Routing Protocols Companion Guide [NOOK Book]

Overview

Routing Protocols Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing Protocols course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers, and explains the principles of routing and routing protocols. You learn how to configure a router for basic and advanced functionality. By the end of this course, you will be able to configure and troubleshoot routers and ...

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Routing Protocols Companion Guide

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Overview

Routing Protocols Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing Protocols course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers, and explains the principles of routing and routing protocols. You learn how to configure a router for basic and advanced functionality. By the end of this course, you will be able to configure and troubleshoot routers and resolve common issues with RIPv1, RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF in both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.

The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:

  • Chapter objectives–Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.
  • Key terms–Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.
  • Glossary–Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 150 terms.
  • Summary of Activities and Labs–Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.
  • Check Your Understanding–Evaluate your readiness with the end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.
  • How To–Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.
  • Interactive Activities–Reinforce your understanding of topics by doing all the exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.
  • Videos–Watch the videos embedded within the online course.
  • Packet Tracer Activities–Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters.
  • Hands-on Labs–Work through all the course labs and Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Lab Manual.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133476309
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 2/17/2014
  • Series: Companion Guide
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 792
  • Sales rank: 1,124,862
  • File size: 77 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Cisco Networking Academy teaches hundreds of thousands of students annually the skills needed to build, design, and maintain, networks, improving their career prospects while filling the global demand for networking professionals. With 10,000 academies in 165 countries, it helps individuals prepare for industry-recognized certifications and entry-level information and communication technology careers in virtually every industry -- developing foundational technical skills while acquiring vital 21st-century career skills in problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking. Cisco Networking Academy uses a public-private partnership model to create the "world's largest classroom."
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Table of Contents

Introduction xxiv

Chapter 1 Routing Concepts 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Initial Configuration of a Router (1.1) 4

