (8.2.3.1) 513

OSPF Accumulates Costs (8.2.3.2) 514

Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth (8.2.3.3) 515

Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth 515

Default Interface Bandwidths (8.2.3.4) 519

Adjusting the Interface Bandwidths (8.2.3.5) 521

Manually Setting the OSPF Cost (8.2.3.6) 522

Verify OSPF (8.2.4) 523

Verify OSPF Neighbors (8.2.4.1) 523

Verify OSPF Protocol Settings (8.2.4.2) 525

Verify OSPF Process Information (8.2.4.3) 526

Verify OSPF Interface Settings (8.2.4.4) 526

OSPFv2 vs. OSPFv3 (8.3.1) 527

OSPFv3 (8.3.1.1) 528

Similarities Between OSPFv2 to OSPFv3 (8.3.1.2) 529

Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (8.3.1.3) 529

Link-Local Addresses (8.3.1.4) 530

Configuring OSPFv3 (8.3.2) 531

OSPFv3 Network Topology (8.3.2.1) 531

Link-Local Addresses (8.3.2.2) 533

Assigning Link-Local Addresses (8.3.2.3) 534

Configuring the OSPFv3 Router ID (8.3.2.4) 535

Modifying an OSPFv3 Router ID (8.3.2.5) 538

Enabling OSPFv3 on Interfaces (8.3.2.6) 539

Verify OSPFv3 (8.3.3) 540

Verify OSPFv3 Neighbors (8.3.3.1) 540

Verify OSPFv3 Protocol Settings (8.3.3.2) 541

Verify OSPFv3 Interfaces (8.3.3.3) 542

Verify the IPv6 Routing Table (8.3.3.4) 543

Summary (8.4) 544

Practice 545

Class Activities 545

Labs 545

Packet Tracer Activities 546

Check Your Understanding Questions 546

Chapter 9 Access Control Lists 549

Objectives 549

Key Terms 549

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 550

IP ACL Operation (9.1) 551

What Is an ACL? (9.1.1.1) 551

A TCP Conversation (9.1.1.2) 552

TCP Communication 552

Packet Filtering (9.1.1.3, 9.1.1.4) 555

ACL Operation (9.1.1.5) 557

Standard Versus Extended IPv4 ACLS (9.1.2) 558

Types of Cisco IPv4 ACLs (9.1.2.1) 558

Standard ACLs 558

Extended ACLs 559

Numbering and Naming ACLs (9.1.2.2) 559

Wildcard Masks in ACLs (9.1.3) 560

Introducing ACL Wildcard Masking (9.1.3.1) 560

Wildcard Masking 560

Using a Wildcard Mask 562

Wildcard Mask Examples (9.1.3.2) 562

Wildcard Masks to Match IPv4 Subnets 562

Wildcard Masks to Match Ranges 563

Calculating the Wildcard Mask (9.1.3.3) 564

Wildcard Mask Keywords (9.1.3.4) 565

Wildcard Bit Mask Keywords 566

Examples Wildcard Mask Keywords (9.1.3.5) 567

The any and host Keywords 567

Guidelines for ACL Creation (9.1.4) 568

General Guidelines for Creating ACLs (9.1.4.1) 568

ACL Best Practices (9.1.4.2) 569

Guidelines for ACL Placement (9.1.5) 570

Where to Place ACLs (9.1.5.1) 570

Standard ACL Placement (9.1.5.2) 571

Extended ACL Placement (9.1.5.3) 573

Standard IPv4 ACLs (9.2) 574

Entering Criteria Statements (9.2.1.1) 574

Configuring a Standard ACL – Standard ACL Logic (9.2.1.2) 575

Configuring a Standard ACL – Configuring Standard ACLs (9.2.1.3) 576

Internal Logic (9.2.1.4) 578

Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces – Standard ACL

Configuration Procedures (9.2.1.5, 9.2.1.6) 579

Creating Named Standard ACLs (9.2.1.7) 582

Commenting ACLs (9.2.1.8) 584

Modify IPv4 ACLs (9.2.2) 586

Editing Standard Numbered ACLs (9.2.2.1, 9.2.2.2) 586

Method 1: Using a Text Editor 586

Method 2: Using the Sequence Number 587

Editing Standard Named ACLs (9.2.2.3) 589

Verifying ACLs (9.2.2.4) 590

ACL Statistics (9.2.2.5) 591

Standard ACL Sequence Numbers (9.2.2.6) 592

Securing VTY Ports with a Standard IPv4 ACL (9.2.3) 595

Configuring a Standard ACL to Secure a VTY Port (9.2.3.1) 595

