Routing Protocols Course Booklet

Overview

Routing Protocols Course Booklet

Your Cisco® Networking Academy® Course Booklet is designed as a study resource you can easily read, highlight, and review on the go, wherever the Internet is not available or practical:

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Overview

Routing Protocols Course Booklet

Your Cisco® Networking Academy® Course Booklet is designed as a study resource you can easily read, highlight, and review on the go, wherever the Internet is not available or practical:

• The text is extracted directly, word-for-word, from the online course so you can highlight important points and take notes in the “Your Chapter Notes” section.

• Headings with the exact page correlations provide a quick reference to the online course for your classroom discussions and exam preparation.

• An icon system directs you to the online curriculum to take full advantage of the images embedded within the Networking Academy online course interface and reminds you to perform the labs, Class Activities, interactive activities, Packet Tracer activities, chapter quizzes, and exams.

The Course Booklet is a basic, economical paper-based resource to help you succeed with the Cisco Networking Academy online course.

Related titles:

Routing Protocols Lab Manual

book: 978-1-58713-322-0

Routing Protocols Companion Guide

book: 978-1-58713-323-7

eBook: 978-0-13-347632-3

CCENT Practice and Study Guide

book: 978-1-58713-345-9

eBook: 978-0-13-351765-1

CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide

book: 978-1-58720-430-2

eBook: 978-0-13-338136-8

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587133213
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 11/1/2013
  • Series: Course Booklets Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 336
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 0 Course Introduction 1

0.0 Welcome to Routing Protocols 1

0.0.1 Message to the Student 1

0.0.1.1 Welcome 1

0.0.1.2 A Global Community 1

0.0.1.3 More Than Just Information 1

0.0.1.4 How We Teach 2

0.0.1.5 Practice Leads to Mastery 2

0.0.1.6 Mind Wide Open 2

0.0.1.7 Engineering Journals 2

0.0.1.8 Explore the World of Networking 2

0.0.1.9 Create Your Own Worlds 3

0.0.1.10 How Packet Tracer Helps Master Concepts 3

0.0.1.11 Course Overview 3

0.1.1.1 Course GUI Tutorial 3

Your Chapter Notes 4

Chapter 1 Routing Concepts 5

1.0 Routing Concepts 5

1.0.1.1 Introduction 5

1.0.1.2 Class Activity - Do We Really Need a Map? 5

1.1 Initial Configuration of a Router 6

1.1.1 Functions of a Router 6

1.1.1.1 Characteristics of a Network 6

1.1.1.2 Why Routing? 7

1.1.1.3 Routers Are Computers 7

1.1.1.4 Routers Interconnect Networks 8

1.1.1.5 Routers Choose Best Paths 9

1.1.1.6 Packet Forwarding Mechanisms 9

1.1.1.7 Activity - Identify Router Components 10

1.1.1.8 Packet Tracer - Using Traceroute to Discover the Network 10

1.1.1.9 Lab - Mapping the Internet 10

1.1.2 Connect Devices 11

1.1.2.1 Connect to a Network 11

1.1.2.2 Default Gateways 12

1.1.2.3 Document Network Addressing 12

1.1.2.4 Enable IP on a Host 13

1.1.2.5 Device LEDs 13

1.1.2.6 Console Access 13

1.1.2.7 Enable IP on a Switch 14

1.1.2.8 Activity - Document an Addressing Scheme 14

1.1.2.9 Packet Tracer - Documenting the Network 14

1.1.3 Basic Settings on a Router 14

1.1.3.1 Configure Basic Router Settings 14

1.1.3.2 Configure an IPv4 Router Interface 15

1.1.3.3 Configure an IPv6 Router Interface 16

1.1.3.4 Configure an IPv4 Loopback Interface 17

1.1.3.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv4 and IPv6 Interfaces 17

1.1.4 Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Networks 18

1.1.4.1 Verify Interface Settings 18

1.1.4.2 Verify IPv6 Interface Settings 18

1.1.4.3 Filter Show Command Output 19

1.1.4.4 Command History Feature 20

1.1.4.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring and Verifying a Small Network 20