Characteristics of a Network (1.1.1.1) 4

Why Routing? (1.1.1.2) 5

Routers Are Computers (1.1.1.3) 6

Routers Interconnect Networks (1.1.1.4) 7

Routers Choose Best Paths (1.1.1.5) 9

Packet Forwarding Mechanisms (1.1.1.6) 9

Connect Devices (1.1.2) 12

Connect to a Network (1.1.2.1) 13

Default Gateways (1.1.2.2) 14

Document Network Addressing (1.1.2.3) 15

Enable IP on a Host (1.1.2.4) 16

Device LEDs (1.1.2.5) 18

Console Access (1.1.2.6) 19

Enable IP on a Switch (1.1.2.7) 20

Basic Settings on a Router (1.1.3) 22

Configure Basic Router Settings (1.1.3.1) 22

Configure an IPv4 Router Interface (1.1.3.2) 24

Configure an IPv6 Router Interface (1.1.3.3) 25

Configure an IPv4 Loopback Interface (1.1.3.4) 28

Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Networks (1.1.4) 29

Verify Interface Settings (1.1.4.1) 29

Verify IPv6 Interface Settings (1.1.4.2) 31

Filter Show Command Output (1.1.4.3) 34

Command History Feature (1.1.4.4) 36

Routing Decisions (1.2) 38

Router Switching Function (1.2.1.1) 38

Send a Packet (1.2.1.2) 39

Forward to the Next Hop (1.2.1.3) 40

Packet Routing (1.2.1.4) 41

Reach the Destination (1.2.1.5) 42

Path Determination (1.2.2) 43

Routing Decisions (1.2.2.1) 43

Best Path (1.2.2.2) 44

Load Balancing (1.2.2.3) 45

Administrative Distance (1.2.2.4) 46

Router Operation (1.3) 47

Analyze the Routing Table (1.3.1) 47

The Routing Table (1.3.1.1) 47

Routing Table Sources (1.3.1.2) 48

Remote Network Routing Entries (1.3.1.3) 49

Directly Connected Routes (1.3.2) 51

Directly Connected Interfaces (1.3.2.1) 51

Directly Connected Route Table Entries (1.3.2.2) 51

Directly Connected Examples (1.3.2.3) 52

Directly Connected IPv6 Example (1.3.2.4) 53

Statically Learned Routes (1.3.3) 56

Static Routes (1.3.3.1) 56

Static Route Examples (1.3.3.2) 57

Static IPv6 Route Examples (1.3.3.3) 59

Dynamic Routing Protocols (1.3.4) 61

Dynamic Routing (1.3.4.1) 61

IPv4 Routing Protocols (1.3.4.2) 62

IPv4 Dynamic Routing Examples (1.3.4.3) 63

IPv6 Routing Protocols (1.3.4.4) 64

IPv6 Dynamic Routing Examples (1.3.4.5) 64

Summary (1.4) 66

Practice 67

Class Activities 67

Labs 67

Packet Tracer Activities 67

Check Your Understanding Questions 68

Chapter 2 Static Routing 73

Objectives 73

Key Terms 73

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 74

Static Routing Implementation (2.1) 75

Reach Remote Networks (2.1.1.1) 75

Why Use Static Routing? (2.1.1.2) 76

When to Use Static Routes (2.1.1.3) 77

Static Route Applications (2.1.2.1) 78

Standard Static Route (2.1.2.2) 79

Default Static Route (2.1.2.3) 79

Summary Static Route (2.1.2.4) 80

Floating Static Route (2.1.2.5) 81

Configure Static and Default Routes (2.2) 82

Configure IPv4 Static Routes (2.2.1) 82

ip route Command (2.2.1.1) 82

Next-Hop Options (2.2.1.2) 84

Configure a Next-Hop Static Route (2.2.1.3) 85

Configure a Directly Connected Static Route (2.2.1.4) 87

Configure a Fully Specified Static Route (2.2.1.5) 89

Verify a Static Route (2.2.1.6) 91

Configure IPv4 Default Routes (2.2.2) 93

Default Static Route (2.2.2.1) 93

Configure a Default Static Route (2.2.2.2) 94

Verify a Default Static Route (2.2.2.3) 94

Configure IPv6 Static Routes (2.2.3) 96

The ipv6 route Command (2.2.3.1) 96

Next-Hop Options (2.2.3.2) 97

Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.3) 100

Configure a Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.4) 102

Configure a Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.5) 104

Verify IPv6 Static Routes (2.2.3.6) 105

Configure IPv6 Default Routes (2.2.4) 106

Default Static IPv6 Route (2.2.4.1) 106

Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route (2.2.4.2) 107

Verify a Default Static Route (2.2.4.3) 108

Review of CIDR and VLSM (2.3) 109

Classful Addressing (2.3.1) 109

Classful Network Addressing (2.3.1.1) 109

Classful Subnet Masks (2.3.1.2) 110

Classful Routing Protocol Example (2.3.1.3) 112

Classful Addressing Waste (2.3.1.4) 113

CIDR (2.3.2) 114

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (2.3.2.1) 114

