Sacred Ecology / Edition 2

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Sacred Ecology examines bodies of knowledge held by indigenous and other rural peoples around the world, and asks how we can learn from this knowledge and ways of knowing. Berkes explores the importance of local and indigenous knowledge as a complement to scientific ecology, and its cultural and political significance for indigenous groups themselves. This second edition is expanded and updated throughout, and places greater emphasis on "knowledge as process". It has two new chapters, Chapter 8 on climate change, demonstrating how indigenous communities "read" environmental signals, and Chapter 9 on how indigenous knowledge deals with complexity.

About the Author:
Dr. Fikret Berkes is Distinguished Professor and Canada Research Chair at the Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415958271
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 4/17/2008
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 336
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.75 (d)

Meet the Author

Fikret Berkes is Distinguished Professor and Canada Research Chair at the Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada. His studies on community-based resource management have led to explorations of local and indigenous knowledge. He has authored some 250 scholarly publications and nine books, including Linking Social and Ecological Systems (Cambridge University Press, 1998) and Navigating Social-Ecological Systems (Cambridge, 2003).

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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations     ix
Preface     xiii
Preface to the Second Edition     xix
Context of Traditional Ecological Knowledge     1
Defining Traditional Ecological Knowledge     3
Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Science     10
Differences: Philosophical or Political?     12
Knowledge-Practice-Belief: A Framework for Analysis     16
Objectives and Overview of the Volume     19
Emergence of the Field     21
Evolution and Differentiation of the Literature     22
Growth of Ecosystem-based Knowledge     27
Cultural and Political Significance for Indigenous Peoples     31
Questions of Ownership and Intellectual Property Rights     35
Practical Significance as Common Heritage of Humankind     37
Intellectual Roots of Traditional Ecological Knowledge     49
Ethnobiology and Biosystematics: A Good Fit     50
More on Linguistics and Methodology: How to Get the Information Right     53
Exaggeration and Ethnoscience: The Eskimo Snow Hoax?     59
Human Ecology and Territoriality     61
Integration of Social Systems and Natural Systems: Importance of Worldviews     66
Traditional Knowledge Systems in Practice     71
Tropical Forests: Not Amenable to Management?     73
Semi-arid Areas: Keeping the Land Productive     78
Traditional Uses of Fire     81
Island Ecosystems-Personal Ecosystems     86
Coastal Lagoons and Wetlands     90
Conclusions     94
Cree Worldview "From the Inside"     97
Animals Control the Hunt     99
Obligations of Hunters to Show Respect     103
Importance of Continued Use for Sustainability     109
Conclusions     112
A Story of Caribou and Social Learning     117
"No One Knows the Way of the Winds and the Caribou"     119
Cree Knowledge of Caribou in Context     122
Caribou Return to the Land of the Chisasibi Cree     127
A Gathering of the Hunters     130
Lessons for the Development of a Conservation Ethic     133
Lessons for the Questions of Monitoring     135
Cree Fishing Practices as Adaptive Management     139
The Chisasibi Cree System of Fishing     141
Subarctic Ecosystems: Scientific Understanding and Cree Practice     146
Three Cree Practices: Reading Environmental Signals for Management     148
A Computer Experiment on Cree Practice and Fish Population Resilience     151
Traditional Knowledge Systems as Adaptive Management     154
Lessons from Fisher Knowledge     157
Climate Change and Indigenous Ways of Knowing     161
Indigenous Ways of Knowing and New Models of Community-based Research     163
Inuit Observations of Climate Change Project     166
A Convergence of Findings     172
Significance of Local Observations and Place-based Research     175
Indigenous Knowledge and Adaptation     176
Conclusions     179
Complex Systems, Holism, and Fuzzy Logic     181
Rules-of-thumb: Cutting Complexity Down to Size     182
Community-based Monitoring and Environmental Change     185
Complex Systems Thinking     189
Local Knowledge and Expert Systems     193
A Fuzzy Logic Analysis of Indigenous Knowledge     197
Conclusions     200
How Local Knowledge Develops: Cases from the West Indies     203
A Framework for Development of Local and Traditional Knowledge     204
Mangrove Conservation and Charcoal Makers     208
Dominican Sawyers: Developing Private Stewardship     211
Cultivating Sea Moss in St. Lucia     213
Rehabilitating Edible Sea Urchin Resources     216
Lessons from the Caribbean Cases     218
Conclusions     220
Challenges to Indigenous Knowledge     225
Limitations of Indigenous Knowledge and the Exotic Other     227
Invaders and Natives: A Historical Perspective     228
Indigenous Peoples as Conservationists?     232
"Wilderness" and a Universal Concept of Conservation     235
Adapting Traditional Systems to the Modern Context     239
Traditional Systems for Building Livelihoods in a Globalized Economy     241
Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Traditional Knowledge     246
Toward a Unity of Mind and Nature     251
Political Ecology of Indigenous Knowledge     254
Indigenous Knowledge and Empowerment     258
Indigenous Knowledge as Challenge to the Positivist-Reductionist Paradigm     264
Making Scientific Sense of Indigenous Knowledge     267
Learning from Traditional Knowledge     271
References     277
Index     305
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