1.1.4.6 Lab - Configuring Basic Router Settings with IOS CLI 20

1.1.4.7 Lab - Configuring Basic Router Settings with CCP 21

1.2 Routing Decisions 21

1.2.1 Switching Packets Between Networks 21

1.2.1.1 Router Switching Function 21

1.2.1.2 Send a Packet 22

1.2.1.3 Forward to the Next Hop 22

1.2.1.4 Packet Routing 23

1.2.1.5 Reach the Destination 23

1.2.1.6 Activity - Match Layer 2 and Layer 3 Addressing 24

1.2.2 Path Determination 24

1.2.2.1 Routing Decisions 24

1.2.2.2 Best Path 25

1.2.2.3 Load Balancing 25

1.2.2.4 Administrative Distance 26

1.2.2.5 Activity - Order the Steps in the Packet Forwarding Process 26

1.3 Router Operation 26

1.3.1 Analyze the Routing Table 26

1.3.1.1 The Routing Table 26

1.3.1.2 Routing Table Sources 27

1.3.1.3 Remote Network Routing Entries 27

1.3.1.4 Activity - Interpret the Content of a Routing Table Entry 28

1.3.2 Directly Connected Routes 28

1.3.2.1 Directly Connected Interfaces 28

1.3.2.2 Directly Connected Route Table Entries 28

1.3.2.3 Directly Connected Examples 29

1.3.2.4 Directly Connected IPv6 Example 29

1.3.2.5 Packet Tracer - Investigating Directly Connected Routes 29

1.3.3 Statically Learned Routes 30

1.3.3.1 Static Routes 30

1.3.3.2 Static Route Examples 30

1.3.3.3 Static IPv6 Route Examples 31

1.3.4 Dynamic Routing Protocols 31

1.3.4.1 Dynamic Routing 31

1.3.4.2 IPv4 Routing Protocols 32

1.3.4.3 IPv4 Dynamic Routing Examples 32

1.3.4.4 IPv6 Routing Protocols 32

1.3.4.5 IPv6 Dynamic Routing Examples 33

1.4 Summary 33

1.4.1.1 Class Activity - We Really Could Use a Map! 33

1.4.1.2 Summary 33

Your Chapter Notes 35

Chapter 2 Static Routing 37

2.0 Static Routing 37

2.0.1.1 Introduction 37

2.0.1.2 Class Activity - Which Way Should We Go 37

2.1 Static Routing Implementation 38

2.1.1 Static Routing 38

2.1.1.1 Reach Remote Networks 38

2.1.1.2 Why Use Static Routing? 38

2.1.1.3 When to Use Static Routes 39

2.1.1.4 Activity - Identify the Advantages and Disadvantages of Static Routing 39

2.1.2 Types of Static Routes 39

2.1.2.1 Static Route Applications 39

2.1.2.2 Standard Static Route 40

2.1.2.3 Default Static Route 40

2.1.2.4 Summary Static Route 40

2.1.2.5 Floating Static Route 40

2.1.2.6 Activity - Identify the Type of Static Route 41

2.2 Configure Static and Default Routes 41

2.2.1 Configure IPv4 Static Routes 41

2.2.1.1 ip route Command 41

2.2.1.2 Next-Hop Options 42

2.2.1.3 Configure a Next-Hop Static Route 42

2.2.1.4 Configure a Directly Connected Static Route 43

2.2.1.5 Configure a Fully Specified Static Route 44

2.2.1.6 Verify a Static Route 44

2.2.2 Configure IPv4 Default Routes 45

2.2.2.1 Default Static Route 45

2.2.2.2 Configure a Default Static Route 45

2.2.2.3 Verify a Default Static Route 45

2.2.2.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv4 Static and Default Routes 46

2.2.2.5 Lab - Configuring IPv4 Static and Default Routes 46

2.2.3 Configure IPv6 Static Routes 46

2.2.3.1 The ipv6 route Command 46

2.2.3.2 Next-Hop Options 47

2.2.3.3 Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route 47

2.2.3.4 Configure a Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route 48

2.2.3.5 Configure a Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route 48

2.2.3.6 Verify IPv6 Static Routes 49

2.2.4 Configure IPv6 Default Routes 49

2.2.4.1 Default Static IPv6 Route 49

2.2.4.2 Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route 50

2.2.4.3 Verify a Default Static Route 50

2.2.4.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv6 Static and Default Routes 50

2.2.4.5 Lab - Configuring IPv6 Static and Default Routes 50

2.3 Review of CIDR and VLSM 50

2.3.1 Classful Addressing 50

2.3.1.1 Classful Network Addressing 50

2.3.1.2 Classful Subnet Masks 51

2.3.1.3 Classful Routing Protocol Example 52

2.3.1.4 Classful Addressing Waste 52

2.3.2 CIDR 53

2.3.2.1 Classless Inter-Domain Routing 53

2.3.2.2 CIDR and Route Summarization 53

2.3.2.3 Static Routing CIDR Example 54

2.3.2.4 Classless Routing Protocol Example 54

2.3.3 VLSM 54

2.3.3.1 Fixed-Length Subnet Masking 54

2.3.3.2 Variable-Length Subnet Masking 55

2.3.3.3 VLSM in Action 55

2.3.3.4 Subnetting Subnets 56

2.3.3.5 VLSM Example 56

2.3.3.6 Packet Tracer - Designing and Implementing a VLSM Addressing Scheme 57

2.3.3.7 Lab - Designing and Implementing Addressing with VLSM 57

2.4 Configure Summary and Floating Static Routes 57

2.4.1 Configure IPv4 Summary Routes 57

2.4.1.1 Route Summarization 57

2.4.1.2 Calculate a Summary Route 57

2.4.1.3 Summary Static Route Example 58

2.4.1.4 Activity - Determine the Summary Network Address and Prefix 58

2.4.1.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv4 Route Summarization - Scenario 1 58

2.4.1.6 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv4 Route Summarization - Scenario 2 59

2.4.2 Configure IPv6 Summary Routes 59

2.4.2.1 Summarize IPv6 Network Addresses 59

2.4.2.2 Calculate IPv6 Network Addresses 59

2.4.2.3 Configure an IPv6 Summary Address 59

2.4.2.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv6 Route Summarization 60

2.4.2.5 Lab - Calculating Summary Routes with IPv4 and IPv6 60

2.4.3 Configure Floating Static Routes 60

2.4.3.1 Floating Static Routes 60

2.4.3.2 Configure a Floating Static Route 61

2.4.3.3 Test the Floating Static Route 61

2.4.3.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring a Floating Static Route 61

2.5 Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues 62

2.5.1 Packet Processing with Static Routes 62

2.5.1.1 Static Routes and Packet Forwarding 62

2.5.2 Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration 62

2.5.2.1 Troubleshoot a Missing Route 62

2.5.2.2 Solve a Connectivity Problem 63

2.5.2.3 Packet Tracer - Solving the Missing Route 64

2.5.2.4 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting VLSM and Route Summarization 64