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (2.3.2.2) 115

Static Routing CIDR Example (2.3.2.3) 117

Classless Routing Protocol Example (2.3.2.4) 118

VLSM (2.3.3) 119

Fixed-Length Subnet Masking (2.3.3.1) 119

Variable-Length Subnet Masking (2.3.3.2) 121

VLSM in Action (2.3.3.3) 122

Subnetting Subnets (2.3.3.4) 123

VLSM Example (2.3.3.5) 125

Configure Summary and Floating Static Routes (2.4) 128

Configure IPv4 Summary Routes (2.4.1) 128

Route Summarization (2.4.1.1) 128

Calculate a Summary Route (2.4.1.2) 129

Summary Static Route Example (2.4.1.3) 130

Configure IPv6 Summary Routes (2.4.1) 133

Summarize IPv6 Network Addresses (2.4.2.1) 133

Calculate IPv6 Network Addresses (2.4.2.2) 134

Configure an IPv6 Summary Address (2.4.2.3) 137

Configure Floating Static Routes (2.4.3) 138

Floating Static Routes (2.4.3.1) 138

Configure a Floating Static Route (2.4.3.2) 140

Test the Floating Static Route (2.4.3.3) 141

Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues (2.5) 142

Packet Processing with Static Routes (2.5.1) 143

Static Routes and Packet Forwarding (2.5.1.1) 143

Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration (2.5.2) 144

Troubleshooting a Missing Route (2.5.2.1) 144

Solve a Connectivity Problem (2.5.2.2) 147

Summary (2.6) 150

Practice 151

Class Activities 151

Labs 152

Packet Tracer Activities 152

Check Your Understanding Questions 152

Chapter 3 Routing Dynamically 155

Objectives 155

Key Terms 155

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 157

Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1) 158

The Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1.1.1) 158

Purpose of Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1.1.2) 159

The Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1.1.3) 160

Dynamic versus Static Routing (3.1.2) 161

Using Static Routing (3.1.2.1) 161

Static Routing Scorecard (3.1.2.2) 162

Using Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1.2.3) 163

Dynamic Routing Scorecard (3.1.2.4) 163

Routing Protocol Operating Fundamentals (3.1.3) 164

Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation (3.1.3.1) 165

Cold Start (3.1.3.2) 165

Network Discovery (3.1.3.3) 166

Exchanging the Routing Information (3.1.3.4) 168

Achieving Convergence (3.1.3.5) 170

Types of Routing Protocols (3.1.4) 171

Classifying Routing Protocols (3.1.4.1) 171

IGP and EGP Routing Protocols (3.1.4.2) 172

Distance Vector Routing Protocols (3.1.4.3) 173

Link-State Routing Protocols (3.1.4.4) 174

Classful Routing Protocols (3.1.4.5) 175

Classless Routing Protocols (3.1.4.6) 177

Routing Protocol Characteristics (3.1.4.7) 179

Routing Protocol Metrics (3.1.4.8) 180

Distance Vector Dynamic Routing (3.2) 181

Distance Vector Technologies (3.2.1.1) 181

Distance Vector Algorithm (3.2.1.2) 182

Types of Distance Vector Routing Protocols (3.2.2) 183

Routing Information Protocol (3.2.2.1) 183

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (3.2.2.2) 184

RIP and RIPng Routing (3.3) 186

Configuring the RIP Protocol (3.3.1) 186

Router RIP Configuration Mode (3.3.1.1) 186

Advertising Networks (3.3.1.2) 188

Examining Default RIP Settings (3.3.1.3) 189

Enabling RIPv2 (3.3.1.4) 190

Disabling Auto Summarization (3.3.1.5) 192

Configuring Passive Interfaces (3.3.1.6) 193

Propagating a Default Route (3.3.1.7) 195

Configuring the RIPng Protocol (3.3.2) 196

Advertising IPv6 Networks (3.3.2.1) 196

Examining the RIPng Configuration (3.3.2.2) 198

Link-State Dynamic Routing (3.4) 200

Link-State Routing Protocol Operation (3.4.1) 200

Shortest Path First Protocols (3.4.1.1) 200

Dijkstra’s Algorithm (3.4.1.2) 201

SPF Example (3.4.1.3) 202

Link-State Updates (3.4.2) 203

Link-State Routing Process (3.4.2.1) 203

Link and Link-State (3.4.2.2) 204

Say Hello (3.4.2.3) 207

Building the Link-State Packet (3.4.2.4) 208

Flooding the LSP (3.4.2.5) 209

Building the Link-State Database (3.4.2.6) 210

Building the SPF Tree (3.4.2.7) 211

Adding OSPF Routes to the Routing Table (3.4.2.8) 212

