Safety of Computer Architectures / Edition 1

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Overview

It is currently quite easy for students or designers/engineers to find very general books on the various aspects of safety, reliability and dependability of computer system architectures, and partial treatments of the elements that comprise an effective system architecture. It is not so easy to find a single source reference for all these aspects of system design. However, the purpose of this book is to present, in a single volume, a full description of all the constraints (including legal contexts around performance, reliability norms, etc.) and examples of architectures from various fields of application, including: railways, aeronautics, space, automobile and industrial automation.

The content of the book is drawn from the experience of numerous people who are deeply immersed in the design and delivery (from conception to test and validation), safety (analysis of safety: FMEA, HA, etc.) and evaluation of critical systems. The involvement of real world industrial applications is handled in such as a way as to avoid problems of confidentiality, and thus allows for the inclusion of new, useful information (photos, architecture plans/schematics, real examples).

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The text is clearly written, well-illustrated, and includes a helpful glossary." (Booknews, 1 February 2011)
From the Publisher

"The text is clearly written, well-illustrated, and includes a helpful glossary." (Booknews, 1 February 2011)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781848211971
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/30/2010
  • Series: ISTE Series , #477
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 512
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1 Principles Jean-Louis Boulanger Boulanger, Jean-Louis 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Presentation of the basic concepts: faults, errors and failures 1

1.2.1 Obstruction to functional safety 1

1.2.2 Safety demonstration studies 6

1.2.3 Assessment 6

1.3 Safe and/or available architecture 7

1.4 Resetting a processing unit 7

1.5 Overview of safety techniques 8

1.5.1 Error detection 8

1.5.2 Diversity 15

1.5.3 Redundancy 16

1.5.4 Error recovery and retrieval 42

1.5.5 Partitioning 44

1.6 Conclusion 45

1.7 Bibliography 45

Chapter 2 Railway Safety Architecture Jean-Louis Boulanger Boulanger, Jean-Louis 47

2.1 Introduction 47

2.2 Coded secure processor 47

2.2.1 Basic principle 47

2.2.2 Encoding 48

2.2.3 Hardware architecture 51

2.2.4 Assessment 52

2.3 Other applications 53

2.3.1 TVM 430 53

2.3.2 SAET-METEOR 54

2.4 Regulatory and normative context 60

2.4.1 Introduction 60

2.4.2 CENELEC and IEC history 63

2.4.3 Commissioning evaluation, certification, and authorization 64

2.5 Conclusion 66

2.6 Bibliography 66

Chapter 3 From the Coded Uniprocessor to 2003 Christophe Girard Girard, Christophe 69

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 From the uniprocessor to the dual processor with voter 71

3.2.1 North LGV requirements and the Channel Tunnel 71

3.2.2 The principles of the dual processor with voter by coded uniprocessor 73

3.2.3 Architecture characteristics 74

3.2.4 Requirements for the Mediterranean LGV 76

3.3 CSD: available safety computer 80

3.3.1 Background 80

3.3.2 Functional architecture 82

3.3.3 Software architecture 85

3.3.4 Synhronization signals 88

3.3.5 The CSD mail system 90

3.4 DIVA evolutions 93

3.4.1 ERTMS equipment requirements 93

3.4.2 Functional evolution 96

3.4.3 Technological evolution 97

3.5 New needs and possible solutions 99

3.5.1 Management of the partitions 99

3.5.2 Multicycle services 100

3.6 Conclusion 101

3.7 Assessment of installations 102

3.8 Bibliography 103

Chapter 4 Designing a Computerized Interlocking Module: a Key Component of Computer-Based Signal Boxes Designed by the SNCF Marc Antoni Antoni, Marc 105

4.1 Introduction 105

4.2 Issues 107

4.2.1 Persistent bias 107

4.2.2 Challenges for tomorrow 108

4.2.3 Probability and computer safety 109

4.2.4 Maintainability and modifiability 110

4.2.5 Specific problems of critical systems 113

4.2.6 Towards a targeted architecture for safety automatons 115

4.3 Railway safety: fundamental notions 116

4.3.1 Safety and availability 116

4.3.2 Intrinsic safety and closed railway world 119

4.3.3 Processing safety 120

4.3.4 Provability of the safety of computerized equipment 121

4.3.5 The signal box 122

4.4 Development of the computerized interlocking module 124

4.4.1 Development methodology of safety systems 125

4.4.2 Technical architecture of the system 130

4.4.3 MEI safety 136

4.4.4 Modeling the PETRI network type 142

4.5 Conclusion 145

4.6 Bibliography 147

Chapter 5 Command Control of Railway Signaling Safety: Safety at Lower Cost Daniel Drago Drago, Daniel 149