Verifying a Standard ACL Used to Secure a VTY Port (9.2.3.2) 596

Structure of an Extended IPv4 ACL (9.3.1) 598

Extended ACLs – Testing Packets with Extended ACLs (9.3.1.1) 598

Extended ACLs – Testing for Ports and Services (9.3.1.2) 599

Configure Extended IPv4 ACLs (9.3.2) 601

Configuring Extended ACLs (9.3.2.1) 601

Applying Extended ACLs to Interfaces (9.3.2.2) 603

Filtering Traffic with Extended ACLs (9.3.2.3) 605

Creating Named Extended ACLs (9.3.2.4) 606

Verifying Extended ACLs (9.3.2.5) 607

Editing Extended ACLs (9.3.2.6) 608

Troubleshoot ACLs (9.4) 611

Inbound and Outbound ACL Logic (9.4.1.1) 611

ACL Logic Operations (9.4.1.2) 613

Standard ACL Decision Process (9.4.1.3) 614

Extended ACL Decision Process (9.4.1.4) 615

Common ACL Errors (9.4.2) 616

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 1 (9.4.2.1) 616

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 2 (9.4.2.2) 617

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 3 (9.4.2.3) 618

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 4 (9.4.2.4) 619

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 5 (9.4.2.5) 619

IPv6 ACLs (9.5) 621

Type of IPv6 ACLs (9.5.1.1) 621

Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs (9.5.1.2) 621

Configuring IPv6 Topology (9.5.2.1) 623

Configuring IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2.2) 625

Applying an IPv6 ACL to an Interface (9.5.2.3) 627

IPv6 ACL Examples (9.5.2.4) 628

Deny FTP 629

Restricted Access 629

Verifying IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2.5) 630

Summary (9.6) 633

Practice 635

Class Activities 635

Labs 635

Packet Tracer Activities 635

Check Your Understanding Questions 636

Chapter 10 DHCP 639

Objectives 639

Key Terms 639

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 640

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol v4 (10.1) 641

Introducing DHCPv4 (10.1.1.1) 641

DHCPv4 Operation (10.1.1.2) 642

Lease Origination 642

Lease Renewal 644

DHCPv4 Message Format (10.1.1.3) 645

DHCPv4 Discover and Offer Messages (10.1.1.4) 646

Configuring a Basic DHCPv4 Server (10.1.2) 648

Configuring a Basic DHCPv4 Server (10.1.2.1) 648

DHCPv4 Example 651

Disabling DHCPv4 651

Verifying DHCPv4 (10.1.2.2) 651

DHCPv4 Relay (10.1.2.3) 655

What Is DHCP Relay? 655

Configure DHCPv4 Client (10.1.3) 659

Configuring a Router as DHCPv4 Client (10.1.3.1) 659

Configuring a SOHO Router as a DHCPv4 Client (10.1.3.2) 660

Troubleshoot DHCPv4 (10.1.4) 661

Troubleshooting Tasks (10.1.4.1) 661

Troubleshooting Task 1: Resolve IPv4 Address Conflicts 662

Troubleshooting Task 2: Verify Physical Connectivity 662

Troubleshooting Task 3: Test Connectivity Using a Static IP Address 662

Troubleshooting Task 4: Verify Switch Port Configuration 662

Troubleshooting Task 5: Test DHCPv4 Operation on the Same Subnet or VLAN 663

Verify Router DHCPv4 Configuration (10.1.4.2) 663

Debugging DHCPv4 (10.1.4.3) 664

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol v6 (10.2) 665

Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) (10.2.1.1) 665

SLAAC Operation (10.2.1.2) 666

SLAAC and DHCPv6 (10.2.1.3) 668

SLAAC Option (10.2.1.4) 669

SLAAC Option (Router Advertisement Only) 669

Stateless DHCPv6 Option (10.2.1.5) 670

Stateless DHCPv6 Option (Router Advertisement and DHCPv6) 670

Stateful DHCPv6 Option (10.2.1.6) 671

Stateful DHCPv6 (DHCPv6 Only) 671

DHCPv6 Operations (10.2.1.7) 671