Why Use Link-State Routing Protocols? (3.4.3) 213

Why Use Link-State Protocols? (3.4.3.1) 213

Link-State Protocols Support Multiple Areas (3.4.3.2) 214

Protocols that Use Link-State (3.4.3.3) 214

The Routing Table (3.5) 215

Parts of an IPv4 Route Entry (3.5.1) 215

Routing Table Entries (3.5.1.1) 215

Directly Connected Entries (3.5.1.2) 217

Remote Network Entries (3.5.1.3) 218

Dynamically Learned IPv4 Routes (3.5.2) 219

Routing Table Terms (3.5.2.1) 219

Ultimate Route (3.5.2.2) 220

Level 1 Route (3.5.2.3) 220

Level 1 Parent Route (3.5.2.4) 221

Level 2 Child Route (3.5.2.5) 222

The IPv4 Route Lookup Process (3.5.3) 224

Route Lookup Process (3.5.3.1) 224

Best Route = Longest Match (3.5.3.2) 226

Analyze an IPv6 Routing Table (3.5.4) 227

IPv6 Routing Table Entries (3.5.4.1) 227

Directly Connected Entries (3.5.4.2) 228

Remote IPv6 Network Entries (3.5.4.3) 230

Summary (3.6) 232

Practice 233

Class Activities 233

Lab 233

Packet Tracer Activities 234

Check Your Understanding Questions 234

Chapter 4 EIGRP 239

Objectives 239

Key Terms 239

Introduction (4.0.1) 240

Characteristics of EIGRP (4.1) 240

Basic Features of EIGRP (4.1.1) 240

Features of EIGRP (4.1.1.1) 241

Protocol-Dependent Modules (4.1.1.2) 242

Reliable Transport Protocol (4.1.1.3) 243

Authentication (4.1.1.4) 244

Types of EIGRP Packets (4.1.2) 245

EIGRP Packet Types (4.1.2.1) 245

EIGRP Hello Packets (4.1.2.2) 247

EIGRP Update and Acknowledgment Packets (4.1.2.3) 248

EIGRP Query and Reply Packets (4.1.2.4) 249

EIGRP Messages (4.1.3) 251

Encapsulating EIGRP Messages (4.1.3.1) 251

EIGRP Packet Header and TLV (4.1.3.2) 252

Configuring EIGRP for IPv4 (4.2) 255

Configuring EIGRP with IPv4 (4.2.1) 255

EIGRP Network Topology (4.2.1.1) 255

Autonomous System Numbers (4.2.1.2) 257

The Router EIGRP Command (4.2.1.3) 259

EIGRP Router ID (4.2.1.4) 261

Configuring the EIGRP Router ID (4.2.1.5) 262

The Network Command (4.2.1.6) 264

The Network Command and Wildcard Mask (4.2.1.7) 266

Passive Interface (4.2.1.8) 268

Verifying EIGRP with IPv4 (4.2.2) 270

Verifying EIGRP: Examining Neighbors (4.2.2.1) 270

Verifying EIGRP: show ip protocols Command (4.2.2.2) 272

Verifying EIGRP: Examine the IPv4 Routing Table (4.2.2.3) 273

Operation of EIGRP (4.3) 277

EIGRP Initial Route Discover (4.3.1) 277

EIGRP Neighbor Adjacency (4.3.1.1) 277

EIGRP Topology Table (4.3.1.2) 278

EIGRP Convergence (4.3.1.3) 280

Metrics (4.3.2) 280

EIGRP Composite Metric (4.3.2.1) 281

Examining Interface Values (4.3.2.2) 283

Bandwidth Metric (4.3.2.3) 284

Delay Metric (4.3.2.4) 286

Calculating the EIGRP Metric (4.3.2.5) 287

Calculating the EIGRP Metric: Example (4.3.2.6) 288

DUAL and the Topology Table (4.3.3) 290

DUAL Concepts (4.3.3.1) 291

Introduction to DUAL (4.3.3.2) 291

Successor and Feasible Distance (4.3.3.3) 293

Feasible Successors, Feasibility Condition, and Reported Distance (4.3.3.4) 295

Topology Table: show ip eigrp topology Command (4.3.3.5) 297

Topology Table: No Feasible Successor (4.3.3.7) 300

DUAL and Convergence (4.3.4) 302

DUAL Finite State Machine (FSM) (4.3.4.1) 302

DUAL: Feasible Successor (4.3.4.2) 304

DUAL: No Feasible Successor (4.3.4.3) 306

Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 (4.4) 308

EIGRP for IPv4 vs. IPv6 (4.4.1) 308

EIGRP for IPv6 (4.4.1.1) 308

Comparing EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 (4.4.1.2) 310

IPv6 Link-local Addresses (4.4.1.3) 311

Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 (4.4.2) 312

EIGRP for IPv6 Network Topology (4.4.2.1) 312

Configuring IPv6 Link-local Addresses (4.4.2.2) 314

Configuring the EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Process (4.4.2.3) 316

ipv6 eigrp Interface Command (4.4.2.4) 318

Verifying EIGRP for IPv6 (4.4.3) 319

Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: Examining Neighbors (4.4.3.1) 319

Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: show ip protocols Command (4.4.3.2) 321

Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: Examine the IPv6 Routing Table (4.4.3.3) 322