2.5.2.5 Lab - Troubleshooting Static Routes 64

2.6 Summary 64

2.6.1.1 Class Activity - Make It Static 64

2.6.1.2 Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge 65

2.6.1.3 Summary 65

Your Chapter Notes 66

Chapter 3 Routing Dynamically 67

3.0 Routing Dynamically 67

3.0.1.1 Introduction 67

3.0.1.2 Class Activity How Much Does This Cost? 67

3.1 Dynamic Routing Protocols 68

3.1.1 Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation 68

3.1.1.1 The Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols 68

3.1.1.2 Purpose of Dynamic Routing Protocols 69

3.1.1.3 The Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols 69

3.1.1.4 Activity - Identify Components of a Routing Protocol 70

3.1.2 Dynamic versus Static Routing 70

3.1.2.1 Using Static Routing 70

3.1.2.2 Static Routing Scorecard 70

3.1.2.3 Using Dynamic Routing Protocols 70

3.1.2.4 Dynamic Routing Scorecard 71

3.1.2.5 Activity - Compare Static and Dynamic Routing 71

3.1.3 Routing Protocol Operating Fundamentals 71

3.1.3.1 Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation 71

3.1.3.2 Cold Start 71

3.1.3.3 Network Discovery 72

3.1.3.4 Exchanging the Routing Information 73

3.1.3.5 Achieving Convergence 74

3.1.3.6 Packet Tracer - Investigating Convergence 74

3.1.4 Types of Routing Protocols 75

3.1.4.1 Classifying Routing Protocols 75

3.1.4.2 IGP and EGP Routing Protocols 75

3.1.4.3 Distance Vector Routing Protocols 76

3.1.4.4 Link-State Routing Protocols 77

3.1.4.5 Classful Routing Protocols 77

3.1.4.6 Classless Routing Protocols 78

3.1.4.7 Routing Protocol Characteristics 79

3.1.4.8 Routing Protocol Metrics 79

3.1.4.9 Activity - Classify Dynamic Routing Protocols 80

3.1.4.10 Activity - Compare Routing Protocols 80

3.1.4.11 Activity - Match the Metric to the Protocol 80

3.2 Distance Vector Dynamic Routing 80

3.2.1 Distance Vector Routing Protocol Operation 80

3.2.1.1 Distance Vector Technologies 80

3.2.1.2 Distance Vector Algorithm 80

3.2.1.3 Activity - Identify Distance Vector Terminology 81

3.2.2 Types of Distance Vector Routing Protocols 81

3.2.2.1 Routing Information Protocol 81

3.2.2.2 Enhanced Interior-Gateway Routing Protocol 82

3.2.2.3 Activity - Compare RIP and EIGRP 82

3.2.2.4 Packet Tracer - Comparing RIP and EIGRP Path Selection 82

3.3 RIP and RIPng Routing 83

3.3.1 Configuring the RIP Protocol 83

3.3.1.1 Router RIP Configuration Mode 83

3.3.1.2 Advertising Networks 83

3.3.1.3 Examining Default RIP Settings 84

3.3.1.4 Enabling RIPv2 84

3.3.1.5 Disabling Auto Summarization 85

3.3.1.6 Configuring Passive Interfaces 85

3.3.1.7 Propagating a Default Route 86

3.3.1.8 Packet Tracer - Configuring RIPv2 86

3.3.2 Configuring the RIPng Protocol 86

3.3.2.1 Advertising IPv6 Networks 86

3.3.2.2 Examining the RIPng Configuration 87

3.3.2.3 Packet Tracer - Configuring RIPng 88

3.3.2.4 Lab - Configuring RIPv2 88

3.4 Link-State Dynamic Routing 88

3.4.1 Link-State Routing Protocol Operation 88

3.4.1.1 Shortest Path First Protocols 88

3.4.1.2 Dijkstra’s Algorithm 88

3.4.1.3 SPF Example 89

3.4.2 Link-State Updates 89

3.4.2.1 Link-State Routing Process 89

3.4.2.2 Link and Link-State 90

3.4.2.3 Say Hello 90

3.4.2.4 Building the Link-State Packet 91

3.4.2.5 Flooding the LSP 91

3.4.2.6 Building the Link-State Database 92

3.4.2.7 Building the SPF Tree 92

3.4.2.8 Adding OSPF Routes to the Routing Table 93

3.4.2.9 Activity - Building the Link-State Database and SPF Tree 93

3.4.3 Why Use Link-State Routing Protocols 93

3.4.3.1 Why Use Link-State Protocols? 93

3.4.3.2 Disadvantages of Link-State Protocols 94

3.4.3.3 Protocols that Use Link-State 94

3.5 The Routing Table 95

3.5.1 Parts of an IPv4 Route Entry 95

3.5.1.1 Routing Table Entries 95

3.5.1.2 Directly Connected Entries 95

3.5.1.3 Remote Network Entries 96

3.5.1.4 Activity - Identify Parts of an IPv4 Routing Table Entry 96

3.5.2 Dynamically Learned IPv4 Routes 96

3.5.2.1 Routing Table Terms 96

3.5.2.2 Ultimate Route 97

3.5.2.3 Level 1 Route 97

3.5.2.4 Level 1 Parent Route 97

3.5.2.5 Level 2 Child Route 97

