Running Linux

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Once a little-known productivity boost for personal computers, Linux is now becoming a central part of computing environments everywhere. This operating system now serves as corporate hubs, Web servers, academic research platforms, and program development systems. All along it's also managed to keep its original role as an enjoyable environment for personal computing, learning system administration and programming skills, and all-around hacking.

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Overview

Once a little-known productivity boost for personal computers, Linux is now becoming a central part of computing environments everywhere. This operating system now serves as corporate hubs, Web servers, academic research platforms, and program development systems. All along it's also managed to keep its original role as an enjoyable environment for personal computing, learning system administration and programming skills, and all-around hacking.

This book, now in its third edition, has been widely recognized for years in the Linux community as the getting-started book people need. It goes into depth about configuration issues that often trip up users but are glossed over by other books.

A complete, UNIX-compatible operating system developed by volunteers on the Internet, Linux is distributed freely in electronic form and at a low cost from many vendors. Developed first on the PC, it has been ported to many other architectures and can now support such heavy-duty features as multiprocessing, RAID, and clustering.

Software packages on Linux include the Samba file server and Apache Web server; the X Window System (X11R6); TCP/IP networking (including PPP, SSH, and NFS support); popular software tools such as Emacs and TeX; a complete software development environment including C, C++, Java, Perl, Tcl/Tk, and Python; libraries, debuggers, multimedia support, scientific and database applications, and much more. Commercial applications that run on Linux range from end-user tools like word processors and spreadsheets to mission-critical software like the Oracle, Sybase, Informix, and IBM DB/2 database management systems.

Running Linux has all the information you need to understand, install, and start using the Linux operating system. This includes a comprehensive installation tutorial, complete information on system maintenance, tools for document development and programming, and guidelines for network, file, printer, and Web site administration.

New topics in the third edition include:

  • KDE, a desktop that brings the friendliness and ease-of-use of Windows or the Macintosh to Linux
  • Samba, which turns Linux into an office hub that serves files and printers to Microsoft systems
  • PPP, the most popular software for logging into remote systems over phone lines
  • Revised instructions for installation and configuration, particularly covering the Red Hat, SuSE and Debian distributions

"...includes an installation tutorial, system maintenance tips, document development and programming tools, and guidelines for network, file, printer,and Web administration ...new topics in this edition include Samba, KDE, and PPP."

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A guide showing users and programmers how to install, maintain, and network Linux, a free clone of the UNIX operating system that runs on a personal computer. Includes a short introduction to UNIX; a discussion of system administration and network administration; tools users need to run the system; and complete instructions for installing and configuring Version 3.1 of XFree86. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781565924697
  • Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 8/8/1999
  • Series: Running Series
  • Edition description: Third Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 760
  • Product dimensions: 7.04 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.34 (d)

Meet the Author

Lar Kaufman is a documentation consultant living in Concord, Massachusetts. He began writing about UNIX in 1983 and since then has written on System V, BSD, Mach, OSF/1, and now Linux. His hobbies include interactive media as art/literature, homebuilt and antique aircraft (he's a licensed aircraft mechanic), and natural history. Formerly a BBS operator, in 1987 Lar founded the Fidonet echoes (newsgroups) Biosphere and BioNews. He is currently leading a project to establish a global biological conservation network, using a Linux host as the mail, news, and file server.

is a computer scientist with research interests spanning many aspects of complex systems, including operating systems design, distributed systems, networking, and parallel computing. Matt is a long-time Linux advocate and developer, a role in which he has fielded questions from thousands of Linux users over the years. He was the original coordinator of the Linux Documentation Project and author of the original Linux Installation and Getting Started guide. He completed his Ph.D. at UC Berkeley and is currently a researcher at Intel Research Labs in Berkeley, and will be joining the faculty of the Computer Science department at Harvard University in July 2003.

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Chapter 8: Other Administrative Tasks

After reading the previous three chapters, you now have all the skills you need to start using your system. But don't ignore this chapter for long. me of the activities, such as making backup tapes, are important habits to develop. You may also find it useful to have access to files and programs on MSDOS and Windows. Finally, we'll help you handle events that you hope will never happen, but sometimes do-system panics and corruption.

Making Backups

Making backups of your system is an important way to protect yourself from data corruption or loss in case you have problems with your hardware, or make a mistake such as deleting important files inadvertently. During your experiences with Linux, you're likely to make quite a few customizations to the system that can't be restored by simply reinstalling from your original installation media. However, if you happen to have your original Linux floppies or CD-Rom handy, it may not be necessary to back up your entire system. Your original installation media already serves as an excellent backup.

Under Linux, as with any UNIX-like system, you can make mistakes while logged in as root that would make it impossible to boot the system or log in. Many newcomers approach such a problem by reinstalling the system entirely from backup, or worse, from scratch. This is seldom, if ever, necessary. in the section "What to Do in an Emergency" we'll talk about what to do in these cases.

If you do experience data loss, it is sometimes possible to recover that data using the filesystem maintenance tools described in the section "Checking and Repairing Filesystems" in Chapter 6, Managing Filesystems, Swap, and Devices." Unlike some other operating systems, however, it's generally not possible to "undelete" a file that has been removed by rm, or overwritten by a careless cp or mv command (for example, copying one file over another destroys the file copied over). In these extreme cases, backups are key to recovering from problems.

Backups are usually made to tape or floppy. Neither medium is 100% reliable, although tape is more dependable than floppy in the long term. There are many tools available that help you to make backups. in the simplest case, you can use a combination of gzip and tar to back up files from your hard drive to floppy or tape. This is the best method to use when you make only occasional backups, no more often than, say, once a month.

If you have numerous users on your system, or make frequent changes to the system configuration, it makes more sense to employ an incremental backup scheme. Under such a scheme, you would take a "full backup" of the system only about once a month. Then, every week, you would back up only those files that changed in the last week. Likewise, each night, you could back up just those files that changed over the previous 24 hours. There are several tools to aid you in this type of backup.

The idea behind an incremental backup is that it is more efficient to take backups in small steps; you use fewer floppies or tapes, and the weekly and nightly backups are shorter and easier to run. This makes it easier to back up more often; you have a backup that is at most a day old. if you were to, say, accidentally delete your entire system, you would restore it from backup in the following manner:

1. Restore from the most recent monthly backup. Say, if you wiped the system on July 17th, you would restore the July 1 full backup. Your system now reflects the state of files when the July I backup was made.

2. Restore from each of the weekly backups made so far this month. In our case, we could restore from the two weekly backups from July 7th and 14th. Restoring each weekly backup updates all of the files that changed during that week.

3. Restore from each of the daily backups during the last week, that is, since the last weekly backup. In this case, we would restore the daily backups from July 15th and 16th. The system now looks as it did when the daily backup was taken on July 16th; no more than a day's worth of files have been lost.

Depending on the size of your system, the full monthly backup might require 2 GB or more of backup storage- often not more than one tape using today's tape media, but quite a few ZIP disks. However, the weekly and daily backups would generally require much less storage space. Depending on how your system is used, you might decide to take the weekly backup on Sunday night and not bother with daily backups for the weekend.

One important characteristic that backups should (usually) have is the ability to select individual files from the backup for restoration. This way, if you accidentally delete a single file or group of files, you can simply restore those files without having to do a full system restoration. Depending on how you take backups, however, this task will be either very easy or painfully difficult.

In this section, we're going to talk about the use of tar, gzip, and a few related tools for taking backups to floppy and tape. We'll even cover the use of floppy and tape drives in the bargain. These tools allow you to take backups more or less "by hand"; you can automate the process by writing shell scripts and even schedule your backups to run automatically during the night using cron. All you have to do is flip tapes. There are other software packages that provide a nice menudriven interface for creating backups, restoring specific files from backup, and so forth. Many of these packages are, in fact, nice frontends to tar and gzip. You can decide for yourself what kind of backup system suits you best.

Simple Backups

The simplest means of taking a backup is to use tar to archive all the files on the system, or only those files in a set of specific directories. Before you do this, however, you need to decide what files to back up. Do you need to back up every file on the system? This is rarely necessary, especially if you have your original installation disks or CD-ROM. If you have made important changes to the system, but everything else is as just the way it was found on your installation media, you could get by only archiving those files you have made changes to. Over time, however, it is difficult to keep track of such changes.

In general, you will be making changes to the system configuration files in /etc. There are other configuration files as well, and it can't hurt to archive directories such as /usr/lib, /usr/X1 1R6/lib/X11 (which contains the XFree86 configuration files, as we'll see in the section "Installing XFree86" of Chapter 10, The X Window System), and so forth.

You should also back up your kernel sources (if you have upgraded or built your own kernel); these are found in /usr/src/linux.

During your Linux adventures it's a good idea to keep notes on what features of the system you've made changes to so you can make intelligent choices when taking backups. If you're truly paranoid, go ahead and backup the whole system: that can't hurt, but the cost of backup media might.

Of course, you should also back up the home directories for each user on the system; these are generally found in /home. if you have your system configured to receive electronic mail (see the section "The smail Mail Transport Agent" in Chapter 16, The World Wide Web and Mail), you might want to back up the incoming mail files for each user. Many people tend to keep old and "important" electronic mail in their incoming mail spool, and it's not difficult to accidentally corrupt one of these files through a mailer error or other mistake. These files are usually found in /var/spool/mail. . . .