Summary (4.5) 326

Practice 327

Class Activities 328

Labs 328

Packet Tracer Activities 328

Check Your Understanding Questions 328

Chapter 5 EIGRP Advanced Configurations and Troubleshooting 333

Objectives 333

Key Terms 333

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 334

Advanced EIGRP Configurations (5.1) 334

Auto-summarization (5.1.1) 335

Network Topology (5.1.1.1) 335

EIGRP Auto-summarization (5.1.1.2) 337

Configuring EIGRP Auto-summarization (5.1.1.3) 338

Verifying Auto-Summary: show ip protocols (5.1.1.4) 340

Verifying Auto-Summary: Topology Table (5.1.1.5) 342

Verifying Auto-Summary: Routing Table (5.1.1.6) 343

Summary Route (5.1.1.7, 5.1.1.8) 345

Manual Summarization (5.1.2) 347

Manual Summary Routes (5.1.2.1) 347

Configuring EIGRP Manual Summary Routes (5.1.2.2) 349

Verifying Manual Summary Routes (5.1.2.3) 351

EIGRP for IPv6: Manual Summary Routes (5.1.2.4) 351

Default Route Propagation (5.1.3) 353

Propagating a Default Static Route (5.1.3.1) 353

Verifying the Propagated Default Route (5.1.3.2) 355

EIGRP for IPv6: Default Route (5.1.3.3) 355

Fine-tuning EIGRP Interfaces (5.1.4) 357

EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization (5.1.4.1) 357

Hello and Hold Timers (5.1.4.2) 359

Load Balancing IPv4 (5.1.4.3) 361

Load Balancing IPv6 (5.1.4.4) 363

Secure EIGRP (5.1.5) 364

Routing Protocol Authentication Overview (5.1.5.1) 364

Configuring EIGRP with MD5 Authentication (5.1.5.2) 365

EIGRP Authentication Example (5.1.5.3) 366

Verify Authentication (5.1.5.4) 369

Troubleshoot EIGRP (5.2) 370

Components of Troubleshooting EIGRP (5.2.1) 370

Basic EIGRP Troubleshooting Commands (5.2.1.1) 370

Components (5.2.1.2) 372

Troubleshoot EIGRP Neighbor Issues (5.2.2) 374

Layer 3 Connectivity (5.2.2.1) 374

EIGRP Parameters (5.2.2.2) 375

EIGRP Interfaces (5.2.2.3) 376

Troubleshooting EIGRP Routing Table Issues (5.2.3) 378

Passive Interface (5.2.3.1) 378

Missing Network Statement (5.2.3.2) 380

Auto-summarization (5.2.3.3) 382

Summary (5.3) 386

Practice 388

Class Activities 388

Labs 388

Packet Tracer Activities 388

Check Your Understanding Questions 389

Chapter 6 Single-Area OSPF 393

Objectives 393

Key Terms 393

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 394

Characteristics of OSPF (6.1) 394

Evolution of OSPF (6.1.1.1) 394

Features of OSPF (6.1.1.2) 395

Components of OSPF (6.1.1.3) 396

Link-State Operation (6.1.1.4) 398

Single-Area and Multiarea OSPF (6.1.1.5) 399

OSPF Messages (6.1.2) 401

Encapsulating OSPF Messages (6.1.2.1) 402

Types of OSPF Packets (6.1.2.2) 402

Hello Packet (6.1.2.3) 403

Hello Packet Intervals (6.1.2.4) 404

Link-State Updates (6.1.2.5) 405

OSPF Operation (6.1.3) 406

OSPF Operational States (6.1.3.1) 406

Establish Neighbor Adjacencies (6.1.3.2) 407

OSPF DR and BDR (6.1.3.3) 408

Synchronizing OSPF Databases (6.1.3.4) 411

Configuring Single-Area OSPFv2 (6.2) 414

OSPF Network Topology (6.2.1.1) 414

Router OSPF Configuration Mode (6.2.1.2) 415

Router IDs (6.2.1.3) 415

Configuring an OSPF Router ID (6.2.1.4) 417

Modifying a Router ID (6.2.1.5) 418

Using a Loopback Interface as the Router ID (6.2.1.6) 419

Configure Single-Area OSPFv2 (6.2.2) 420

Enabling OSPF on Interfaces (6.2.2.1) 420

Wildcard Mask (6.2.2.2) 420