5.1 Introduction 149

5.2 A safety coffee machine 149

5.3 History of the PIPC 150

5.4 The concept basis 155

5.5 Postulates for safety requirements 157

5.6 Description of the PIPC architecture 7 159

5.6.1 MCCS architecture 160

5.6.2 Input and output cards 162

5.6.3 Watchdog card internal to the processing unit 169

5.6.4 Head of bus input/output card 170

5.6.5 Field watchdog 171

5.7 Description of availability principles 173

5.7.1 Redundancy 173

5.7.2 Automatic reset 175

5.8 Software architecture 176

5.8.1 Constitution of the Kernel 176

5.8.2 The language and the compilers 177

5.8.3 The operating system (OS) 178

5.8.4 The integrity of execution and of data 179

5.8.5 Segregation of resources of different safety level processes 180

5.8.6 Execution cycle and vote and synchronization mechanism 181

5.9 Protection against causes of common failure 186

5.9.1 Technological dissimilarities of computers 186

5.9.2 Time lag during process execution 187

5.9.3 Diversification of the compilers and the executables 187

5.9.4 Antivalent acquisitions and outputs 187

5.9.5 Galvanic isolation 188

5.10 Probabilistic modeling 188

5.10.1 Objective and hypothesis 188

5.10.2 Global model 189

5.10.3 "Simplistic" quantitative evaluation 191

5.11 Summary of safety concepts 194

5.11.1 Concept 1: 2oo2 architecture 194

5.11.2 Concept 2: protection against common modes 195

5.11.3 Concept 3: self-tests 196

5.11.4 Concept 4: watchdog 196

5.11.5 Concept 5: protection of safety-related data 197

5.12 Conclusion 197

5.13 Bibliography 198

Chapter 6 Dependable Avionics Architectures: Example of a Fly-by-Wire system Jean Souyris Souyris, Jean 199

6.1 Introduction 199

6.1.1 Background and statutory obligation 200

6.1.2 History 202

6.1.3 Fly-by-wire principles 204

6.1.4 Failures and dependability 204

6.2 System breakdowns due to physical failures 205

6.2.1 Command and monitoring computers 205

6.2.2 Component redundancy 208

6.2.3 Alternatives 212

6.3 Manufacturing and design errors 215

6.3.1 Error prevention 215

6.3.2 Error tolerance 221

6.4 Specific risks 223

6.4.1 Segregation 223

6.4.2 Ultimate back-up 224

6.4.3 Alternatives 224

6.5 Human factors in the development of flight controls 225

6.5.1 Human factors in design 225

6.5.2 Human factors in certification 227

6.5.3 Challenges and trends 228

6.5.4 Alternatives 229

6.6 Conclusion 229

6.7 Bibliography 229

Chapter 7 Space Applications Philippe Miramont Miramont, Philippe 233

7.1 Introduction 233

7.2 Space system 233

7.2.1 Ground segment 234

7.2.2 Space segment 234

7.3 Context and statutory obligation 237

7.3.1 Structure and purpose of the regulatory framework 237

7.3.2 Protection of space 238

7.3.3 Protection of people, assets, and the environment 239

7.3.4 Protection of the space system and the mission 241

7.3.5 Summary of the regulatory context 241

7.4 Specific needs 243

7.4.1 Reliability 243

7.4.2 Availability 246

7.4.3 Maintainability 248

7.4.4 Safety 249

7.4.5 Summary 251

7.5 Launchers: the Ariane 5 example 252

7.5.1 Introduction 252

7.5.2 Constraints 253

7.5.3 Object of the avionics launcher 255

7.5.4 Choice of onboard architecture 256

7.5.5 General description of avionics architecture 257

7.5.6 Flight program 260

7.5.7 Conclusion 281

7.6 Satellite architecture 281

7.6.1 Overview 281

7.6.2 Payload 282

7.6.3 Platform 283

7.6.4 Implementation 288

7.6.5 Exploration probes 292

7.7 Orbital transport: ATV example 292

7.7.1 General information 292

7.7.2 Dependability requirements 295

7.7.3 ATV avionic architecture 296

7.7.4 Management of ATV dependability 299

7.8 Summary and conclusions 302

7.8.1 Reliability, availability, and continuity of service 302

7.8.2 Safety 304

7.9 Bibliography 304

Chapter 8 Methods and Calculations Relative to "Safety Instrumented Systems" at Total Jean-Pierre Signoret Signoret, Jean-Pierre 307