3.5.2.6 Activity - Identify Parent and Child IPv4 Routes 98

3.5.3 The IPv4 Route Lookup Process 98

3.5.3.1 Route Lookup Process 98

3.5.3.2 Best Route = Longest Match 98

3.5.3.3 Activity - Determine the Longest Match Route 99

3.5.4 Analyze an IPv6 Routing Table 99

3.5.4.1 IPv6 Routing Table Entries 99

3.5.4.2 Directly Connected Entries 99

3.5.4.3 Remote IPv6 Network Entries 100

3.5.4.4 Activity - Identify Parts of an IPv6 Routing Table Entry 100

3.6 Summary 101

3.6.1.1 Class Activity IPv6 - Details, Details... 101

3.6.1.2 Summary 101

Your Chapter Notes 103

Chapter 4 EIGRP 105

4.0 EIGRP 105

4.0.1.1 Introduction 105

4.0.1.2 Class Activity - Classless EIGRP 105

4.1 Characteristics of EIGRP 105

4.1.1 Basic Features of EIGRP 105

4.1.1.1 Features of EIGRP 105

4.1.1.2 Protocol Dependent Modules 106

4.1.1.3 Reliable Transport Protocol 107

4.1.1.4 Authentication 107

4.1.2 Types of EIGRP Packets 108

4.1.2.1 EIGRP Packet Types 108

4.1.2.2 EIGRP Hello Packets 109

4.1.2.3 EIGRP Update and Acknowledgment Packets 109

4.1.2.4 EIGRP Query and Reply Packets 110

4.1.2.5 Activity - Identify the EIGRP Packet Type 110

4.1.2.6 Video Demonstration - Observing EIGRP Protocol Communications 110

4.1.3 EIGRP Messages 110

4.1.3.1 Encapsulating EIGRP Messages 110

4.1.3.2 EIGRP Packet Header and TLV 111

4.2 Configuring EIGRP for IPv4 112

4.2.1 Configuring EIGRP with IPv4 112

4.2.1.1 EIGRP Network Topology 112

4.2.1.2 Autonomous System Numbers 112

4.2.1.3 The Router EIGRP Command 113

4.2.1.4 EIGRP Router ID 114

4.2.1.5 Configuring the EIGRP Router ID 115

4.2.1.6 The Network Command 115

4.2.1.7 The Network Command and Wildcard Mask 116

4.2.1.8 Passive Interface 117

4.2.2 Verifying EIGRP with IPv4 118

4.2.2.1 Verifying EIGRP: Examining Neighbors 118

4.2.2.2 Verifying EIGRP: show ip protocols Command 119

4.2.2.3 Verifying EIGRP: Examine the IPv4 routing table 119

4.2.2.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring Basic EIGRP with IPv4 120

4.2.2.5 Lab - Configuring Basic EIGRP with IPv4 121

4.3 Operation of EIGRP 121

4.3.1 EIGRP Initial Route Discovery 121

4.3.1.1 EIGRP Neighbor Adjacency 121

4.3.1.2 EIGRP Topology Table 121

4.3.1.3 EIGRP Convergence 122

4.3.1.4 Activity - Identify the Steps in Establishing EIGRP Neighbor Adjacencies 122

4.3.2 Metrics 122

4.3.2.1 EIGRP Composite Metric 122

4.3.2.2 Examining Interface Values 123

4.3.2.3 Bandwidth Metric 124

4.3.2.4 Delay Metric 125

4.3.2.5 Calculating the EIGRP Metric 125

4.3.2.6 Calculating the EIGRP Metric 125

4.3.2.7 Activity - Calculate the EIGRP Metric 126

4.3.3 DUAL and the Topology Table 126

4.3.3.1 DUAL Concepts 126

4.3.3.2 Introduction to DUAL 126

4.3.3.3 Successor and Feasible Distance 127

4.3.3.4 Feasible Successors, Feasibility Condition, and Reported Distance 127

4.3.3.5 Topology Table: show ip eigrp topology Command 128

4.3.3.6 Topology Table: show ip eigrp topology Command (Cont.) 128

4.3.3.7 Topology Table: No Feasible Successor 129

4.3.3.8 Activity - Determine the Feasible Successor 130

4.3.4 DUAL and Convergence 130

4.3.4.1 DUAL Finite State Machine (FSM) 130

4.3.4.2 DUAL: Feasible Successor 130

4.3.4.3 DUAL: No Feasible Successor 131

4.3.4.4 Packet Tracer - Investigating DUAL FSM 131

4.4 Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 132

4.4.1 EIGRP for IPv4 vs. IPv6 132

4.4.1.1 EIGRP for IPv6 132

4.4.1.2 Comparing EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 132

4.4.1.3 IPv6 Link-local Addresses 133

4.4.1.4 Activity - Compare EIGRPv4 and EIGRPv6 134

4.4.2 Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 134

4.4.2.1 EIGRP for IPv6 Network Topology 134

4.4.2.2 Configuring IPv6 Link-local Addresses 134

4.4.2.3 Configuring the EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Process 135

4.4.2.4 ipv6 eigrp Interface Command 136

4.4.3 Verifying EIGRP for IPv6 136

4.4.3.1 Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: Examining Neighbors 136

4.4.3.2 Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: show ip protocols Command 137