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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Linux
  • Chapter 2: Preparing to Install Linux
  • Chapter 3: Installation and Initial Configuration
  • Chapter 4: Basic Unix Commands and Concepts
  • Chapter 5: Essential System Management
  • Chapter 6: Managing Filesystems, Swap, and Devices
  • Chapter 7: Upgrading Software and the Kernel
  • Chapter 8: Other Administrative Tasks
  • Chapter 9: Editors, Text Tools, Graphics, and Printing
  • Chapter 10: Installing the X Window System
  • Chapter 11: Customizing Your X Environment
  • Chapter 12: Windows Compatibility and Samba
  • Chapter 13: Programming Languages
  • Chapter 14: Tools for Programmers
  • Chapter 15: TCP/IP and PPP
  • Chapter 16: The World Wide Web and Electronic Mail
  • Sources of Linux Information
  • The GNOME Project
  • Installing Linux on Digital/Compaq Alpha Systems
  • LinuxPPC: Installing Linux on PowerPC Computers
  • Installing Linux/m68k on Motorola 68000-Series Systems
  • Installing Linux on Sun SPARC Systems
  • LILO Boot Options
  • Zmodem File Transfer
  • Bibliography
  • Colophon

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First Chapter


Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction to Linux
About This Book
A Brief History of Linux
Who's Using Linux?
System Features
Software Features
About Linux's Copyright
Open Source and the Philosophy of Linux
Differences Between Linux and Other Operating Systems
Hardware Requirements
Sources of Linux Information
Getting Help


Chapter 2. Preparing to Install Linux
Distributions of Linux
Preparing to Install Linux


Chapter 3. Installation and Initial Configuration
Installing the Linux Software
Post-Installation Procedures
Running Into Trouble


Chapter 4. Basic Unix Commands and Concepts
Logging In
Setting a Password
Virtual Consoles
Popular Commands
Shells
Useful Keys and How to Get Them to Work
Typing Shortcuts
Filename Expansion
Saving Your Output
What Is a Command?
Putting a Command in the Background
Manual Pages
File Ownership and Permissions
Changing the Owner, Group, and Permissions
Startup Files
Important Directories
Programs That Serve You
Processes


Chapter 5. Essential System Management
Running the System
Booting the System
System Startup and Initialization
Single-User Mode
Shutting Down the System
The /proc filesystem
Managing User Accounts


Chapter 6. Managing Filesystems, Swap, and Devices
Managing Filesystems
Managing Swap Space
Device Files


Chapter 7. Upgrading Software and the Kernel
Archive and Compression Utilities
Upgrading Software
Using RPM
Building a New Kernel
Loadable Device Drivers
Loading Modules Automatically


Chapter 8. Other Administrative Tasks
Making Backups
Scheduling Jobs Using cron
Managing System Logs
Managing Print Services
Setting Terminal Attributes
What to Do in an Emergency


Chapter 9. Editors, Text Tools, Graphics, and Printing
Editing Files Using vi
The Emacs Editor
Text and Document Processing
Graphics
Printing


Chapter 10. Installing the X Window System
X Concepts
Hardware Requirements
Installing XFree86
Configuring XFree86
Filling in Video Card Information
Running XFree86
Running Into Trouble


Chapter 11. Customizing Your X Environment
Basics of X Customization
The fvwm Window Manager
The\ K\ Development Environment
X Applications


Chapter 12. Windows Compatibility and Samba
Sharing Files
Sharing Programs


Chapter 13. Programming Languages
Programming with gcc
Makefiles
Shell Programming
Using Perl
Programming in Tcl and Tk
Java
Other Languages


Chapter 14. Tools for Programmers
Debugging with gdb
Programming Tools


Chapter 15. TCP/IP and PPP
Networking with TCP/IP
Dial-up PPP
PPP over ISDN
NFS and NIS Configuration


Chapter 16. The World Wide Web and Electronic Mail
The World Wide Web
Electronic Mail


Appendix A. Sources of Linux Information

Appendix B. The GNOME Project .TC Y C "Installing Linux on Digital/Compaq" .TC Z C "Alpha Systems" 625 .TC Y D "LinuxPPC: Installing Linux" .TC Z D "on PowerPC Computers" 642 .TC Y E "Installing Linux/m68k on Motorola" .TC Z E "68000-Series Systems" 655

Appendix F. Installing Linux on Sun SPARC Systems

Appendix G. LILO Boot Options

Appendix H. Zmodem File Transfer

Glossary

Index



INDEX:


Symbols
Numbers/Symbols
80387 math coprocessor, 58
& (ampersand), 108
background processing, 359
in HTML text escapes, 582
* (asterisk), 103
in passwd file, 150
@ (at sign), 439
[] (brackets), 103
^ (circumflex), 100
$<, $@, $* macros, 437
. (dot)
.. for parent directory, 95
for current directory, 107
dot-termination of mail, 602
starting filenames, 96
.. (dot-dot) for parent directory, 96
> (greater than), 104
>& (redirecting errors), 104
>> (for appending output), 104
in HTML, 582
# (hash mark), 76, 434
as root prompt, 128
- (hyphen), 439
Unix command options, 96
< (less than)
in HTML, 582
shell, 105
% for job numbers, 108
? (question mark), 102
" (quotation mark), 582
/ (root) directory, 51, 59, 87, 129, 167
Not Found error, 79
as read-only, 136
~ for home directory, 95
~ (tilde) in vi editor, 277
| (vertical bar), 105

A
<a> HTML tag, 575, 578
AbiWord application, 618
abort command (lpc), 264
absolute links, 575
Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT), 465
access, file (see permissions)
access.conf file, 569
AccessFileName directive, 569
accounts, user, 73-74, 92, 149-158
creating/deleting, 156-158
Acorn Disk Filing System (ADFS), 162
action attribute (HTML), 585
Ada language, 469
Adaptec cards, 649
Adaptec interfaces, 60
Adaptex SCSI interfaces, 60
AddIcon directive, 568
AddIconByEncoding directive, 568
AddIconByType directive, 568
<address> HTML tag, 582
"Address or IRQ conflict?" error, 81
addresses
broadcast, 524, 528
host, 516
IP, 516, 524
loopback, 521, 524
network, 516, 524
parallel port printer, 270
registering, 600
subnetwork, 516, 524
for variable storage, 484
AddToFunc command (fvwm), 365
AddToMenu command (fvwm), 367
adduser command, 156
administration, 124-158
cron utility and, 236
electronic mail, 600
emergency troubleshooting, 270-275
printer services maintenance, 266
rebuilding kernel, 207-219
system logs, 237-240
afio utility, 230
agetty program, 144
aha152x= parameter (linux), 60
aha1542= parameter (linux), 60
aic7xxx= parameter (linux), 60
Alias directive, 569
alias= option (LILO), 675
aliases, 385
alpha stage, 28
Alpha systems, 625-641
booting, 639
firmware programs, 631-632, 636
hardware, 638
requirements, 636
resources on, 633-635
history and status, 626-627
identifying, 627-633
installing Linux, 629-631, 637-640
preparing to install, 635-637
installing Milo utility, 629
tuning Linux, 640
AlphaBIOS firmware, 632
AlphaLinux resources, 633
Amateur Radio support, 216
AmigaOS filesystems, 162
ampersand (&), 108
background processing, 359
in HTML text escapes, 582
anchors, 575
anonymous FTP (see FTP)
ANSI C standard, 423
a.out file, 425
Apache web server, 21
Apache web servers, 562-572
apachectl utility, 572
APM, 36
append lines, 135
append= option, 676
appending to files, 104
Appfinder application, 376
Apple II operating system, 412
Apple Mac HFS, 162
Apple Network Server, 643
Apple PowerBook trackpads with LinuxPPC, 653
applets, Java, 464
application classes, 360
applications, Java, 464
applications, X, 379-393
running on KDE, 375
ApplixWare office suite, 315, 411
apropos command, 109, 393
apsfilter directory, 257
APSfilter package, 257-258
ar command, 427
ARC firmware, 631
archiving files, 184-194
tar utility, 187-191
gzip utility with, 192-193
performing tricks with, 193
ARPAnet, 515
ASCII, lptest file and, 241
ask mode (vga), 133
assembly code, 423
associative arrays, 445
asterisk (*), 103
in passwd file, 150
at sign (@), 439
ATAPI drives, Alpha system support, 636
Athena widget set, 498, 500
attach command (gdb), 481
ATZ signal, 537
audio (see sound)
authentication, 153
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Methods), 153
protocols for, 540
autoconf generator, 496
Autofill mode (Emacs), 297, 299
autofs package, 168
automatic hardware detection, 57
automounter, 168-170
AWT (Abstract Window Toolkit), 465
aztcd= parameter (linux), 60
Aztech CD-ROM interfaces, 60

B
<b> HTML tag, 581
Back button (Netscape), 560
background
color
Emacs text editor, 389
KDE desktop, 376-377
xterm, 360
xterm window, 358
processes, 108, 359
resource (X clients), 360
Backspace key, 298
backtrace command (gdb), 479
backup= option (LILO), 671
backups, 224-231, 271
compression and, 229
cron and, 235
incremental, 225, 230-231
restoring files from, 274
.bash_profile file, 117
bash shell, 99, 441
core files and, 477
.bashrc file, 117
batch files (see shells, scripts)
baud rate, 250
BBS (bulletin board systems), 22
obtaining Linux via, 48
Berkeley Unix (see BSD)
beta stage, 28
-bg option, 358
/bin directory, 118
bin directory, 118
binary emulators, 411-418
AlphaLinux, 640
binary mode, 48, 85
bindings for X resources, 362
BIOS, 53, 59
Alpha system support, 636
Dosemu and, 413
emulating, 413
undetected SCSI controllers, 84
bios= option (LILO), 672
bitmap files, 411
block groups, 272
blocks, 66, 86
checking and repairing, 172-174
superblock, 272
bmouse= parameter (linux), 61
"BogoMips" calculation, 139
Bonobo project, 621
bookmarks file, 560
/boot directory, 119
/boot/lilo.conf file, 132
/boot/map file, 133
/boot/vmlinuz file, 130
boot floppy, 57, 71, 78, 87, 129-131
boot= option (LILO), 672
boot-time parameters, 58
booting
Alpha systems, 639
LILO boot and command options, 671-679
Linux, 87, 126, 128-137
checking filesystems during, 174
messages, 138-140
options for, 135-137
troubleshooting, 77-80
Linux/m86k, 659
LinuxPPC, 645-651
TCP/IP, 532
booting Linux, 57-62
BootX software, 651-652
br variable (printcap), 250
brackets [], 103
break command (gdb), 485
breakpoints, 473, 485
broadcast address, 524, 528
browsability of Windows files, 405
browsers on AlphaLinux, 641
BSD (Berkeley Unix), 6
FreeBSD and NetBSD, 34, 613
print utilities, 258-261, 269, 326
bsh (Bourne shell), 440
buffers, Emacs, 289
building kernel, 211-219
hardware and, 213
bulletin board systems (see BBS)
bunzip2 utility, 186
bus architecture, 37
Buslogic SCSI interfaces, 60
busmouse interface, 61
byte codes, 463
bzip2 utility, 186