8.1 Introduction 307

8.2 Specific problems to be taken into account 308

8.2.1 Link between classic parameters and standards' parameters 308

8.2.2 Problems linked to sawtooth waves 309

8.2.3 Definition 310

8.2.4 Reliability data 312

8.2.5 Common mode failure and systemic incidences 313

8.2.6 Other parameters of interest 315

8.2.7 Analysis of tests and maintenance 315

8.2.8 General approach 321

8.3 Example 1: system in 2/3 modeled by fault trees 322

8.3.1 Modeling without CCF 322

8.3.2 Introduction of the CCF by factor β 323

8.3.3 Influence of test staggering 324

8.3.4 Elements for the calculation of PFH 326

8.4 Example 2: 2/3 system modeled by the stochastic petri net 328

8.5 Other considerations regarding HIPS 333

8.5.1 SIL objectives 333

8.5.2 HIPS on topside facilities 334

8.5.3 Subsea HIPS 340

8.6 Conclusion 342

8.7 Bibliography 343

Chapter 9 Securing Automobile Architectures David Liaigre Liaigre, David 345

9.1 Context 345

9.2 More environmentally-friendly vehicles involving more embedded electronics 347

9.3 Mastering the complexity of electronic systems 348

9.4 Security concepts in the automotive field 350

9.4.1 Ensure minimum security without redundancy 350

9.4.2 Hardware redundancy to increase coverage of dangerous failures 353

9.4.3 Hardware and functional redundancy 358

9.5 Which security concepts for which security levels of the ISO 26262 standard? 364

9.5.1 The constraints of the ISO 26262 standard 364

9.5.2 The security concepts adapted to the constraints of the ISO 26262 standard 373

9.6 Conclusion 376

9.7 Bibliography 377

Chapter 10 SIS in Industry Olaf Malasse Malasse, Olaf 379

10.1 Introduction 379

10.2 Safety loop structure 384

10.2.1 "Sensor" sub-system 386

10.2.2 "Actuator" sub-system 388

10.2.3 Information processing 388

10.2.4 Field networks 401

10.3 Constraints and requirements of the application 407

10.3.1 Programming 407

10.3.2 Program structure 409

10.3.3 The distributed safety library 411

10.3.4 Communication between the standard user program and the safety program 412

10.3.5 Generation of the safety program 413

10.4 Analysis of a safety loop 413

10.4.1 Calculation elements 414

10.4.2 PFH calculation for the "detecting" sub-system 416

10.4.3 PFH calculation by "actuator" sub-system 417

10.4.4 PFH calculation by "logic processing" sub-system 418

10.4.5 PFH calculation for a complete loop 419

10.5 Conclusion 423

10.6 Bibliography 424

Chapter 11 A High-Availability Safety Computer Sylvain Baro Baro, Sylvain 425

11.1 Introduction 425

11.2 Safety computer 426

11.2.1 Architecture 427

11.2.2 Properties 432

11.3 Applicative redundancy 433

11.4 Integrated redundancy 433

11.4.1 Goals 434

11.4.2 Overview of operation 435

11.4.3 Assumptions 435

11.4.4 Hardware architecture 436

11.4.5 Synchronization and time stamping 437

11.4.6 Safety inputs 437

11.4.7 Application and context 438

11.4.8 Safety output 440

11.4.9 Passivation 443

11.5 Conclusion 443

11.6 Bibliography 446

Chapter 12 Safety System for the Protection of Personnel in the CERN Large Hadron Collider Francesco Valentini Valentini, Francesco 447

12.1 Introduction 447

12.1.1 Introduction to CERN 447

12.1.2 Legislative and regulatory context 448

12.1.3 Goal of the system 449

12.2 LACS 450

12.3 LASS 452

12.3.1 IIS Beams 452

12.3.2 LASS architecture 454

12.3.3 Performance of safety functions 456

12.3.4 Wired Loop 457

12.4 Functional safety methodology 459

12.4.1 Functional safety plan 459

12.4.2 Preliminary risk analysis (PRA) 459

12.4.3 Specification of safety functions 460

12.4.4 Provisional safety study 461

12.4.5 Definitive safety study 465

12.4.6 Verification and validation plan 465

12.4.7 Operation and maintenance plan 465

12.5 Test strategy 466

12.5.1 Detailed description of the validation process 466

12.5.2 Architecture of the test and the simulation platform 466

12.5.3 Organization of tests 467

12.5.4 Test platforms 468

12.5.5 Unit Validation on site 469

12.5.6 Functional validation on site 471

12.6 Feedback 472

12.7 Conclusions 473

12.8 Bibliography 474

Glossary 477

List of Authors 485

Index 487

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