4.4.3.3 Verifying EIGRP for IPv6: Examine the IPv6 Routing Table 138

4.4.3.4 Packet Tracer - Configuring Basic EIGRP with IPv6 138

4.4.3.5 Lab - Configuring Basic EIGRP for IPv6 138

4.5 Summary 139

4.5.1.1 Class Activity - Portfolio RIP and EIGRP 139

4.5.1.2 Summary 139

Your Chapter Notes 141

Chapter 5 EIGRP Advanced Configurations and Troubleshooting 143

5.0 EIGRP Advanced Configurations and Troubleshooting 143

5.0.1.1 Introduction 143

5.0.1.2 Class Activity - EIGRP - Back to the Future 143

5.1 Advanced EIGRP Configurations 144

5.1.1 Autosummarization 144

5.1.1.1 Network Topology 144

5.1.1.2 EIGRP Autosummarization 144

5.1.1.3 Configuring EIGRP Autosummarization 145

5.1.1.4 Verifying Auto-Summary: show ip protocols 145

5.1.1.5 Verifying Auto-Summary: Topology Table 146

5.1.1.6 Verifying Auto-Summary: Routing Table 146

5.1.1.7 Summary Route 147

5.1.1.8 Summary Route (Cont.) 147

5.1.1.9 Activity - Determine the Classful Summarization 148

5.1.1.10 Activity - Determine the Exit Interface for a Given Packet 148

5.1.2 Manual Summarization 148

5.1.2.1 Manual Summary Routes 148

5.1.2.2 Configuring EIGRP Manual Summary Routes 149

5.1.2.3 Verifying Manual Summary Routes 149

5.1.2.4 EIGRP for IPv6: Manual Summary Routes 149

5.1.2.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring EIGRP Manual Summary Routes for IPv4 and IPv6 150