C
C, C++ languages, 17, 420, 430
compiler, 420-430
shared libraries, 429
uprading, 200
C mode (Emacs), 295
cables, 84
calculator window (KDE), 374
call stack, 479
calls program, 492
cancel command, 326
"Cannot Access Memory At Address..." error, 480
Canvas engine for GNOME, 620
carriage-return characters, 242, 255
case sensitivity, 93, 405
cat command, 97, 242
cd command, 95
cdm206= parameter (linux), 61
CDplayer program, 24
CD-R drives, 40
/cdrom directory, 165
CD-ROM drives, 39
Alpha systems with, 629
drivers, 216
cdrom service, 405
cdu31a= parameter (linux), 60
CGI scripts, 586-588
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol), 540
character devices, 216
chat utility, 534, 536
check option (mount), 396
Checker package, 477, 496-498
checking filesystems, 172-174
checking in files (see revision control)
chgrp command, 114
chipsets, Alpha systems, 634
chipsets, X Window System and, 333-335
chmod command, 90, 114-116
chown command, 114, 158
CHRP platform, 644
chsh command, 99
ci command, 503
circumflex (^), 100
CLASSPATH environment variable, 467
client, X (see X Window System)
CLISP, 469
ClockChip command, 351
clocks, 386
dot, 350
co command, 503
code
debugging (see debugging)
indenting, 512-513
languages (see programming languages)
optimizing, 423, 426, 472
<code> HTML tag, 581
Coherent filesystem, 162
col text filter, 325
colcrt text filter, 325
colors
Emacs and, 387-388
fvwm and, 364
KDE desktop background, 376
KDE window contents, 377
virtual consoles, 270
combine utility (ImageMagick), 321
command history, 102
command-line editing, 101-102
command mode (vi), 277
commands, 12
shell, vi and, 282
startup, in rc files, 142
Unix, popular, 94-98
comments
in Emacs, 297
Texinfo, 309
commercial development, 27
commercial Linux applications, 17
communications (see telecommunications)
Compaq Alpha (see Alpha systems)
Compaq Portable Math Library (CPML), 640
compiler, C (see gcc)
compiler, Java, 465, 467
compiling within Emacs, 296
compression, 184-194, 229, 274
bzip2 utility, 186
compress program, 186
gzip utility, 184-187
tar utility with, 192-193
log files, 239
CompuServe, obtaining Linux from, 48
computer graphics (see graphics)
concept index, 312-313
Concurrent Version System (CVS), 505-510
over Internet, 509
configure (script), 496
configuring
DNS, 539
Dosemu, 414-417
Elm mailer, 602
fvwm, 364-367
Ghostscript, 252
ISDN hardware, 542-545
KDE desktop, 376
LILO, 132-134
NET-4, 523
NFS and NIS, 550-554
note-taking, 271
Samba, 403-407
smail, 592-593
TCP/IP with Ethernet, 522-533
video cards, 349-352
World Wide Web server, 562-572
XFree86, 339-352
ConfigXF86 program, 339
CONNECT signal, 537
consoles
Alpha system software, 635
drivers, 217
Linux/SPARC systems, 668-669
virtual, 94, 144, 270
constant-width text, 581
Content-Length header, 602
continue command (gdb), 485
controller, hard drive, 82
controllers, SCSI (see SCSI drive controllers)
control-panel program, 73, 525
conv option (mount), 396
convert utility (ImageMagick), 320
copying, 292
directory hierarchies with tar, 193
(see also cutting and pasting)
copyright, Linux, 24
CORBA system, 621
core files, 12, 18, 472, 476-481
(see also debugging)
Corel WordPerfect, 17, 315, 411
corrupt files, 229, 273
cost of Linux, 2, 6, 25, 34
cp command, 131, 224
cpio utility, 230
CP/M operating system, 412
CPML (Compaq Portable Math Library), 640
CPU
Alpha systems, 634
architectures, 10
requirements for Linux, 36
time, 122
crashes (see core files)
cron directory, 232
cron utility, 231-236
crontab command (see cron utility)
csh (C shell), 99, 440
.cshrc file, 117
Ctrl-Alt-Del sequence, 77, 144, 146
customizing
Emacs, 288, 296-299, 488
fvwm, 367-370
Netscape Navigator, 561
X Windows System, 355-363
cutting and pasting, 388
in Emacs, 291
in vi, 284
in xterm, 381
CVF-FAT extension to DOS-FAT, 162
CVS (Concurrent Version System), 505-510
over Internet, 509
CVSROOT environment variable, 506
cylinders, 59, 66, 83-84
cylinders= option (LILO), 672

D
daemons, 119
(see also under specific daemon name)
damaged files, 273
DANG file, 414
data
debugging within programs, 482-484
transfer rate, 250
Data Display Debugger (DDD), 489
dd command, 48, 127, 131, 177
DDD (Data Display Debugger), 489
Debian Linux
Alpha systems, 627
LinuxPPC, 643
Motorola 68000-series systems, 658
debug parameter (linux), 59
debugging, 59, 477
Checker package, 477, 496-498
core dumps (see core files)
gdb debugger, 423, 426, 471-489
shared libraries and, 429
instruction-level, 486
interactive debuggers for, 489
log files and, 238
program while running, 481-482
redirecting error messages, 104
routing tables, 532
(see also troubleshooting)
DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), 626
default gateway, 520
default= option (LILO), 672
DefaultColorDepth option (XF86Config), 347
DefaultIcon directive, 568
DefaultType directive, 577
define-key function, 298
dektop system, GNOME, 617
delay= option (LILO), 672
Delete key (Emacs), 298
deleting
LILO, 137
partitions, 53
text, 278, 291
(see also cutting and pasting)
user accounts, 157
dependency line, 432
Depth option (XF86Config), 348
design of Linux, 26-31
desktop environments, 356
desktop system, GNOME, 615
DeskTopSize command (fvwm), 365
detach command (gdb), 482
detection parameters (hardware), 57
/dev directory, 62, 126, 179, 262, 535
/dev/fd# files, 63, 229
/dev/hda# files, 63, 179
/dev/lp# files, 241
/dev/MAKEDEV script, 181
/dev/mouse file, 181, 343
/dev/nrft# and /nsft# files, 227
/dev/null file, 105, 179, 235
/dev/rft# files, 227
/dev/sda# and /sdb# files, 63
/dev/st# files, 227
/dev/ttys# and ttyS# files, 242
/dev/zero file, 179
development, GNOME for, 619-623
"device full" error, 86
devices, 262
Alpha system support, 636
device files, 126, 179-182, 535
drivers, 62
loading, 219-223
Windows and, 395
Linux/SPARC systems, 669
virtual, 262
(see also /dev directory)
DIA application, 618
dial-up PPP, 533-541
diff program, 510
Digital Alpha (see Alpha systems)
DIR_COLORS files, 96
direct memory access (DMA), 81
listing channels in use, 149
directories, 94, 118
. (current), 107
.. (parent), 95
copying hierarchies with tar, 193
home, 151
permissions for, 111
printer, 259
Windows, mounting with Samba, 398-400
directors file, 597
disabling
swap space, 178
user accounts, 157
disass command (gdb), 487
disk manager (see fdisk utility)
disk= option (LILO), 672
disk paging, 11
disk space, 38
CD-ROM and tape drive storage , 39
hard space geometry, specifying, 59
log files, 239
multiple filesystems and, 52
reserving for ramdisk, 59
software requirements, 52
specifying partition size, 66
troubleshooting hard drives, 82
(see also hard drives)
disktab= option (LILO), 673
display command (gdb), 487
display scan and refresh rates, 344
display utility (ImageMagick), 319
distributions
Linux, 29, 46-47
installation differences, 70
smail and, 590
source, 202
DLLs (see shared libraries)
DMA (direct memory access), 81
listing channels in use, 149
dma file (/proc), 149
DNS (Domain Name Service), 518, 600
configuring, 539
doc file format, 411
document model (Bonobo), 621
document processing, 299-317
documentation, xv, 40-42, 609-613
configuring httpd, 563
Dosemu, 414
Elm mailer, 604-606
Emacs, 290
Info (see Info pages)
LDP, xv, 41, 609-610
LILO configuration, 137
manual pages, 109
Perl, 443
printer, 243
TCP/IP, 515
TeX, 305
Texinfo, 309-315
vi editor, 286
XFree86, 340
documents, HTML, 572-583
DOM (Document Object Model), 620
domain name, 602
registering, 600
Domain Name Service (DNS), 518, 600
configuring, 539
domainname command, 553
DOS (see MS-DOS)
Dosemu emulator, 411, 413-417
installing and configuring, 414-417
obtaining, 414
dosemu.conf file, 415
DOS-FAT filesystem, 162
dot (.)
.. for parent directory, 95
for current directory, 107
dot-termination of mail, 602
starting filenames, 96
dot clock, 350
dotted quad notation, 516
dot-termination, 602
doublesided printing, 246
DoubleSpace, 162
down command (lpc), 264
drag-and-drop (KDE), 371
"Drive not bootable" error, 88
drivers (see device drivers)
drives, 62
names for, 62
partitioning (see partitions/filesystems; repartitioning)
(see also disk space, hard drives)
DriveSpace, 162
du command, 106
duconv utility, 410
DVD-ROM drives, 39-40
.dvi files, 303
dynamic
linked libraries (see shared libraries)
routing information, 529

E
e2fsck program, 273
Eagle Linux M86K, 658
EdgeScroll command (fvwm), 365
edit mode (vi), 277
editing, command-line, 101-102
EDITME file, 593
editors, text, 12, 91, 276-317
egcs compiler, 200
electronic mail, 588-608
adminstrative issues, 600
backing up, 226
cron and, 235
fetchmail package, 598-599
installing Elm reader, 601-606
Internet mail feed, 600
mail queue, 600
Netscape Messenger, 606
sending from Emacs, 294
smail package, 590-598
ELF binaries, 215
Elm mailer, 601-606
-- HTML tag, 573
Emacs editor, 12, 286-299, 386-390
customizing, 288, 296-299
with gdb, 487-489
as program interface, 501
.emacs file, 118, 296
emergency troubleshooting, 270-275
emulators, 411-418
Enhanced IDE/MFM/RLL drive support, 215
/etc directory, 119, 226
/etc/DIR_COLORS files, 96
/etc/dosemu.conf, 415
/etc/fstab file, 75-76, 166, 550
/etc/group file, 153
/etc/hosts file, 530
/etc/hosts.conf file, 531
/etc/inetd.conf file, 120
/etc/init.d directory, 143
/etc/inittab file, 120, 140-142, 526
/etc/ld.so.cache, 197
/etc/ld.so.conf, 197
/etc/lilo.conf file, 132-134
/etc/lptest file, 241
/etc/networks file, 530
/etc/passwd file, 74, 150-152, 274
/etc/printcap file, 240, 246-252, 268, 323, 326, 406
/etc/rc.d directory, 145
/etc/rc.d/init.d directory, 143
/etc/rc.d/rc script, 142-143
/etc/rc.d/rc.local file, 144
/etc/rc.d/rc.sprint file, 142
/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit program, 145
/etc/resolv.conf file, 531, 535
/etc/services file, 597
/etc/shadow file, 74, 152
/etc/skel directory, 74, 119, 157
/etc/smb.conf file, 398, 401
/etc/syslog.conf file, 237
/etc/syslogd.conf file, 529
/etc/yp.conf file, 553
ether= parameter (linux), 61
Ethernet cards, 20-21, 40, 61, 522-533
troubleshooting, 533
(see also networking)
Ewing, Mark, 617
ex mode (vi), 281
executables, 12
execute permissions (see permissions)
.exrc file, 118
ext2fs filesystems, 69
extended partitions, 51