The network Command (6.2.2.3) 421

Passive Interface (6.2.2.4) 422

Configuring Passive Interfaces (6.2.2.5) 423

OSPF Cost (6.2.3) 425

OSPF Metric = Cost (6.2.3.1) 425

OSPF Accumulates Costs (6.2.3.2) 426

Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth (6.2.3.3) 427

Default Interface Bandwidths (6.2.3.4) 430

Adjusting the Interface Bandwidths (6.2.3.5) 433

Manually Setting the OSPF Cost (6.2.3.6) 434

Verify OSPF (6.2.4) 435

Verify OSPF Neighbors (6.2.4.1) 435

Verify OSPF Protocol Settings (6.2.4.2) 436

Verify OSPF Process Information (6.2.4.3) 437

Verify OSPF Interface Settings (6.2.4.4) 438

Configure Single-Area OSPFv3 (6.3) 439

OSPFv3 (6.3.1.1) 439

Similarities Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (6.3.1.2) 440

Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (6.3.1.3) 441

Link-Local Addresses (6.3.1.4) 442

Configuring OSPFv3 (6.3.2) 443

OSPFv3 Network Topology (6.3.2.1) 443

Link-Local Addresses (6.3.2.2) 444

Assigning Link-Local Addresses (6.3.2.3) 445

Configuring the OSPFv3 Router ID (6.3.2.4) 446

Modifying an OSPFv3 Router ID (6.3.2.5) 449

Enabling OSPFv3 on Interfaces (6.3.2.6) 450

Verify OSPFv3 (6.3.3) 451

Verify OSPFv3 Neighbors (6.3.3.1) 451

Verify OSPFv3 Protocol Settings (6.3.3.2) 452

Verify OSPFv3 Interfaces (6.3.3.3) 453

Verify the IPv6 Routing Table (6.3.3.4) 453

Summary (6.4) 455

Practice 456

Class Activities 456

Labs 456

Packet Tracer Activities 456

Check Your Understanding Questions 457

Chapter 7 Adjust and Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPF 461

Objectives 461

Key Terms 461

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 462

Advanced Single-Area OSPF Configurations (7.1) 462

OSPF Network Types (7.1.1.1) 462

Challenges in Multiaccess Networks (7.1.1.2) 465

OSPF Designated Router (7.1.1.3) 467

Verifying DR/BDR Roles (7.1.1.4) 469

Verifying DR/BDR Adjacencies (7.1.1.5) 472

Default DR/BDR Election Process (7.1.1.6) 474

DR/BDR Election Process (7.1.1.7) 475

The OSPF Priority (7.1.1.8) 477

Changing the OSPF Priority (7.1.1.9) 478

Default Route Propagation (7.1.2) 480

Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv2 (7.1.2.1) 480

Verifying the Propagated Default Route (7.1.2.2) 481

Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv3 (7.1.2.3) 482

Verifying the Propagated IPv6 Default Route (7.1.2.4) 484

Fine-tuning OSPF Interfaces (7.1.3) 485

OSPF Hello and Dead Intervals (7.1.3.1) 485

Modifying OSPFv2 Intervals (7.1.3.2) 486

Modifying OSPFv3 Intervals (7.1.3.3) 488

Secure OSPF (7.1.4) 489

Routers Are Targets (7.1.4.1) 489

Secure Routing Updates (7.1.4.2) 492

MD5 Authentication (7.1.4.3) 495

Configuring OSPF MD5 Authentication (7.1.4.4) 496

OSPF MD5 Authentication Example (7.1.4.5) 497

Verifying OSPF MD5 Authentication (7.1.4.6) 499

Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPF Implementations (7.2) 501

OSPF States (7.2.1.2) 501

OSPF Troubleshooting Commands (7.2.1.3) 502

Components of Troubleshooting OSPF (7.2.1.4) 505

Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv2 Routing Issues (7.2.2) 508

Troubleshooting Neighbor Issues (7.2.2.1) 508

Troubleshooting OSPF Routing Table Issues (7.2.2.2) 511

Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv3 Routing Issues (7.2.3) 514