5.1.3 Default Route Propagation 150

5.1.3.1 Propagating a Default Static Route 150

5.1.3.2 Verifying the Propagated Default Route 151

5.1.3.3 EIGRP for IPv6: Default Route 151

5.1.3.4 Packet Tracer - Propagating a Default Route in EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 151

5.1.4 Fine-tuning EIGRP Interfaces 152

5.1.4.1 EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization 152

5.1.4.2 Hello and Hold Timers 152

5.1.4.3 Load Balancing IPv4 153

5.1.4.4 Load Balancing IPv6 154

5.1.4.5 Activity - Determine the EIGRP Fine Tuning Commands 154

5.1.5 Secure EIGRP 154

5.1.5.1 Routing Protocol Authentication Overview 154

5.1.5.2 Configuring EIGRP with MD5 Authentication 155

5.1.5.3 EIGRP Authentication Example 156

5.1.5.4 Verify Authentication 156

5.1.5.5 Lab - Configuring Advanced EIGRP for IPv4 Features 157

5.2 Troubleshoot EIGRP 157

5.2.1 Components of Troubleshooting EIGRP 157

5.2.1.1 Basic EIGRP Troubleshooting Commands 157

5.2.1.2 Components 158

5.2.1.3 Activity - Identify the Troubleshooting Command 158

5.2.2 Troubleshoot EIGRP Neighbor Issues 158

5.2.2.1 Layer 3 Connectivity 158

5.2.2.2 EIGRP Parameters 159

5.2.2.3 EIGRP Interfaces 159

5.2.2.4 Activity - Troubleshoot EIGRP Neighbor Issues 160

5.2.3 Troubleshoot EIGRP Routing Table Issues 160

5.2.3.1 Passive Interface 160

5.2.3.2 Missing Network Statement 161

5.2.3.3 Autosummarization 161

5.2.3.4 Activity - Troubleshoot EIGRP Routing Table Issues 162

5.2.3.5 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv4 162

5.2.3.6 Lab - Troubleshooting Basic EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 162

5.2.3.7 Lab - Troubleshooting Advanced EIGRP 163

5.3 Summary 163

5.3.1.1 Class Activity - Tweaking EIGRP 163

5.3.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 163

5.3.1.3 Summary 163

Your Chapter Notes 165

Chapter 6 Single-Area OSPF 167

6.0 Single-Area OSPF 167

6.0.1.1 Introduction 167

6.0.1.2 Class Activity - Can Submarines Swim? 167

6.1 Characteristics of OSPF 167

6.1.1 Open Shortest Path First 167

6.1.1.1 Evolution of OSPF 167

6.1.1.2 Features of OSPF 168

6.1.1.3 Components of OSPF 168

6.1.1.4 Link-State Operation 169

6.1.1.5 Single-Area and Multiarea OSPF 170

6.1.1.6 Activity - Identify OSPF Features and Terminology 171

6.1.2 OSPF Messages 171

6.1.2.1 Encapsulating OSPF Messages 171

6.1.2.2 Types of OSPF Packets 171

6.1.2.3 Hello Packet 172

6.1.2.4 Hello Packet Intervals 173

6.1.2.5 Link-State Updates 173

6.1.2.6 Activity - Identify the OSPF Packet Types 173

6.1.3 OSPF Operation 173

6.1.3.1 OSPF Operational States 173

6.1.3.2 Establish Neighbor Adjacencies 174

6.1.3.3 OSPF DR and BDR 175

6.1.3.4 Synchronizing OSPF Databases 175

6.1.3.5 Activity - Identify the OSPF States for Establishing Adjacency 176

6.1.3.6 Video Demonstration - Observing OSPF Protocol Communications 176

6.2 Configuring Single-Area OSPFv2 176

6.2.1 OSPF Router ID 176

6.2.1.1 OSPF Network Topology 176

6.2.1.2 Router OSPF Configuration Mode 177

6.2.1.3 Router IDs 177

6.2.1.4 Configuring an OSPF Router ID 178

6.2.1.5 Modifying a Router ID 178

6.2.1.6 Using a Loopback Interface as the Router ID 179

6.2.2 Configure Single-Area OSPFv2 179

6.2.2.1 Enabling OSPF on Interfaces 179

6.2.2.2 Wildcard Mask 179

6.2.2.3 The network Command 180

6.2.2.4 Passive Interface 181

6.2.2.5 Configuring Passive Interfaces 181

6.2.2.6 Activity - Calculate the Subnet and Wildcard Masks 182

6.2.2.7 Packet Tracer - Configuring OSPFv2 in a Single-area 182

6.2.3 OSPF Cost 182

6.2.3.1 OSPF Metric = Cost 182

6.2.3.2 OSPF Accumulates Costs 182

6.2.3.3 Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth 183

6.2.3.4 Default Interface Bandwidths 184

6.2.3.5 Adjusting the Interface Bandwidths 184

6.2.3.6 Manually Setting the OSPF Cost 185

6.2.4 Verify OSPF 185

6.2.4.1 Verify OSPF Neighbors 185

6.2.4.2 Verify OSPF Protocol Settings 186

6.2.4.3 Verify OSPF Process Information 186

6.2.4.4 Verify OSPF Interface Settings 187

6.2.4.5 Lab - Configuring Basic Single-Area OSPFv2 187

6.3 Configure Single-Area OSPFv3 187

6.3.1 OSPFv2 vs. OSPFv3 187

6.3.1.1 OSPFv3 187

6.3.1.2 Similarities Between OSPFv2 to OSPFv3 188

6.3.1.3 Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 188

6.3.1.4 Link-Local Addresses 189

6.3.1.5 Activity - Compare and Contrast OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 189

6.3.2 Configuring OSPFv3 189

6.3.2.1 OSPFv3 Network Topology 189

6.3.2.2 Link-Local Addresses 190

6.3.2.3 Assigning Link-Local Addresses 190

6.3.2.4 Configuring the OSPFv3 Router ID 190

6.3.2.5 Modifying an OSPFv3 Router ID 192

6.3.2.6 Enabling OSPFv3 on Interfaces 192

6.3.3 Verify OSPFv3 192

6.3.3.1 Verify OSPFv3 Neighbors 192

6.3.3.2 Verify OSPFv3 Protocol Settings 193

6.3.3.3 Verify OSPFv3 Interfaces 193

6.3.3.4 Verify the IPv6 Routing Table 194

6.3.3.5 Packet Tracer - Configuring Basic OSPFv3 194

6.3.3.6 Lab - Configuring Basic Single-Area OSPFv3 194

6.4 Summary 194

6.4.1.1 Class Activity - Stepping Through OSPFv3 194

6.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 194

6.4.1.3 Summary 195

Your Chapter Notes 196

Chapter 7 Adjust and Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPF 197

7.0 Adjust and Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPF 197

7.0.1.1 Introduction 197

7.0.1.2 Class Activity - DR and BDR Election 197

7.1 Advanced Single-Area OSPF Configurations 197

7.1.1 OSPF in Multiaccess Networks 197

7.1.1.1 OSPF Network Types 197

7.1.1.2 Challenges in Multiaccess Networks 198