F
f2c translator, 469
FAQ, Linux, 41, 609
Fast Ethernet cards, 40
FAT filesystems/partitions, 395
fax devices, 246
FBDev server, 335
fd# files, 63, 229
fdisk utility, 54, 64-68, 88, 135, 645
fetchmail package, 598-599
fg command, 108
-fg option, 358
filename expansion, 101-102
files
appending to, 104
archiving (see archiving files)
backup, 224-231, 271
compressing (see compression)
corrupted, 273
device, 179-182
.dvi, 303
"File not found" error, 79, 86
hidden, 96
HTML, 572-583
listing, 96
locking, 264, 602
overwriting, 104, 224
ownership (see permissions)
patching, 510-512
permissions for (see permissions)
.rc files, 142
restoring from backup, 274
revision control
CVS utility, 505-510
RCS utility, 471, 502-505
saving within vi, 281
sharing between Windows and Linux, 395-411
accessing Linux files, 400
accessing Windows files, 398
file translation utilities, 409-411
start-up, 116-118
swap partitions, 52
symbolic links between, 98
Windows, case sensitivity, 405
filesystems/partitions (see partitions/filesystems)
filters, printing, 249, 253-255, 327
magic, 256-258
find command, 230
finish command (gdb), 475
FIPS, 54
firmware on Alpha systems, 631-632, 636
floppy disks, 164, 215
backing up to, 229
filesystems on, 171
floppy= parameter (linux), 61
FMU (flash-RAM management utility), 631
-fn option, 358
focus (X windows), 364
font resource, 360
fonts, 16
font-lock mode (Emacs), 389
fvwm and, 364
xterm and, 384
force-backup= option (LILO), 673
foreground color (Emacs), 389
foreground resource, 360
forking, 121
<form> HTML tag, 583
format
filesystem (see mkfs command)
fvwm pop-up menus, 367
improper, 85
indenting code, 512-513
manual pages, 308
printcap file, 247
tape drives, 227
TeX and, 303
Texinfo, 314
text in HTML, 580
formatting languages, 15
forms, HTML, 583-588
FORTRAN language, 469
Forward button (Netscape), 560
-fpic switch (gcc), 429
FPU instructions, 11
framebuffer device, 335
frames (Emacs), 388
free command, 148, 175
Free Software Foundation (see FSF)
FreeBSD, 34, 613
Freshmeat, 24
fsck program, 172-174, 273
FSF (Free Software Foundation), 6, 24
FTP site, 613
HURD, 35
fstab file, 75-76, 166, 550
ftape driver, 220
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 86
AlphaLinux reference sites, 634
documentation via, 41, 609
Linux via, 47
obtaining Dosemu via, 414
RZSZ via, 681
smail via, 591
software sites, 612
via World Wide Web, 557
XFree86 via, 336
Fundamental mode (Emacs), 287
Future Domain SCSI interfaces, 60
fvwm window manager, 355, 363-370
customizing, 364-370
fvwm2 window manager, 19, 359
.fvwm2rc file, 118

G
g++ shell script, 430
games, 24
garbage collector/detector, 497
gateways, 519, 525
gcc (GNU C compiler), 17, 420-430, 472
shared libraries, 429
upgrading, 200
gdb (GNU debugger), 423, 471-489
Emacs with, 296, 487-489
shared libraries and, 429
geometry, hard drive, 59, 83, 86, 135
-geometry option, 358
geometry resource, 360
GET method, 585
getline library, 501
getty program, 121, 144
Ghostscript, 244, 252
Ghostview utility, 390
GIDs (group IDs), NFS, NIS and, 551
GIMP application, 321-322, 617-618
GIMP Toolkit (GTK), 449, 499
Glade utility, 623
glibc2 library, 199
globbing, 102
GNAT interpreter, 469
GNOME project, 20, 356, 614-624
applications for, 618
as development platform, 619-623
elements of, 615
GNOME-print model, 623
history of, 616
obtaining and installing, 624
GNU debugger (see gdb)
GNU Emacs text editor, 287
GNU General Public License, 24
GNU getline library, 501
GNU utilities, 6, 13
Gnumeric application, 618
GNUS reader, 295
GoldStar CD-ROM interfaces, 61
GPL (General Public License), 24
gprof utility, 18, 490-492
gradient background colors (KDE), 377
graphical browsers on AlphaLinux, 641
graphics, 317-323
engines for GNOME, 620
GIMP application, 321-322
ImageMagick package, 245, 318-321
inline images, 577
Linux/SPARC and, 666-667
POVRAY program, 323
greater than (>)
in HTML, 582
shell, 104
groff, 14, 305-309, 325
group file, 153
group ID, 151, 154
groupmod command, 158
groups, 112, 153-155
(see also users)
groups command, 155
gscd= parameter (linux), 61
GTK (GIMP Toolkit), 449, 499
Gtk module (Perl), 449
GTK+ toolkit, 619
guest access to Windows services, 404
GUILE, 617
GUIs, X Window System and, 19
gunzip utility, 185, 192
(see also gzip utility)
Guppi application, 618
gzip utility, 184-187, 229, 274
errors, 85
tar utility with, 192-193

H
<h#> HTML tags, 573
hacking support, 217
handshaking (PPP), 535
hard drives, 50
booting Linux from, 87, 131-137
controller requirements, 38
"Drive not bootable" error, 88
errors, 86
geometry of, 83, 86, 135
Linux requirements, 38
partitions, 50-55
Linux requirements, 51-53
LinuxPPC, 646-651
repartitioning, 53-55
(see also disk space)
hardware
Alpha systems, 638
requirements, 636
resources on, 633-635
booting Linux/m86k, 659
building kernel and, 213
detection parameters, 57
drive controllers, 38
fax devices, 246
hardware groups, 155
incompatibility, 79
ISDN, configuring, 542-545
Linux PPC concerns, 653-654
Linux requirements, 35-40
Linux/m86k, 656
LinuxPPC, 643-644
mice, 39
modems, 40
monitors and video adapters, 39
printers, 40, 241-243, 266
Sun SPARC systems, 662
tape drives, 227
troubleshooting, 80-85
undetected during book, 136
X Window System requirements, 333-336
hash mark (#), 76, 434
as root prompt, 128
hd= parameter (linux), 59, 86
hda# files, 63
header, Texinfo, 310
headings, HTML, 573
heads= option (LILO), 672
help, xv, 42-45
Emacs, 290
lpc, 265
online help, 74
(see also documentation)
hidden files, 96
hidden form elements, 585
High Sierra Filesystem, 162
HiSax driver, 542
history, command, 102
history of Linux, xii, 4-6
HLT instruction, 59
/home directory, 94, 226
home directory, 151
horizontal rule in HTML, 582
host address, 516
hostname command, 532
hostnames, 602
setting, 532
SMB protocol, 399
hosts file, 530
hosts.conf file, 531
HOWTO documents, Linux, 41, 610
HPFS filesystem, 162
<hr> HTML tag, 582
hsfs filesystem, 162
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), 15
documents, 572-583
forms, 583-588
htools package, 23
httpd daemon, 562
httpd.conf file, 563
hung system, 78
HURD project, 35
hyperlinks (see links, Web)
hyphen (-), 439
Unix command options, 96

I
<i> HTML tag, 581
IconFont command (fvwm), 366
IconPath command (fvwm), 366
icons for Web documents, 568
IDE drives, 59
LinuxPPC with, 648
IDE drives,
Alpha system support, 636
identify utility (ImageMagick), 321
if variable (printcap), 249
ifconfig command, 527, 533
/Image file, 130
image= option (LILO), 675
image option (LILO), 675
ImageMagick package, 245, 318-321
images (see graphics)
imake program, 495-496
<img> HTML tag, 577
Imlib library, 620
import utility (ImageMagick), 320
inaccessible= option (LILO), 673
include directory, 119
include path, 428
#include statements, 428
including files in vi, 282
incompatible hardware, 79-85
incremental
backups, 225, 230-231
search, 293
indent program, 512
Indented Text mode (Emacs), 299
indenting code, 512-513
indexing, Texinfo, 312
inetd daemon, 529
starting Sambda daemons, 407
inetd.conf file, 120
info command (gdb), 484-485
Info pages (GNU project programs), 110, 290
info program, 110, 290
INFO-SHEET, Linux, 610
init command, 140-145, 526
initrd= option, 677
inittab file, 120, 140-141, 526
inline images, 577
input
printing filters (see filters, printing)
redirection, 105
<input> HTML tag, 585
inserting text (vi editor), 277
insmod command, 221, 274
installing
BootX software, 651
device drivers, 219-223
Dosemu, 414-417
Elm reader, 601-606
GNOME, 624
KDE, 372-374
LILO, 71
Linux (see installing Linux)
manual pages, 308
new kernel, 207-219
RPM for, 203-207
Samba, 398, 401-403
smail package, 590-598
software, 70
troubleshooting, 85-87
upgrading vs. reinstalling, 195
XFree86, 336-338
installing Linux, 29, 49-77
Alpha systems, 629-631, 637-640
preparing to install, 635-637
hardware concerns
preparing to boot, 653-654
Motorola 68000-series systems, 655-661
booting Linux/m68k, 659
hardware, 656
partitions and filesystems, 660
X Window System, 660
PowerPC computers, 642-654
kernel and library concerns, 645
preparing to boot, 645-651
Red Hat Installer
preparing to boot, 651-652
Sun SPARC systems, 662-670
differences from Intel intallations, 665-668
hardware, 662
installing from serial console, 668
SILO bootloader, 667
system libraries, 665
tasks immediately after, 73-77
troubleshooting, 77-90
instruction-level debugging, 486
insufficient memory errors, 86
intall= option (LILO), 673
interactive HTML forms, 583-588
interface building tools, 498-501
internationalization of KDE desktop, 378
Internet
CVS utility over, 509
domain name, registering, 600
mail feed, 600
obtaining Linux from, 47-48
Protocol (see IP)
WWW (see World Wide Web)
interrupts file (/proc), 149
I/O
addresses, 81
checking addresses with /proc/ioports, 148
memory-mapped, 84
ioports file, 148
IP (Internet Protocol), 516, 518, 524
(see also TCP/IP)
IPC (interprocess communication), 622
IPC, System V, 414
ipppd daemon, 545
IRQ (interrupt request line), 81
ISDN, PPP over, 541-549
configuring ISDN hardware, 542-545
synchronous PPP, 545-548
troubleshooting, 548
ISDN subsystem, 216
ISO 9660 filesystem, 162

