RTP: Audio and Video for the Internet

RTP: Audio and Video for the Internet

by Colin Perkins
     
 

ISBN-10: 0672322498

ISBN-13: 9780672322495

Pub. Date: 06/28/2003

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) provides a framework for delivery of audio and video across IP networks with unprecedented quality and reliability. In RTP: Audio and Video for the Internet, Colin Perkins, a leader of the RTP standardization process in the IETF, offers readers detailed technical guidance for designing, implementing, and managing any RTP-based

Overview

The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) provides a framework for delivery of audio and video across IP networks with unprecedented quality and reliability. In RTP: Audio and Video for the Internet, Colin Perkins, a leader of the RTP standardization process in the IETF, offers readers detailed technical guidance for designing, implementing, and managing any RTP-based system. By bringing together crucial information that was previously scattered or difficult to find, Perkins has created an incredible resource that enables professionals to leverage RTP's benefits in a wide range of Voice-over IP (VoIP) and streaming media applications. He demonstrates how RTP supports audio/video transmission in IP networks, and shares strategies for maximizing performance, robustness, security, and privacy. Comprehensive, exceptionally clear, and replete with examples, this book is the definitive RTP reference for every audio/video application designer, developer, researcher, and administrator.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780672322495
Publisher:
Addison-Wesley
Publication date:
06/28/2003
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
414
Product dimensions:
7.13(w) x 9.60(h) x 1.09(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
Acknowledgmentsxvii
Part IIntroduction to Networked Multimedia
Chapter 1An Introduction to RTP3
A Brief History of Audio/Video Networking4
Early Packet Voice and Video Experiments4
Audio and Video on the Internet5
ITU Standards7
Audio/Video Streaming9
A Snapshot of RTP9
Related Standards10
Overview of an RTP Implementation11
Behavior of an RTP Sender11
Behavior of an RTP Receiver13
Summary14
Chapter 2Voice and Video Communication over Packet Networks15
TCP/IP and the OSI Reference Model16
Performance Characteristics of an IP Network23
Measuring IP Network Performance25
Average Packet Loss26
Packet Loss Patterns29
Packet Duplication30
Packet Corruption31
Network Transit Time32
Acceptable Packet Sizes37
Effects of Multicast37
Effects of Network Technologies39
Conclusions about Measured Characteristics40
Effects of Transport Protocols42
UDP/IP42
TCP/IP43
Requirements for Audio/Video Transport in Packet Networks45
Benefits of Packet-Based Audio/Video47
Summary48
Part IIMedia Transport Using RTP
Chapter 3The Real-Time Transport Protocol51
Fundamental Design Philosophies of RTP51
Application-Level Framing52
The End-to-End Principle53
Achieving Flexibility54
Standard Elements of RTP55
The RTP Specification55
RTP Profiles57
RTP Payload Formats59
Optional Elements60
Related Standards61
Call Setup and Control62
Session Description63
Quality of Service63
Future Standards Development65
Summary66
Chapter 4RTP Data Transfer Protocol67
RTP Sessions67
The RTP Data Transfer Packet70
Header Elements71
Header Extensions85
Payload Headers86
Payload Data88
Packet Validation89
Translators and Mixers91
Translators91
Mixers92
Summary94
Chapter 5RTP Control Protocol95
Components of RTCP96
Transport of RTCP Packets97
RTCP Packet Formats97
RTCP RR: Receiver Reports101
RTCP SR: Sender Reports107
RTCP SDES: Source Description110
RTCP BYE: Membership Control116
RTCP APP: Application-Defined RTCP Packets118
Packing Issues118
Security and Privacy120
Packet Validation122
Participant Database124
Timing Rules128
Reporting Interval129
Basic Transmission Rules132
Forward Reconsideration134
Reverse Reconsideration138
BYE Reconsideration139
Comments on Reconsideration141
Common Implementation Problems141
Summary142
Chapter 6Media Capture, Playout, and Timing145
Behavior of a Sender146
Media Capture and Compression147
Audio Capture and Compression147
Video Capture and Compression150
Use of Prerecorded Content152
Generating RTP Packets152
Timestamps and the RTP Timing Model154
Fragmentation155
Payload Format--Specific Headers157
Behavior of a Receiver157
Packet Reception159
Receiving Data Packets160
Receiving Control Packets163
The Playout Buffer166
Basic Operation167
Playout Time Calculation170
Adapting the Playout Point192
Playout Adaptation for Audio with Silence Suppression193
Playout Adaptation for Audio without Silence Suppression196
Playout Adaptation for Video198
Decoding, Mixing, and Playout200
Decoding200
Audio Mixing201
Audio Playout204
Video Playout206
Summary207
Chapter 7Lip Synchronization209
Sender Behavior211
Receiver Behavior216
Synchronization Accuracy222
Summary223
Part IIIRobustness
Chapter 8Error Concealment227
Techniques for Audio Loss Concealment227
Measuring Audio Quality228
Silence Substitution229
Noise Substitution231
Repetition234
Other Techniques for Repairing Speech Signals237
Techniques for Video Loss Concealment242
Motion-Compensated Repetition243
Other Techniques for Repairing Video Packet Loss245
Dependency Reduction245
Interleaving247
Summary250
Chapter 9Error Correction251
Forward Error Correction252
Parity FEC254
Unequal Error Protection263
Reed--Solomon Codes266
Audio Redundancy Coding266
Channel Coding273
Partial Checksum273
Reference Picture Selection275
Retransmission276
RTCP as a Framework for Retransmission277
Applicability281
Implementation Considerations283
At a Receiver283
At the Sender285
Summary285
Chapter 10Congestion Control287
The Need for Congestion Control287
Congestion Control on the Internet290
Implications for Multimedia296
Congestion Control for Multimedia298
TCP-Like Rate Control298
TCP-Friendly Rate Control300
Layered Coding306
Summary310
Part IVAdvanced Topics
Chapter 11Header Compression315
Introductory Concepts316
Patterns, Robustness, and Local Implementation317
Standards318
Compressed RTP319
Operation of CRTP: Initialization and Context321
Operation of CRTP: Compression and Decompression323
Effects of Packet Loss326
Robust Header Compression327
Operation of ROHC: States and Modes329
Operation of ROHC: Robustness and Compression Efficiency331
Considerations for RTP Applications334
Summary336
Chapter 12Multiplexing and Tunneling339
The Motivation for Multiplexing339
Tunneling Multiplexed Compressed RTP342
Basic Concepts of TCRTP343
Implementing TCRTP346
Performance347
Other Approaches to Multiplexing349
GeRM349
Application-Specific Multiplexing354
Summary357
Chapter 13Security Considerations359
Privacy360
Confidentiality362
Confidentiality Features in the RTP Specification363
Confidentiality Using the Secure RTP Profile367
Confidentiality Using IP Security372
Other Considerations375
Authentication376
Authentication Using Standard RTP377
Authentication Using the Secure RTP Profile378
Authentication Using IP Security378
Replay Protection380
Denial of Service381
Mixers and Translators381
Active Content382
Other Considerations382
Summary383
References385
IETF RFC Standards386
IETF Internet-Drafts389
Other Standards390
Conference and Journal Papers391
Books395
Web Sites396
Other References396
Index397

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