OSPFv3 Troubleshooting Commands (7.2.3.1) 514

Troubleshooting OSPFv3 (7.2.3.2) 517

Summary (7.3) 521

Practice 523

Class Activities 523

Labs 523

Packet Tracer Activities 523

Check Your Understanding Questions 524

Chapter 8 Multiarea OSPF 527

Objectives 527

Key Terms 527

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 528

Multiarea OSPF Operation (8.1) 528

Single-Area OSPF (8.1.1.1) 528

Multiarea OSPF (8.1.1.2) 529

OSPF Two-Layer Area Hierarchy (8.1.1.3) 530

Types of OSPF Routers (8.1.1.4) 532

Multiarea OSPF LSA Operation (8.1.2) 534

OSPF LSA Types (8.1.2.1) 534

OSPF LSA Type 1 (8.1.2.2) 535

OSPF LSA Type 2 (8.1.2.3) 536

OSPF LSA Type 3 (8.1.2.4) 536

OSPF LSA Type 4 (8.1.2.5) 537

OSPF LSA Type 5 (8.1.2.6) 538

OSPF Routing Table and Types of Routes (8.1.3) 539

OSPF Routing Table Entries (8.1.3.1) 539

OSPF Route Calculation (8.1.3.2) 540

Configuring Multiarea OSPF (8.2) 541

Implementing Multiarea OSPF (8.2.1.1) 541

Configuring Multiarea OSPF (8.2.1.2) 542

Configuring Multiarea OSPFv3 (8.2.1.3) 544

OSPF Route Summarization (8.2.2.1) 545

Interarea and External Route Summarization (8.2.2.2) 546

Interarea Route Summarization (8.2.2.3) 548

Calculating the Summary Route (8.2.2.4) 550

Configuring Interarea Route Summarization (8.2.2.5) 550

Verifying Multiarea OSPF (8.2.3.1) 552

Verify General Multiarea OSPF Settings (8.2.3.2) 553

Verify the OSPF Routes (8.2.3.3) 554

Verify the Multiarea OSPF LSDB (8.2.3.4) 555

Verify Multiarea OSPFv3 (8.2.3.5) 556

Summary (8.3) 560

Practice 562

Class Activities 562

Labs 562

Packet Tracer Activities 562

Check Your Understanding Questions 562

Chapter 9 Access Control Lists 565

Objectives 565

Key Terms 565

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 566

IP ACL Operation (9.1) 567

Purpose of ACLs (9.1.1) 567

What Is an ACL? (9.1.1.1) 567

A TCP Conversation (9.1.1.2) 568

Packet Filtering (9.1.1.3) 572

Packet Filtering Example (9.1.1.4) 573

ACL Operation (9.1.1.5) 574

Standard Versus Extended IPv4 ACLs (9.1.2) 575

Types of Cisco IPv4 ACLs (9.1.2.1) 575

Numbering and Naming ACLs (9.1.2.2) 576

Wildcard Masks in ACLs (9.1.3) 577

Introducing ACL Wildcard Masking (9.1.3.1) 577

Wildcard Mask Examples (9.1.3.2) 579

Calculating the Wildcard Mask (9.1.3.3) 581

Wildcard Mask Keywords (9.1.3.4) 582

Examples Wildcard Mask Keywords (9.1.3.5) 584

Guidelines for ACL Creation (9.1.4) 584

General Guidelines for Creating ACLs (9.1.4.1) 585

ACL Best Practices (9.1.4.2) 586

Guidelines for ACL Placement (9.1.5) 587

Where to Place ACLs (9.1.5.1) 587

Standard ACL Placement (9.1.5.2) 588

Extended ACL Placement (9.1.5.3) 589

Standard IPv4 ACLs (9.2) 591

Configure Standard IPv4 ACLs (9.2.1) 591

Entering Criteria Statements (9.2.1.1) 591

Standard ACL Logic (9.2.1.2) 592

Configuring a Standard ACL (9.2.1.3) 593

Internal Logic (9.2.1.4) 595

Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces: Permit a Specific Subnet (9.2.1.5) 596

Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces: Deny a Specific Host (9.2.1.6) 598