J
Java interpreter, 463
Java language, 18, 420, 462-468
AWT (Abstract Window Toolkit), 465
JVM (Java Virtual Machine), 463
obtaining for Linux (JDK), 464
javac (Java compiler), 465, 467
JDK (Java Developers Kit), 464
JIT (Just-in-Time) compilers, 463
job control, 108
cron utility for, 231-236
Joliet filesystem, 162
jump tables, 422
Just-in-Time (JIT) compilers, 463
JVM (Java Virtual Machine), 463

K
K Development Environment (see KDE)
K menu, 375
<kbd> HTML tag, 581
kdbg debugger, 489
KDE (K Development Environment), 20, 356, 370-378, 616
Alpha systems, 641
configuring desktop, 376
help system (kdehelp), 393
installing, 372-374
kghostview utility, 392
kwm window manager, 372
kdeadmin package, 373
kdebase package, 373
kdegames package, 373
kdegraphics package, 373
kdehelp system, 393
kdelibs package, 373
.kdelink file, 376
kdemultimedia package, 373
kdenetwork package, 373
kdesupport package, 372
kdeutils package, 373
keepalive value (Samba), 404
kernel, 1, 4, 10-12
backing up, 226
boot messages, 138-140
building, 211-219
hardware and, 213
IRQ configuration, 81
LILO option, 676
loadable device drivers, 219-223
loading onto Alpha system, 639
obtaining by FTP, 612
obtaining sources for, 209-210
panic message, 129
patches for, 209-210
PowerPC installations, 645
rebuilding, 207-219
tuning on Alpha systems, 640
version numbers, 8, 208
kernel modules, 58
"kernel too big" error, 218
kerneld daemon, 223
keyboard shortcuts, 100-102
fvwm bindings, 370
key bindings, 297
keyword strings, 504
kfm browser, 561
kghostview utility, 392
kill command, 108, 121
kill ring, 291, 387
Kimball, Spencer, 617
KLyX package, 316
korganizer package, 373
ksh (Korn shell), 99
kwm window manager, 372

L
label= option (LILO), 675
LAN (local area network), 514, 550
language for KDE, 378
languages (see programming languages)
lastlog file, 238
LATEX, 302
(see also TEX)
ldconfig command, 197, 199
ldd utility, 196, 430
LDP (Linux Documentation Project), xv, 41, 609-610
ld.so.cache file, 197
ld.so.conf file, 197
less command, 97
less than (<)
in HTML, 582
shell, 105
lf variable (printcap), 249
<li> HTML tag, 579
/lib directory, 274
Libart engine for GNOME, 620
libc library, upgrading, 196-200
libnsl, 552
libraries
programming, 421, 427
shared, 274, 429
Sun SPARC systems, 665
upgrading, 196-200
LIBRARY_PATH environment variable, 430
licenses, 24, 47
Netscape Navigator, 558
X Window System, 331
LILO (Linux Loader), 57, 71, 88, 131-137
boot and command options, 671-679
configuring, 132-134
removing, 137
as secondary boot loader, 134
specifying hard drive geometry, 83
lilo.conf file, 132
linefeed characters, 242, 255
linker, 421
links
symbolic, 98
Web, 556, 559, 574
Linux
advantages of, xiii, 31-35
booting up, 57-62, 87, 126, 128-137
cost of (see cost of Linux)
design and philosophy of, 26-31
distributions
installation differences, 70
distributions of, 46-47
documentation (see documentation)
Documentation Project (see LDP)
features of, 8-12
hardware requirements, 35-40
history of, xii, 4-6
installing, 49-77
Alpha systems, 629-631, 637-640
Motorola 68000-series systems, 655-661
Sun SPARC systems, 662-670
tasks immediately after, 73-77
troubleshooting, 77-90
kernel (see kernel)
partition requirements, 51-53
performance of (see performance)
shutting down, 77, 144-145
single-user mode, 136, 145
Software Map (LSM), 610
linux command, boot-time parameters, 58
Linux Journal, 42
Linux Magazine, 42
Linux/m68k, 655-661
booting, 659
hardware, 656
partitions and filesystems, 660
X Window System, 660
LinuxPPC, 642-654
hardware, 643-644
hardware concerns, 653-654
kernel and library concerns, 645
preparing to boot, 645-651
Red Hat Installer, 651-652
LISP language, 468
list command (gdb), 473
list-faces-display command (Emacs), 389
listing files, 96
lists in HTML, 579
literal= option, 677
ln command, 98, 181, 199
loadable device drivers, 219-223
loadable module support, 214
loader= option (LILO), 675
loading modules automatically, 223
local bus architecture, 37
local directory, 119
lock parameter (linux), 59
locking files, 502
Elm, 602
(see also revision control)
logging in, 89, 92
from terminals, 144
logical partitions, 50-51
Logical Unit Number (LUN), 60
.login file, 117
login prompt, 78, 93
Logitech mice, 343
logs
printer error, 249
rotating, 239
system, 237-240
look-and-feel, GNOME desktop, 617
loopback address, 521, 524
Lout package, 245
lp# files, 241
lp command, 326
lp variable (printcap), 249
lpadmin command, 326
lpc utility, 255, 262-266, 325
lpd daemon, 240, 262-263, 269, 326
lpq command, 324
lpr command, 323
lprm command, 324
lpstat command, 326
lptest command, 262
lptest file, 241
lptest utility, 241
ls command, 96
LSM (Linux Software Map), 610
lsmod command, 222
LUN (Logical Unit Number), 60
Lynx browser, 561
LyX package, 316

M
Macintosh emulator, 412
Macintosh, Linux on, 642-654
hardware concerns, 653-654
kernel and library concerns, 645
preparing to boot, 645-651
Red Hat Installer, 651-652
macros
Emacs, 293
make, 435
magic filters, printing, 256-258
Magic-Filter, 258
mail order, obtaining Linux via, 47
mail readers, 21, 294
mailing lists
AlphaLinux, 634
Linux documentation via, 42
main(), 467
major device number, 180
make clean program, 217
make config program, 211
make dep program, 217
make menuconfig program, 212
make program, 431-440, 495
make zImage command, 217
MAKEDEV script, 181
Makefile file, 202
makefiles, 431-440, 495
shell commands in, 438
syntax for, 434
makeinfo command, 314
man command, 74, 109
man directories, 309
MANPATH variable, 110
manual pages, 74, 109, 203
Elm mailer, 605
formatting with groff, 305
writing with groff, 306
X Window System and, 392
map file, 133
map= option (LILO), 673
marks, 283, 291
markup languages, 15
master boot record, 50
master boot record (MBR), 137
math coprocessor, 37, 58
math emulation, 213
Mattis, Peter, 617
mattrib utility, 408
max_scsi_luns= parameter (linux), 60
MBR (master boot record), 137
mcd= parameter (linux), 61
mcd utility, 409
mcopy utility, 409
mdel utility, 409
mdir utility, 409
mem= parameter (linux), 59, 136
meminfo file, 148
memory, xiv, 11, 175
address, cannot access error, 480
checking in /proc filesystem, 148
Dosemu requirements, 413
du command, 106
fvwm requirements, 363
hardware problems, 81
hung system and, 79
informing kernel of RAM, 136
insufficient, 86
Linux requirements, 37
MTRR (Memory Type Range Register), 214
out-of-memory errors, 79
print jobs, 249
removable storage devices, 40
requirements for backups, 225
shutting down improperly, 77
variable storage address, 484
violations, 476, 497
virtual (see swap space)
Wine emulator, 417
X Window System requirements, 336
(see also swap space)
memory-mapped I/O, 84
menu bar (Emacs), 387
menus, fvwm, 367
message= option (LILO), 673
messages
error (see errors)
kernel boot, 138-140
META-FAQ, Linux, 610
METAFONT system, 16
method attribute (HTML), 585
methods file, 597
metric values, 528
mformat utility, 409
mice, 39, 61
Alpha systems and, 637
LinuxPPC and, 653
microkernels, 11
Microsoft busmouse interface, 62
Microsoft Windows (see Windows operating systems)
MIDI (see audio)
Milo utility, 629, 635
loading, 639-640
miniloader limitations, 632
MIME types, 576
minicom teminal emulator, 537
minimal completion, 101
Minix (see history of Linux)
Minix filesystem, 4, 161
minor device number, 180
Mitsumi CD-ROM interfaces, 61
mkaliases command, 594
mkconfig file, 595
mkdir command, 95
mke2fs command, 69
mkfs command, 170-172
MkLinux, 644
mknod command, 180
mkswap command, 68, 177
mlabel utility, 409
mmd utility, 409
modems, 22, 40
configuring PPP for, 534-541
(see also telecommunications)
Modes option (XF86Config), 348
modprobe command, 221
modules, 219-223
loading automatically, 223
Perl (see Perl language)
modules package, 220
mogrify utility (ImageMagick), 321
monitors, 39, 343
monochrome server, 335
monolithic kernels, 11
monospaced fonts, 384
montage utility (ImageMagick), 320
more command, 97
Mosaic browser, 561
motherboard, Linux requirements, 36
Motif library, 498
Motorola 68000-series systems, 655-661
booting Linux/m68k, 659
hardware, 656
partitions and filesystems, 660
X Window System, 660
Motorola FirePower, 643
mount command, 75, 163-167, 396
mounting
filesystems, 163-167, 550
automatically, 168-170
Windows directories, 398-400
Windows-based partitions, 396-397
mounting filesystems, 75
"mount-point busy" error, 165
mouse
Emacs and, 388
fvwm, configuring for, 368
Mouse command (fvwm), 368
mouse file, 343
mousemode program, 653
Mozilla browser, 641
mrd utility, 409
mread utility, 409
mren utility, 409
MS-DOS, 22-23
accessing Unix from (see Samba)
booting, 133
emulating, 23, 413-414
filesystems/partitions, 159
mounting, 396-397
Mtools package, 408-409
hard drive partition, 50
MTools utilities, 408-409
partitions/filesystems, 161
starting instead of Linux, 88
MS-DOS Emulator, 23
msmouse= parameter (linux), 62
mt command, 228
MTA (mail transport agent), 588
mtools package, 23
MTools utilities, 408-409
MTRR (Memory Type Range Register), 214
mtype utility, 409
MUDs (multiuser dungeons), 24
multimedia, 7
multitasking, 9, 642
mwrite utility, 409
MX record, 600
mx variable (printcap), 249