7.1.1.3 OSPF Designated Router 198

7.1.1.4 Verifying DR/BDR Roles 199

7.1.1.5 Verifying DR/BDR Adjacencies 200

7.1.1.6 Default DR/BDR Election Process 200

7.1.1.7 DR/BDR Election Process 201

7.1.1.8 The OSPF Priority 202

7.1.1.9 Changing the OSPF Priority 203

7.1.1.10 Activity - Identify OSPF Network Type Terminology 203

7.1.1.11 Activity - Select the Designated Router 203

7.1.1.12 Packet Tracer - Determining the DR and BDR 203

7.1.1.13 Lab - Configuring OSPFv2 on a Multiaccess Network 203

7.1.2 Default Route Propagation 204

7.1.2.1 Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv2 204

7.1.2.2 Verifying the Propagated Default Route 204

7.1.2.3 Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv3 204

7.1.2.4 Verifying the Propagated IPv6 Default Route 205

7.1.2.5 Packet Tracer - Propagating a Default Route in OSPFv2 205

7.1.3 Fine-tuning OSPF Interfaces 205

7.1.3.1 OSPF Hello and Dead Intervals 205

7.1.3.2 Modifying OSPFv2 Intervals 206

7.1.3.3 Modifying OSPFv3 Intervals 206

7.1.4 Secure OSPF 207

7.1.4.1 Routers are Targets 207

7.1.4.2 Secure Routing Updates 208

7.1.4.3 MD5 Authentication 208

7.1.4.4 Configuring OSPF MD5 Authentication 209

7.1.4.5 OSPF MD5 Authentication Example 209

7.1.4.6 Verifying OSPF MD5 Authentication 210

7.1.4.7 Packet Tracer - Configuring OSPFv2 Advance Features 210

7.1.4.8 Lab - Configuring OSPFv2 Advance Features 210

7.2 Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPF Implementations 210

7.2.1 Components of Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPF 210

7.2.1.1 Overview 210

7.2.1.2 OSPF States 211

7.2.1.3 OSPF Troubleshooting Commands 211

7.2.1.4 Components of Troubleshooting OSPF 212

7.2.1.5 Activity - Identify the Troubleshooting Command 212

7.2.2 Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv2 Routing Issues 212

7.2.2.1 Troubleshooting Neighbor Issues 212

7.2.2.2 Troubleshooting OSPF Routing Table Issues 213

7.2.2.3 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPFv2 213

7.2.3 Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv3 Routing Issues 213

7.2.3.1 OSPFv3 Troubleshooting Commands 213

7.2.3.2 Troubleshooting OSPFv3 214

7.2.3.3 Lab - Troubleshooting Basic Single-Area OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 215

7.2.3.4 Lab - Troubleshooting Advanced Single-Area OSPFv2 215

7.3 Summary 215

7.3.1.1 Class Activity - OSPF Troubleshooting Mastery 215

7.3.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 215

7.3.1.3 Summary 216

Your Chapter Notes 218

Chapter 8 Multiarea OSPF 219

8.0 Multiarea OSPF 219

8.0.1.1 Introduction 219

8.0.1.2 Class Activity Leaving on a Jet Plane 219

8.1 Multiarea OSPF Operation 219

8.1.1 Why Multiarea OSPF? 219

8.1.1.1 Single-Area OSPF 219

8.1.1.2 Multiarea OSPF 220

8.1.1.3 OSPF Two-Layer Area Hierarchy 221

8.1.1.4 Types of OSPF Routers 221

8.1.1.5 Activity - Identify the Multiarea OSPF Terminology 222

8.1.2 Multiarea OSPF LSA Operation 222

8.1.2.1 OSPF LSA Types 222

8.1.2.2 OSPF LSA Type 1 222

8.1.2.3 OSPF LSA Type 2 222

8.1.2.4 OSPF LSA Type 3 223

8.1.2.5 OSPF LSA Type 4 223

8.1.2.6 OSPF LSA Type 5 224

8.1.2.7 Activity - Identify the OSPF LSA Type 224

8.1.3 OSPF Routing Table and Types of Routes 224

8.1.3.1 OSPF Routing Table Entries 224

8.1.3.2 OSPF Route Calculation 224

8.1.3.3 Activity - Order the Steps for OSPF Best Path Calculations 225

8.2 Configuring Multiarea OSPF 225

8.2.1 Configuring Multiarea OSPF 225

8.2.1.1 Implementing Multiarea OSPF 225

8.2.1.2 Configuring Multiarea OSPF 226

8.2.1.3 Configuring Multiarea OSPFv3 226

8.2.2 OSPF Route Summarization 227

8.2.2.1 OSPF Route Summarization 227

8.2.2.2 Interarea and External Route Summarization 227

8.2.2.3 Interarea Route Summarization 228

8.2.2.4 Calculating the Summary Route 228

8.2.2.5 Configuring Interarea Route Summarization 228

8.2.3 Verifying Multiarea OSPF 229

8.2.3.1 Verifying Multiarea OSPF 229

8.2.3.2 Verify General Multiarea OSPF Settings 230

8.2.3.3 Verify the OSPF Routes 230

8.2.3.4 Verify the Multiarea OSPF LSDB 230

8.2.3.5 Verify Multiarea OSPFv3 230

8.2.3.6 Packet Tracer - Configuring Multiarea OSPFv2 231

8.2.3.7 Packet Tracer - Configuring Multiarea OSPFv3 231

8.2.3.8 Lab - Configuring Multiarea OSPFv2 231

8.2.3.9 Lab - Configuring Multiarea OSPFv3 231

8.2.3.10 Lab - Troubleshooting Multiarea OSPF 231

8.3 Summary 232

8.3.1.1 Class Activity Digital Trolleys 232

8.3.1.2 Summary 232

Your Chapter Notes 234

Chapter 9 Access Control Lists 235

9.0 Access Control Lists 235

9.0.1.1 Introduction 235

9.0.1.2 Class Activity Permit Me to Assist You 235

9.1 IP ACL Operation 236

9.1.1 Purpose of ACLs 236

9.1.1.1 What is an ACL? 236

9.1.1.2 A TCP Conversation 237

9.1.1.3 Packet Filtering 237

9.1.1.4 Packet Filtering (Cont.) 238

9.1.1.5 ACL Operation 239

9.1.1.6 Packet Tracer - ACL Demonstration 239

9.1.2 Standard versus Extended IPv4 ACLs 239

9.1.2.1 Types of Cisco IPv4 ACLs 239

9.1.2.2 Numbering and Naming ACLs 240

9.1.3 Wildcard Masks in ACLs 240

9.1.3.1 Introducing ACL Wildcard Masking 240

9.1.3.2 Wildcard Mask Examples 241

9.1.3.3 Calculating the Wildcard Mask 242

9.1.3.4 Wildcard Mask Keywords 243

9.1.3.5 Examples Wildcard Mask Keywords 243

9.1.3.6 Activity - Determine the Correct Wildcard Mask 243

9.1.3.7 Activity - Determine the Permit or Deny 243

9.1.4 Guidelines for ACL creation 243

9.1.4.1 General Guidelines for Creating ACLs 243

9.1.4.2 ACL Best Practices 244

9.1.4.3 Activity - ACL Operation 244

9.1.5 Guidelines for ACL Placement 244