Creating Named Standard ACLs (9.2.1.7) 600

Commenting ACLs (9.2.1.8) 601

Modifying IPv4 ACLs (9.2.2) 603

Editing Standard Numbered ACLs: Using a Text Editor (9.2.2.1) 603

Editing Standard Numbered ACLs: Using the Sequence Number (9.2.2.2) 604

Editing Standard Named ACLs (9.2.2.3) 605

Verifying ACLs (9.2.2.4) 606

ACL Statistics (9.2.2.5) 607

Standard ACL Sequence Numbers (9.2.2.6) 608

Securing VTY Ports with a Standard IPv4 ACL (9.2.3) 611

Configuring a Standard ACL to Secure a VTY Port (9.2.3.1) 611

Verifying a Standard ACL Used to Secure a VTY Port (9.2.3.2) 612

Extended IPv4 ACLs (9.3) 614

Structure of an Extended IPv4 ACL (9.3.1) 614

Extended ACLs: Testing Packets (9.3.1.1) 614

Extended ACLs: Testing Ports and Services (9.3.1.2) 615

Configure Extended IPv4 ACLs (9.3.2) 616

Configuring Extended ACLs (9.3.2.1) 616

Applying Extended ACLs to Interfaces (9.3.2.2) 618

Filtering Traffic with Extended ACLs (9.3.2.3) 620

Creating Named Extended ACLs (9.3.2.4) 621

Verifying Extended ACLs (9.3.2.5) 622

Editing Extended ACLs (9.3.2.6) 623

Troubleshoot ACLs (9.4) 625

Processing Packets with ACLs (9.4.1) 625

Inbound and Outbound ACL Logic (9.4.1.1) 625

ACL Logic Operations (9.4.1.2) 627

Standard ACL Decision Process (9.4.1.3) 628

Extended ACL Decision Process (9.4.1.4) 629

Common ACL Errors (9.4.2) 629

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 1 (9.4.2.1) 629

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 2 (9.4.2.2) 630

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 3 (9.4.2.3) 632

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 4 (9.4.2.4) 632

Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 5 (9.4.2.5) 633

IPv6 ACLs (9.5) 635

IPv6 ACL Creation (9.5.1) 635

Type of IPv6 ACLs (9.5.1.1) 635

Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs (9.5.1.2) 636

Configuring IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2) 637

Configuring IPv6 Topology (9.5.2.1) 637

Syntax for Configuring IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2.2) 639

Applying an IPv6 ACL to an Interface (9.5.2.3) 641

IPv6 ACL Examples (9.5.2.4) 642

Verifying IPv6 ACLs (9.5.2.5) 643

Summary (9.6) 646

Practice 648

Class Activities 648

Labs 648

Packet Tracer Activities 648

Check Your Understanding Questions 649

Chapter 10 IOS Images and Licensing 653

Objectives 653

Key Terms 653

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 654

Managing IOS System Files (10.1) 654

Naming Conventions (10.1.1) 654

Cisco IOS Software Release Families and Trains (10.1.1.1) 655

Cisco IOS 12.4 Mainline and T Trains (10.1.1.2) 655

Cisco IOS 12.4 Mainline and T Numbering (10.1.1.3) 657

Cisco IOS 12.4 System Image Packaging (10.1.1.4) 658

Cisco IOS 15.0 M and T Trains (10.1.1.5) 659

Cisco IOS 15 Train Numbering (10.1.1.6) 661

IOS 15 System Image Packaging (10.1.1.7) 662

IOS Image Filenames (10.1.1.8) 663

Managing Cisco IOS Images (10.1.2) 667

TFTP Servers as a Backup Location (10.1.2.1) 667

Creating Cisco IOS Image Backup (10.1.2.2) 667

Copying a Cisco IOS Image (10.1.2.3) 669

Boot System (10.1.2.4) 670

IOS Licensing (10.2) 672

Software Licensing (10.2.1) 672

Licensing Overview (10.2.1.1) 672

Licensing Process (10.2.1.2) 674

Step 1. Purchase the Software Package or Feature to Install (10.2.1.3) 675

Step 2. Obtain a License (10.2.1.4) 675

Step 3. Install the License (10.2.1.5) 677

License Verification and Management (10.2.2) 678

License Verification (10.2.2.1) 678

Activate an Evaluation Right-To-Use License (10.2.2.2) 680

Back Up the License (10.2.2.3) 682

Uninstall the License (10.2.2.4) 682

Summary (10.3) 685

Practice 688

Class Activities 688

Packet Tracer Activities 688

Check Your Understanding Questions 688

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions 693

Glossary 709

9781587133237, TOC, 1/24/2014

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