N
name attribute (HTML), 585
named daemon, 519, 525, 530
names
domain (see DNS)
drives and partitions, 62
of files within /dev, 180
hard disk with LinuxPPC, 648
printer, 248
serial devices, 535
navigating
within Emacs, 288
within vi, 277, 280
the Web, 561
NCSA Mosaic, 561
nenscript utility, 256, 328-330
nested lists in HTML, 579
NET-4, 515, 523
NETBEUI protocol, 398
NetBIOS, 400
NetBSD, 34
netmask option, 528
Netscape Communicator, 559, 641
Netscape Messenger, 606
Netscape Navigator, 558-561
netstat command, 520, 532
NetWare for Linux 1.0, 17
network address, 516
networking, 10, 20-22
building kernel, 215
device support, 216
hardware support, 40
installing Linux on Alpha systems, 629
mounting Windows directories, 398-400
networks, 7, 10
addresses, 524
Ethernet, 61, 522-533
gateways, 519
PPP, 21, 515, 522
dial-up, 533-541
over ISDN, 541-549
synchronous PPP, 545
SLIP, 21, 515, 522, 534
subnetworking, 516
TCP/IP, 514-533
X System and (see X Window System)
(see also TCP/IP)
networks file, 530
newalias command, 602
newgrp command, 154
newline characters, 242
news
Linux documentation via, 42
readers, 21, 295
X Window System, 354
.newsrc file, 118
next command (gdb), 474, 486
nexti command (gdb), 487
NFS (Network File System), 7, 21, 550-554
NIS (Network Information Service), 550-554
nmbd daemon, 402, 407
nmblookup command, 402
"No such file or directory" error, 481
no387 parameter (linux), 58
noclobber option, 104
nodes, 310
no-htl parameter (linux), 59
noninitrd= option, 677
nonrewinding tape devices, 227
nrft# files, 227
nroff, 305
nsft# files, 227
NT (see Windows operating systems)
NTFS filesystems/partitions, 162
mounting, 396-397
null file, 105, 235
numbered lists in HTML, 579
nvi editor, 276
NYS, 552

O
object files, 421, 431
(see also makefiles)
obtaining
Dosemu, xdos emulators, 414
GNOME, 624
kernel sources, 209-210, 612
Linux
mail order (hard media), 47
over Internet, 47, 48
RZSZ package, 681
oclock program, 386
of variable (printcap), 250
offsets, superblock, 272
<ol> HTML tag, 579
old-GNOME project, 616
online help, 74
Open Source Software, 26-29
operating systems, 31-35
booting wrong one, 88
Linux's advantages over other, 31-35
optcd= parameter (linux), 61
Optics Storage Interface CD-ROM interfaces, 61
optimization
LILO and, 132
optimization of code, 423, 426, 472
ORBs (Object Request Brokers), 622
OS/2, 131, 133-134
out-of-memory errors, 79
output
cron utility, 23 5
printing filters (see filters, printing)
redirection, 104-106
Overwrite mode (Emacs), 299
overwriting files, 104, 224
ownership, file (see permissions)

P
<p> HTML tag, 573
p2c translator, 469
packages, installing with RPM, 203-207
packages, Perl, 449
packets, 518
packing files (see archiving files; compression)
pager, fvwm, 364
pages
blank printed, 269
document, Ghostview and, 391
length of, 250
size (Ghostview), 391
Web (see World Wide Web)
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Methods), 153
PAP (Password Authentication Protocol), 540
parallel port support, 215
partition= option (LILO), 673
partition table, 50
partitions/filesystems, 10, 50-55, 84
building kernel and, 217
creating, 69
creating with fdisk (see fdisk utility)
/etc/fstab file, 75-76
filesystems on partitions, 171
on hard-disk partitions, 171
Linux requirements, 51-53
Linux/m86k, 660
LinuxPPC on Macintosh, 645
Linux/SPARC systems, 667
managing, 159-174
mounting, 59, 163-167, 550
automatically, 168-170
names for, 62-68
NFS (see NFS)
repairing, 172-174, 272-273
repartitioning, 53-55
swap, 177
swap partitions, 52, 67-68
LinuxPPC installation, 649
MS-DOS emulators, 413
Wine emulator, 417
types of, 159-162
unmounting, 164
virtual, 162
Windows partitions (shares), 399
mounting, 396-397
MTools for DOS partitions, 408-409
serving, 400
sharing files with Linux, 395-411
sharing programs with Linux, 411-418
pas16= parameter (linux), 60
Pascal language, 469
passwd command, 74, 93, 157-158
passwd file, 74, 150, 274
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), 540
password= option (LILO), 674, 676
passwords, 89, 92-93, 150
group, 154
root, 128
shadow passwords, 152
Windows partitions (shares), 399
Windows services, 406
pasting text, 381, 388
patch program, 210, 510
patches, 209
applying, 210
(see also upgrading)
patches, kernel, 209
patching files, 510-512
path, 107
for man pages, 110
include, 428
PATH_APPLET environment variable, 468
PATH_JAVA environment variable, 468
patterns
rules for (make), 437
search and replace (vi), 283
searching and replace (Emacs), 293
PCI-bus devices, 214
PCMCIA Tools package, 36
pcomm package, 686
pdisk utility, 646
PDL (page description language), 244
percent sign (%) for job numbers, 108
performance, xiv
AlphaLinux installation, 640
Java programs, 463
printer, 266
rating tools, 489-493
period (see dot)
Perl language, 442-450
"permission denied" error, 86, 89, 163
permissions, 89, 111-116
denied during booting, 79
device, 181
filesystems as read-only, 163
print services, 259-261, 269
Windows files, 405
Philips CD-ROM interfaces, 61
philosophy of Linux, 26-31
phony targets, 433
pipe (|), 105
pixel graphics, 411
PixmapPath command (fvwm), 366
pl variable (printcap), 250
platform independence, 463
Plug-and-Play support, 215
Pluggable Authentication Methods (PAM), 153
pointing devices, 39, 61
Alpha systems and, 637
LinuxPPC and, 653
Point-to-Point Protocol (see PPP)
port address, 517
port numbers, httpd, 567
portability, 9
POST method, 585
postmaster, 592, 596
PostScript, 244
Ghostview and, 390
nenscript and (see nenscript)
TeX and (see TeX)
POVRAY program, 323
PowerBook trackpads with LinuxPPC, 653
poweroff command, 77
PowerPC computers, Linux on, 642-654
hardware concerns, 653-654
kernel and library concerns, 645
preparing to boot, 645-651
Red Hat Installer, 651-652
PowerSTACK, 643
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), 21, 515, 522
configuring DNS, 539
dial-up, 533-541
over ISDN, 541-549
configuring ISDN hardware, 542-545
synchronous PPP, 545-548
troubleshooting, 548
troubleshooting configuration, 540
pppd daemon, 534, 537
<pre> HTML tag, 581
prefix keys, rebinding, 298
preformatted text, 581
PReP (PowerPC Reference Platform), 643
prerequisites, 431
primary mailer, 594, 596
primary partitions, 51
print command (gdb), 475, 482
print spool, 323, 326-328
printcap file, 240, 246, 268, 323, 326, 406
PRINTER environment variable, 324
printer ports, 240
printing, 323-330
BSD elements, 258-261
doublesided, 246
fax devices, 246
filters (see filters, printing)
from Ghostview, 391
GNOME architecture, 623
hardware for, 40, 241-243
managing, 240-270
nenscript utility, 328-330
printer names, 248
remotely, 251
service maintenance, 266
software for, 244-245
TeX documents, 303
troubleshooting system, 267-270
printing services (Windows), 406
/private/usr/lib/smail/config file, 597
Pro Audio Spectrum SCSI interfaces, 60
/proc filesystem, 76, 147-149, 162
/proc/dma file, 149
/proc/interrupts file, 149
/proc/ioports file, 148
/proc/meminfo file, 148
processes, 120-123
processor family, 213
processor instruction-level debugging, 486
processors (see CPU)
architectures of, 10
Prodigy, obtaining Linux from, 48
profiling tools, 489-493
program sharing between Windows and Linux, 411-418
programming, 17-18
within Emacs, 294-296
languages, 419-469
tools for, 471-513
programming languages
Ada, 469
C, C++, 17, 420, 430
compiler, 420-430
FORTRAN, 469
Java, 18, 420, 462-468
AWT (Abstract Window Toolkit), 465
obtaining for Linux (JDK), 464
LISP, 468
Pascal, 469
Perl, 442-450
Python, 468
Scheme, 469
Tcl, 450-462, 500
Tk, 450-462, 500
programs
daemons, 119
debugging (see debugging)
getting information on, 484-485
performance rating tools, 489-493
project trees, CVS, 505
prompt
login, 78, 93
root user, 128
shell, 93
prompt_ramdisk= option, 677
prompt (shell), 89
proportional fonts, 384
proprietary file formats, 411
ps command, 121, 262
ptype command (gdb), 483
pw variable (printcap), 250
pwconv command, 152
pwuconv command, 152
Python language, 468

Q
QNX4 filesystem, 162
Qt package, 498
qualify file, 598
question mark (?), 102
queue, print, 263-266, 323-324, 326-328
(see also printing)
quit command (gdb), 476
quotation mark ("), 582