9.1.5.1 Where to Place ACLs 244

9.1.5.2 Standard ACL Placement 245

9.1.5.3 Extended ACL Placement 246

9.1.5.4 Activity - Placing Standard and Extended ACLs 247

9.2 Standard IPv4 ACLs 247

9.2.1 Configure Standard IPv4 ACLs 247

9.2.1.1 Entering Criteria Statements 247

9.2.1.2 Configuring a Standard ACL 247

9.2.1.3 Configuring a Standard ACL (Cont.) 247

9.2.1.4 Internal Logic 248

9.2.1.5 Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces 249

9.2.1.6 Applying Standard ACLs to Interfaces (Cont.) 249

9.2.1.7 Creating Named Standard ACLs 250

9.2.1.8 Commenting ACLs 250

9.2.1.9 Activity - Configuring Standard ACLs 251

9.2.1.10 Packet Tracer - Configuring Standard ACLs 251

9.2.1.11 Packet Tracer - Configuring Named Standard ACLs 251

9.2.2 Modify IPv4 ACLs 251

9.2.2.1 Editing Standard Numbered ACLs 251

9.2.2.2 Editing Standard Numbered ACLs (Cont.) 252

9.2.2.3 Editing Standard Named ACLs 253

9.2.2.4 Verifying ACLs 253

9.2.2.5 ACL Statistics 253

9.2.2.6 Standard ACL Sequence Numbers 254

9.2.2.7 Lab - Configuring and Verifying Standard ACLs 255

9.2.3 Securing VTY ports with a Standard IPv4 ACL 255

9.2.3.1 Configuring a Standard ACL to Secure a VTY Port 255

9.2.3.2 Verifying a Standard ACL used to Secure a VTY Port 256

9.2.3.3 Packet Tracer - Configuring an ACL on VTY Lines 256

9.2.3.4 Lab - Configuring and Verifying VTY Restrictions 256

9.3 Extended IPv4 ACLs 256

9.3.1 Structure of an Extended IPv4 ACL 256

9.3.1.1 Extended ACLs 256

9.3.1.2 Extended ACLs (Cont.) 257

9.3.2 Configure Extended IPv4 ACLs 257

9.3.2.1 Configuring Extended ACLs 257

9.3.2.2 Applying Extended ACLs to Interfaces 258

9.3.2.3 Filtering Traffic with Extended ACLs 258

9.3.2.4 Creating Named Extended ACLs 259

9.3.2.5 Verifying Extended ACLs 259

9.3.2.6 Editing Extended ACLs 260

9.3.2.7 Activity - Creating an Extended ACL Statement 260

9.3.2.8 Activity - Evaluating Extended ACEs 260

9.3.2.9 Activity - ACL Testlet 260

9.3.2.10 Packet Tracer - Configuring Extended ACLs - Scenario 1 260

9.3.2.11 Packet Tracer - Configuring Extended ACLs - Scenario 2 260

9.3.2.12 Packet Tracer - Configuring Extended ACLs - Scenario 3 260

9.3.2.13 Lab - Configuring and Verifying Extended ACLs 261

9.4 Troubleshoot ACLs 261

9.4.1 Processing Packets with ACLs 261

9.4.1.1 Inbound and Outbound ACL Logic 261

9.4.1.2 ACL Logic Operations 262

9.4.1.3 Standard ACL Decision Process 262

9.4.1.4 Extended ACL Decision Process 262

9.4.1.5 Activity - Place in Order the Steps of the ACL Decision Making Process 263

9.4.2 Common ACLs Errors 263

9.4.2.1 Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 1 263

9.4.2.2 Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 2 263

9.4.2.3 Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 3 263

9.4.2.4 Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 4 264

9.4.2.5 Troubleshooting Common ACL Errors - Example 5 264

9.4.2.6 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting ACLs 264

9.4.2.7 Lab - Troubleshooting ACL Configuration and Placement 264

9.4.2.8 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 265

9.5 IPv6 ACLs 265

9.5.1 IPv6 ACL Creation 265

9.5.1.1 Type of IPv6 ACLs 265

9.5.1.2 Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs 265

9.5.2 Configuring IPv6 ACLs 266

9.5.2.1 Configuring IPv6 Topology 266

9.5.2.2 Configuring IPv6 ACLs 266

9.5.2.3 Applying an IPv6 ACL to an Interface 267

9.5.2.4 IPv6 ACL Examples 267

9.5.2.5 Verifying IPv6 ACLs 268

9.5.2.6 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv6 ACLs 268

9.5.2.7 Lab - Configuring and Verifying IPv6 ACLs 268

9.6 Summary 268

9.6.1.1 Class Activity FTP Denied 268

9.6.1.2 Summary 269

Your Chapter Notes 271

Chapter 10 IOS Images and Licensing 273

10.0 IOS Images and Licensing 273

10.0.1.1 Introduction 273

10.0.1.2 Class Activity IOS Detection 273

10.1 Managing IOS System Files 273

10.1.1 Naming Conventions 273

10.1.1.1 Cisco IOS Software Release Families and Trains 273

10.1.1.2 Cisco IOS 12.4 Mainline and T Trains 274

10.1.1.3 Cisco IOS 12.4 Mainline and T Numbering 275

10.1.1.4 Cisco IOS 12.4 System Image Packaging 275

10.1.1.5 Cisco IOS 15.0 M and T Trains 276

10.1.1.6 Cisco IOS 15 Train Numbering 277

10.1.1.7 IOS 15 System Image Packaging 277

10.1.1.8 IOS Image Filenames 278

10.1.1.9 Packet Tracer - Decode IOS Image Names 280

10.1.2 Managing Cisco IOS Images 280

10.1.2.1 TFTP Servers as a Backup Location 280

10.1.2.2 Creating Cisco IOS Image Backup 280

10.1.2.3 Copying a Cisco IOS Image 281

10.1.2.4 Boot System 281

10.1.2.5 Packet Tracer - Using a TFTP Server to Upgrade a Cisco IOS Image 282

10.1.2.6 Video Demonstration - Managing Cisco IOS Images 282

10.2 IOS Licensing 282

10.2.1 Software Licensing 282

10.2.1.1 Licensing Overview 282

10.2.1.2 Licensing Process 283

10.2.1.3 Step 1. Purchase the Software Package or Feature to Install 283

10.2.1.4 Step 2. Obtain a License 283

10.2.1.5 Step 3. Install the License 284

10.2.2 License Verification and Management 285

10.2.2.1 License Verification 285

10.2.2.2 Activate an Evaluation Right-To-Use License 285

10.2.2.3 Back up the License 286

10.2.2.4 Uninstall the License 287

10.2.2.5 Video Demonstration - Working with IOS 15 Image Licenses 287

10.3 Summary 287

10.3.1.1 Class Activity Powerful Protocols 287

10.3.1.2 Packet Tracer - EIGRP Capstone 288

10.3.1.3 Packet Tracer - OSPF Capstone 288

10.3.1.4 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 288

10.3.1.5 Summary 288

Your Chapter Notes 291

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