DHCPv6 Communications 672

Stateless DHCPv6 (10.2.2) 673

Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server (10.2.2.1) 673

DHCPv6 Stateless Server Example 674

Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Client (10.2.2.2) 675

Verifying Stateless DHCPv6 (10.2.2.3) 675

Verifying the Stateless DHCPv6 Server 675

Verifying the Stateless DHCPv6 Client 676

Stateful DHCPv6 Server (10.2.3) 678

Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server (10.2.3.1) 678

DHCPv6 Stateful Server Example 679

Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Client (10.2.3.2) 679

Verifying Stateful DHCPv6 (10.2.3.3) 680

Verifying the Stateful DHCPv6 Client 681

Configuring a Router as a DHCPv6 Relay Agent (10.2.3.4) 682

Configuring the DHCPv6 Relay Agent 683

Troubleshoot DHCPv6 (10.2.4) 683

Troubleshooting Tasks (10.2.4.1) 683

Troubleshooting Task 1. Resolve Conflicts 684

Troubleshooting Task 2. Verify Allocation Method 684

Troubleshooting Task 3. Test with a Static IPv6 Address 684

Troubleshooting Task 4. Verify Switch Port Configuration 684

Troubleshooting Task 5. Test DHCPv6 Operation on the Same Subnet or VLAN 684

Verify Router DHCPv6 Configuration (10.2.4.2) 685

Stateful DHCPv6 685

Stateless DHCPv6 685

Debugging DHCPv6 (10.2.4.3) 686

Summary (10.3) 688

Practice 690

Class Activities 690

Packet Tracer Activities 690

Check Your Understanding Questions 691

Chapter 11 Network Address Translation for IPv4 695

Objectives 695

Key Terms 695

Introduction (11.0.1.1) 696

NAT Operation (11.1) 697

IPv4 Private Address Space (11.1.1.1) 697

What Is NAT? (11.1.1.2) 698

NAT Terminology (11.1.1.3, 11.1.1.4) 699

How NAT Works (11.1.1.5) 702

Types of NAT (11.1.2) 703

Static NAT (11.1.2.1) 703

Dynamic NAT (11.1.2.2) 704

Port Address Translation (PAT) (11.1.2.3) 705

Next Available Port (11.1.2.4) 706

Comparing NAT and PAT (11.1.2.5) 707

Packets Without a Layer 4 Segment 708

Benefits of NAT (11.1.3) 709

Benefits of NAT (11.1.3.1) 709

Disadvantages of NAT (11.1.3.2) 710

Configuring NAT (11.2) 710

Configuring Static NAT (11.2.1.1) 711

Analyzing Static NAT (11.2.1.2) 713

Verifying Static NAT (11.2.1.3) 714

Configuring Dynamic NAT (11.2.2) 716

Dynamic NAT Operation (11.2.2.1) 716

Configuring Dynamic NAT (11.2.2.2) 717

Analyzing Dynamic NAT (11.2.2.3) 719

Verifying Dynamic NAT (11.2.2.4) 721

Configuring Port Address Translation (PAT) (11.2.3) 724

Configuring PAT: Address Pool (11.2.3.1) 724

Configuring PAT for a Pool of Public IP Addresses 724

Configuring PAT: Single Address (11.2.3.2) 726

Analyzing PAT (11.2.3.3) 727

PC to Server Process 728

Server to PC Process 729

Verifying PAT (11.2.3.4) 730

Port Forwarding (11.2.4) 731

SOHO Example (11.2.4.2) 733

Configuring Port Forwarding with IOS (11.2.4.3) 734

Configuring NAT and IPv6 (11.2.5) 736

NAT for IPv6? (11.2.5.1) 737

IPv6 Unique Local Addresses (11.2.5.2) 738

NAT for IPv6 (11.2.5.3) 739

Troubleshooting NAT (11.3) 740

Troubleshooting NAT: show Commands (11.3.1.1) 740

Troubleshooting NAT: debug Command (11.3.1.2) 742

Case Study (11.3.1.3) 744

Case Study 1 744

Summary (11.4) 747

Practice 748

Class Activities 748

Labs 748

Packet Tracer Activities 749

Check Your Understanding Questions 749

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions 755

Glossary 771

TOC, 9781587133183, 1/21/2014

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