R
RAM (see memory)
ramdisk, 59, 79
ramdisk= option, 136, 677
ramdisk_size= option, 677
ramdisk_start= option, 677
ramdisks, 136
range= option (LILO), 676
ranlib command, 427
RAWRITE.EXE program, 48
ray-tracing program, 323
rb utility (RZSZ), 680
.rc files, 116-118
.rc files, 142, 525-530
rc.d directory, 145
rc.d/init.d directory, 143
rc.d/rc script, 142-143
rc.d/rc.local script, 144
rc.d/rc.sprint file, 142
rc.d/rc.sysinit program, 145
RCS (Revision Control System), 471, 502-505
rc.sysinit program, 145
rdev command, 130, 133, 219
"Read error, file not found" error, 85
"read_intr: 0x10" error, 86
read permission (see permissions)
README file, 48
read-only filesystems, 59, 136, 163, 173
rebooting (see booting, Linux)
recode utility, 410
Red Hat Installer, 651-652
Red Hat Linux
Alpha systems, 627
Motorola 68000-series systems, 658
Red Hat Package Manager (RPM), 203-207
redirection, 104-106
refresh rate, 344
registering domain names, 600
registers, 284
regression testing, 27
regular expressions, 103, 445
search for (Emacs), 293
reinstalling vs. upgrading, 195
relative links, 575
remote
printing, 251
removable storage devices, 40
repairing filesystems, 172-174, 272-273
repartitioning, 50-55
Linux requirements, 51-53
replacing text (see search and replace)
report-generation mechanism, Perl, 446
repository, CVS, 505-506
Requests for Comments (RFCs), 613
resolv.conf file, 531, 535
resource classes, 360
resource configuration files, 116
resources, X, 359-363
restoring files from backup, 274
restricted option (LILO), 674
retry file, 598
revision control
CVS (Concurrent Version System), 505-510
over Internet, 509
RCS (Revision Control System), 471, 502-505
RFCs (Requests for Comments), 613
rft# files, 227
rm command, 96, 127, 182, 224
rm variable (printcap), 251
RMAIL interface, 294
rmail package, 590, 596
rmdir command, 96
rmmod command, 222
ro (boot-time option), 59, 136
Rock RIdge Extensions (ISO 9660), 162
ROM filesystem, 161
root= (boot-time option), 136
root (/) directory, 51, 59, 87, 129, 167
Not Found error, 79
as read-only, 136
root account, 73, 125-128, 151
backups and, 224
root floppy, 271
root= option, 677
root password, 89
rotation log files, 239
route command, 527-528
routed daemon, 528-529
routers file, 597
routing tables, 519-522
debugging, 532
rp variable (printcap), 251
RPM (Red Hat Package Manager), 203-207
rsh command, 509
run command (gdb), 473, 485
runlevels, 141, 143
rw parameter (linux), 59
rw variable (printcap), 249
rx utility (RZSZ), 680
rz utility (RZSZ), 680, 682-683
RZSZ package, 680

S
Samba, 21, 394-418
configuring, 403-407
installing, 398, 401-403
mounting directories, 398-400
sharing files, 395-411
accessing Linux files, 400
accessing Windows files, 398
file translation utilities, 409-411
starting, 407
<samp> HTML tag, 581
sandbox, Java, 464
Sanyo CD-ROM interfaces, 61
saving files
in Emacs, 289
within vi, 281
saving output, 104-106
sb utility (RZSZ), 680
sbin directory, 118
/sbin/lilo command, 134
sbpcd= parameter (linux), 61
scheduling jobs with cron, 231-236
Scheme interpreters, 469
scientific computing applications, 24
ScriptAlias directive, 569
scripts, 13
CGI, for HTML forms, 586-588
scrollbar (Emacs), 387
scrolling, xterm, 383
SCSI drive controllers, 38, 57, 60, 63, 78, 140
building kernel, 216
troubleshooting, 83
SCSI drives, LinuxPPC with, 648
sd variable (printcap), 249
sda# files, 63
Seagate ST-Ox SCSI interfaces, 60
search and replace
Emacs, 293
vi, 280, 283
Second Extended filesystem, 161
secondary boot loader, 134
section numbers for man pages, 109
sectors= option (LILO), 673
security, 126-128
authentication, 153
HTML-based forms, 588
Java and, 464
multiple filesystems, 51
passwords (see passwords)
revision control
CVS utility, 505-510
RCS, 471
RCS utility, 502-505
root account and, 73
selecting a password, 93
sendmail, 588
upgrading software and, 201
user accounts, 149
sendmail package, 590, 596
serial device names, 535
Serial Line Internet Protocol (see SLIP)
serial= option (LILO), 674
serial ports, Alpha systems and, 637
server, 529
name, 525
NIS, 552
World Wide Web, 562-572
X (see X Window System)
(see also under specific daemon name)
Server Message Block (SMB), 398
Server Resource Map file, 567
ServerType directive, 567
services file, 597
services (Windows), supporting, 401
session management, 371, 618
setterm program, 270
setuid bit, 149
setup-hdimage program, 415
Seyon package, 22, 686
Seyon Package, 537
sh (Bourne shell), 99
shadow file, 74, 152
shadow passwords, 152
shared libraries, 201, 274, 422, 428-429
upgrading, 196-200
shared memory addresses, 81
-shared switch (gcc), 429
shares (see Windows partitions)
shareware, 25
sharing between Windows and Linux
file translation utilities, 409-411
files, 395-411
programs, 411-418
shell mode (Emacs), 296
shells, 13, 98-100
commands in makefile, 438
prompt, 89, 93
scripts, 13, 440-442
vi and shell commands, 282
shutdown command, 77
shutting down, 77, 144-145
signals, 478
SILO bootloader, 667
single (boot-time option), 136
single-user mode, Linux in, 136, 145
size of page (Ghostview), 391
sjcd= parameter (linux), 61
skel directory, 74, 119, 157
slash (/) for root directory, 51, 79, 87, 129, 136, 167
slaves, NIS, 552
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol), 21, 515, 522, 534
smail package, 590-598
runtime configuration files, 597
smart host, 592, 596
smart user, 592, 596
SMB protocol, 398
smbclient utility, 400, 402
smb.conf file, 398, 401
smbd daemon, 402, 407
smbmount command, 398
SMTP daemon, 449
smtpd daemon, 590
software, 12-24
alpha and beta stages, 28
for fax devices, 246
free, 25
FTP sites for, 612
installing, 70
RPM for, 203-207
troubleshooting, 85-87
installing on Alpha systems, 638
memory requirements of, 52
Open Source Software, 26
printing, 244-245
source distributions, 202
telecommunications (see telecommunications software)
upgrading, 194-203
libraries, 196-200
soncd535= parameter (linux), 61
Sony CD-ROM interfaces, 60
Sony CDU-535 interfaces, 61
sort command, 105
sound, 24
sound card support, 217
SoundBlaster Pro CD-ROM interfaces, 61
source code, 421
source files, 425
special characters in HTML, 582
speed (see performance)
spool, print, 323-324, 326-328
directories for, 259
(see also printing)
src directory, 119, 202
SRM console firmware, 632
srm.conf file, 567
st# files, 227
st0x= parameter (linux), 60
ST-506 drives, 59
stack frames, 479
Stacker, 162
Stallman, Richard, 617
standard error, 105
standard output (see output)
Star Office v5.0, 17, 316, 411
start command (lpc), 264
starting up commands (rc files), 142
startkde shell script, 374
start-up files, 116-118
startx command (see X Window System)
static libraries, 422, 428
step command (gdb), 474, 486
stepi command (gdb), 487
stop command (lpc), 264
Stopped (tty input) error, 108
storage (see disk space)
strace program, 493-494
stty command, 100
stub code, 422
stub routines, 196
Style command (fvwm), 365
style for KDE desktop, 378
su command, 126
submit buttons, 586
subnetwork address, 516, 524
suffix rules (make), 436
Sun SPARC systems, 662-670
differences from Intel installations, 665-668
hardware, 662
installing from serial console, 668
SILO bootloader, 667
system libraries, 665
superblock (filesystems), 272
superblocks (filesystems), 165
SuperProbe program, 333, 349
superuser (see root account)
SuSE Linux, 627
SVGA chipsets, 333
swap partitions
LinuxPPC installation, 649
MS-DOS emulators, 413
Wine emulator, 417
swap space, 11, 37-38, 140, 175-178
swap partitions, 52, 67-68
swapoff command, 178
swapon command, 69, 177
Swing (Java), 465
SWI-Prolog, 469
sx utility (RZSZ), 680
symbolic links, 98
in rc files, 143
"symbols missing" error, 221
symmetric multi-processing support, 214
sync command, 164, 177
synchronous PPP, 545-548
troubleshooting, 548
Sysctl support, 214
syslog.conf file, 237
syslogd daemon, 237-240, 529
syslogd.conf file, 529
system
administration of, 124-158
hung, 78
problems working with, 89
shutting down (see shutting down)
system calls, 10
displaying with strace, 493-494
Dosemu and, 413
Perl and, 449
System V filesystem, 162
System V IPC, 214, 414
sz utility (RZSZ), 680, 682-683

T
t128= parameter (linux), 60
Tab character, 434
Tab Key, 101
table= option (LILO), 676
tags, HTML, 573
Tanenbaum, Andrew, 4
tape, backing up to, 227
tape drives, 40
tar utility, 187-191, 226, 274
errors, 85
gzip utility with, 192-193
performing tricks with, 193
target command (gdb), 482
targets, 431, 433
taskbar, KDE, 374
Tcl language, 450-462, 500
TclMotif language, 500
tclsh interpreter, 452
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), 517
TCP/IP, 20-22, 514-533
configuring with Ethernet, 522-533
networking, 10
tcsh shell, 99, 441
technical support, 42-45
hardware, 35
telecommunications, 22
term utility, 22
Zmodem protocol, 680-685
telnet program, 517
term utility, 22, 686
terminal
attributes, 270
device, 144
emulating, 537
logins, 144
test mode, 685
terminations, cable, 84
testparm utility, 402-403, 407
testprns program, 407
TEX, 14, 245, 300-305
Texinfo, 14, 309-315
text
cutting, pasting in xterm, 381
editors, 12, 91, 276-317
command-line bindings, 102
formatting in HTML, 580
formatting languages for, 15
processing, 14-16, 299-317
<textarea> HTML tag, 585
Thinkpad systems, 61
tilde (~) for home directory, 95
tilde (~) in vi editor, 277
time, cron utility and, 233
timeout errors, 84
timeout= option (LILO), 675
Tk module (Perl), 449
Tk programming extension, 450-462, 500
tkman system, 393
tmc8xxx= parameter (linux), 60
/tmp directory, 232
Torvalds, Linus, 4, 25, 208
tracing programs, 472-476
trackpads with LinuxPPC, 653
transferring files with Zmodem, 680-685
translating files between Windows and Linux, 409-411
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 517
(see also TCP/IP)
transports file, 597
Trantor T128 SCSI interfaces, 60
Troan, Erik, 617
troff, 305, 513
trojan horses, 201
troubleshooting, 477
filesystems, 172-174, 272-273
hardware, 80-85
Linux installation, 77-90
log files and, 238
logging in, 89
networks, 532
PPP configuration, 540
printer system, 267-270
software installation, 85-87
synchronous PPP, 548
system emergencies, 270-275
X Window Server, 353-354
(see also debugging)
<tt> HTML tag, 581
ttys# and ttyS# files, 242
tunelp command, 266, 268
twm window manager, 19, 363
.twmrc file, 118
type attribute (HTML), 585
typing shortcuts, 100-102
key bindings, 297

U
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 517
UFS filesystem, 162
UIDs (user IDs)
NFS, NIS and, 551
<ul> HTML tag, 579
UltraSPARC systems, 664, 669
umount command, 164
UMSDOS filesystem, 162
uname command, 207
uncompress program, 186
uncompressing files (see compression)
undo command (Emacs), 388
undoing edits (vi editor), 279
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), 556
Unix, 4
commands, 12, 91-123
commercial implementations of, 33
Perl language, 442-450
unmask command, 116
unmounting filesystems, 164
unnumbered lists in HTML, 579
unpacking (see compression)
up command (lpc), 264
update program, 145
upgrading, 194-203
compiler, 200
kernel patches, 210
libraries, 196-200
UPS debugger, 489
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators), 556
Usenet (see news)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP), 517
user ID, 150, 158
useradd program, 73, 157
userdel command, 157
UserDir directive, 568
usermod command, 158
usernames, 150
users, 153
accounts, 73-74, 92, 149-158
creating/deleting, 156-158
backing up directories, 226
for cron tasks, 236
log of those logged in, 238
permissions (see permissions)
root, 125-128, 151
(see also groups)
/usr directory
/usr/bin directory, 118, 594
/usr/bin/apsfilter directory, 257
/usr/include directory, 119
/usr/lib directory, 119, 226, 428
/usr/lib/autofs directory, 168
/usr/local directory, 119
/usr/man directories, 309
/usr/sbin directory, 118
/usr/src directory, 119, 202
/usr/src/linux directory, 209, 226
/usr/X11R6 directory, 338
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11 file, 119, 226
utmp file, 238
UUCP (Unix to Unix Copy), 22

V
/var directory, 119
/var/log/lastlog file, 238
/var/log/messages, 533
/var/log/utmp file, 238
/var/log/wtmp file, 238
/var/spool directory, 119, 249, 259
/var/spool/cron directory, 232
/var/spool/lpd directory, 323
/var/spool/news directory, 595
/var/spool/smail directory, 595, 600
variable storage address, 484
verbose= option (LILO), 675
version numbers for Linux, 8, 208
versions, 195
displaying information on, 214
(see also upgrading software)
vertical bar (|), 105
VESA monitor timings, 345
VFAT filesystems/partitions, 395
mounting, 396-397
VFS error, 79
vga= boot-time option, 136
vga modes, 133, 136
vga= option, 677
VGA16 server, 335
vi editor, 12, 276-286
clones of (easier to use), 276
extending, 285
video cards, 39, 333-335, 349-352
video issues with LinuxPPC, 654
ViewPort option (XF86Config), 348
vim editor, 276
virtual
consoles, 94, 144, 270
desktop, fvwm, 364
devices, 262
filesystem, 162
RAM (see swap space)
services (Samba), 406
Virtual option (XF86Config), 348
viruses, 201
visible name, 592, 596
/vmlinux, /vmlinuz files, 130, 651
volume manager (see fdisk utility)
Vulcan nerve pinch, 77, 144, 146

W
WABI interface, 411, 417
Wafe language, 500
watch command (gdb), 473, 485
watchpoints, 473, 485
what command, 504
Whiteline Linux/68k, 658
whitespace, 513
wildcards, 102
window
history, 560
management, 332, 359, 363, 615
(see also fvwm window manager)
xterm (see xterm)
window managers (X Window System), 19
Windows emulation, 417-418
Windows operating systems
accessing Unix from (see Samba)
installing Linux with, 49
Linux versus, 32-33
Windows 95, 132-133
style for KDE, 378
Windows 98, 132-133
Windows NT, 131, 134
Wine emulator, 22
Windows partitions (shares), 399
mounting, 396-397
MTools for DOS partitions, 408-409
serving, 400
sharing files with Linux, 395-411
accessing Windows files, 398
file translation utilities, 409-411
sharing programs with Linux, 411-418
Wine emulator, 22, 411, 417-418
Winmodem modem, 535
wish interpreter, 452, 461
word completion, 101
word processing, 14-16, 315-317
AbiWord application, 618
WordPerfect, 17, 315, 411
workspaces, KDE, 374
World Wide Web, 21, 555-588
configuring server, 562-572
documentation available on, 41
interactive forms, 583-588
writing HTML documents, 572-583
write permission (see permissions)
writing manual pages, 306
"wrong fs type" error, 165
wtmp file, 238
WYSIWYG processors, 16, 315-317

X
x command (gdb), 483
X Window System, 19-20, 331-354
applications for, 379-393
running on KDE, 375
behind-the-scenes functionality, 615
clock, 386
customizing environment, 355-363
Emacs and, 287, 386-390
FTP site for, 613
interface building tools, 498-501
Linux/m86k and, 660
Linux/SPARC and, 666-667
make xconfig program, 212
manual pages and, 392
previewing TeX documents, 303
resources, 359-363
servers, 332, 336
Tk scripts and, 451
troubleshooting, 353-354
Wine emulator, 22
X11 software, 615
X11R6, 331
Xaw3D toolkit, 499
xclock program, 386
.Xdefaults file, 118, 381
xdos emulator, 413-414
xdvi utility, 16, 245
XEmacs text editor, 287
Xenix filesystem, 162
XF86Config program, 339-352
options for, 347
XF86Setup program, 339
xfd command, 386
xfontsel utility, 384
XFree86, 19, 331, 352, 613
configuring, 339-352
installing, 336-338
xinit program, 353, 356-359
.xinitrc file, 118, 353, 381
X resources, 362
xlsfonts command, 385
xman program, 110, 392
XML (Extensible Markup Language), 620
xmodmap command, 298
XPM file format, 411
XT bus system, 270
XT disk controllers, 215
xterm, 379-380
xtp utility (ImageMagick), 321
xtpanel utility, 500
xvidtune program, 345
XView interface, 498
xxgdb debugger, 489

Y
yanking text (see cutting and pasting)
Yellow Pages (YP) (see NIS)
yp.conf file, 553
ypwhich command, 554

Z
zcat command, 186
ZIP drives, 40
Zmodem, 680-685
zsh (Z shell), 99
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Sort by: Showing all of 6 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted September 29, 2001

    Fantastic!

    A fantastic overview of this powerful operating system and its set of tools... Perfect for beginners and intermediate users alike. When I refer to beginners, I mean true beginners, not just PhD's without much experience in Linux. If you can use your Windows machine, you WILL learn Linux with this book. In addition, you'll learn the 'how' and the 'why' of the OS, and jump into the Linux 'culture'.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 15, 2001

    Outstanding textbook

    As a teacher, I have used this book successfully for well over a year now, and in spite of massive improvements and changes within Linux, the concepts and at least 90% of the examples within Running Linux are still relevant, and still vital for the aspiring Linux student. I can say with confidence that I look forward to their next edition.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 25, 2000

    Powerful and what we need!

    Well,this book is excellent for intermediates and beginners who have always been drueling every time they see most super users go do powerful things like makefiles , and such .

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 23, 2000

    A classic

    With its first edition dating back to early 1995, Matt Welsh's book is widely regarded as classic, to the extent this term can be applied to Linux. Mr. Welsh, now continuing his PhD studies at UC Berkeley, is a renowned Linux expert, and was actively involved in Linux development since 1992. In particular, he is known in the Linux community for starting the Linux Documentation Project, for contributing to it with Linux Installation and Getting Started (LIGS) Guide (available freely from the Internet) and, lately, for being the founding editor of the Linux Magazine. <P>Running Linux grew out of LIGS as its expanded and professionally edited version. This has its pluses and minuses. When it came out, there were hardly any other books on Linux available, so it tried to teach the reader everything, from Linux installation to Unix administration, from the command shell basics to compiling the kernel, and from using the C compiler to configuration of X Windows. Its breadth is thus encyclopedic, and yet it is surprisingly sharp at details. The third edition added all the things that happened since: KDE, GNOME, Samba... It may be my personal feeling only, but the new chapters somewhat stick out, without really growing into the tissue of the text. <P>More important, the book fails to recognize that the structure of new Linux users changed since 1995. At the time, it was written as a 'getting started' guide, and it served its role perfectly. However, nowadays you cannot assume any more that every new Linux user is familiar with command line commands or other Unix systems. Therefore I don't think I could still recommend Running Linux as a beginners' guide. <P>Being one of the top-selling books on Linux, it doesn't need any particular recommendation, anyway. Still, Running Linux is a book edited to high O'Reilly standards, and written by some of the most knowledgeable people in Linux community - which is to many a definite plus compared to books written by journalists. I would say its best target population are seasoned Unix users wanting to try Linux, technically minded people in general, and CS students in particular. Others might find its learning curve somewhat steep.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 28, 2000

    The Linux Book for Intelligent People

    I was bored of going around the web to try to find solutions to my small every day problems in learning how to use and run Linux. This book is the Reference solution. It will last many years on because it has the general tools and concepts covered and of course in a smart O'Reiley fashion. This is not a Dummie guide(so don't expect a tutorial book), it's a book for intelligent people who don't throw away their cash. =) BK

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 31, 2000

    A must for Linux Users

    Running Linux provides an outstanding tutorial for the new Linux user explaining basic Unix/Linux concepts and the topics needed to install and Linux in the real world. From this book, one feels very secure with Linux and ready for further documentation. Running Linux is a must for Linux Users and by far the best around for new Linux Users. A job well done.

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