Sampling Methods, Remote Sensing and GIS Multiresource Forest Inventory / Edition 1

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The book presents the state-of-the-art of forest resources assessments and monitoring and provides links to practical applications of forest and natural resource assessment programs. It gives an overview of current forest inventory systems and discusses forest mensuration, sampling techniques, remote sensing applications, geographic and forest information systems, and multi-resource forest inventory. In addition to the assessment of the productive functions of forests, particular attention is given to the quantification of non-wood goods and services and the relationship of forests to other landscape elements. All methodology is presented in the framework of sustainable management of the multiple functions that forests provide to the natural environment and to society. The book was developed as a reference text for (forest) biometricians, practitioners involved in forest and natural resources assessment and monitoring programs, and graduate students with a strong interest in becoming forest inventory specialists.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540325710
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 10/28/2006
  • Series: Tropical Forestry Series
  • Edition description: 2006
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 373
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Michael Köhl is Professor of World Forestry at the University of Hamburg, Germany, and head of the Institute for World Forestry, at the Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products. His main research interests are in the field of quantitative methods for natural resources assessments and forest planning, including statistical design and analysis of complex sample surveys, remote sensing, information systems and GIS. He has authored more than 150 scientific papers. He was former leader of IUFRO’s S4.02 "Forest Resources Inventory and Monitoring", leader of the Team of Specialists for the UN-FAO/ECE Temperate and Boreal Forest Resources Assessment (TBFRA) 2000, coordinator for the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MNPFE) - an advisory group on the Improvement of the Pan-European Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management - and lead author of the UN-IPCC "Good Practice Guidance for Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry. He is currently an Associate Editor of the Schweizerische Forstzeitung (Swiss Journal of Forestry) and Subject Editor of the European Journal of Forest Research. He is Honorary Member of the Finnish Society of Forest Science, member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the European Forest Institute, and Associate Member of the Italian Academy of Forest Sciences .

Marco Marchetti is Full Professor of Forest Inventory and of Forest Conservation at the University of Molise (Italy). He has a research record of 20 years in the domain of GIS and remote sensing for forest management and forest assessment. He is the principal investigator in several national and international projects. Research activities span the domain of development and application of new technologies. Current research focus is on multi-resources inventory and forest mapping, forest management and land planning, fire monitoring and biodiversity assessment. Accomplishments have been communicated in more than100 publications. Marco acts in the editorial boards of national and international journals. He was former deputy of IUFRO’s S8.07.01 "Key factors and ecological functions for forest biodiversity". Currently he is leader of IUFRO’s S4.02 "Forest Resources Inventory and Monitoring", and member of the Team of Specialists for the UN-FAO/ECE Forest Resources Assessment. Marco is ordinary member of the Italian Academy of Forest Sciences and scientific advisor of the Italian Remote Sensing Association.

Steen Magnussen is a senior Research Scientist with the Canadian Forest Service (Natural Resources Canada). His research covers statistics and biometrics of multi-resource forest inventories, spatial analysis, classification and accuracy of forest inventory information. Steen is a member of the American Statistical Association and the International Association of Statistical Computing. He is currently an Associate Editor of the European Journal of Forest Research. Similar positions were held with Forest Science, the Canadian Journal of Forest Research, and the Forestry Chronicle. Steen holds a Ph.D. from the University of Göttingen (Germany) and a Master of Science in Forestry from the Agricultural University of Copenhagen (Denmark) His research has been published in more than 100 peer reviewed scientific journals and over 40 articles and technical reports.

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Table of Contents

Forest Inventories - an Overview     1
Focus     1
Objectives     3
A Typology of Forest Inventories     9
Inventory Planning     11
Forest Mensuration     17
Introduction     17
Area Information     18
Forest Area Definitions     18
Assessment of Forest Area     22
Tree Information and Information for Characterizing the Growing Stock     24
Species Identification     24
Diameter at Breast Height and Upper-Stem Diameters     26
Cross-Sectional Area Measurement     35
Height     36
Bark Thickness     44
Tree Form     45
Volume     47
Weight and Wood Density     53
Biomass     54
Quantification of Timber Quality     58
Age     61
Growth and Increment     62
Density     69
Sampling in Forest Surveys     71
Introduction     71
Basic Concepts     71
Population, Samples, and Estimators     71
Probability Sampling     74
Definitions and Notations     76
Properties ofEstimators     78
Survey Design and Sampling Design     80
Simple Random Sampling     82
Estimating the Population Mean     83
Sampling Error     83
Confidence Intervals for Sample Estimates     85
Estimating the Population Total     86
Determining Sample Size     87
Sampling for Proportions and Percentages     88
Ratio Estimators     91
Advantages and Disadvantages of SRS     91
Systematic Sampling .     93
Cluster Sampling     97
Two-Stage Cluster Sampling     100
Two-Stage Cluster Sampling for the Estimation of Proportions     104
Two-Stage Cluster Sampling with Stratification of the Primary Units     104
Stratified Sampling     105
Sample Allocation     107
Estimation of Population Means and Totals Under Stratified Sampling     108
Estimation of Proportions Under Stratified Random Sampling     108
Design Effect     109
Poststratification     110
Pros and Cons of Stratified Sampling     111
Two-Phase Sampling     112
Two-Phase Sampling with Regression Estimators     112
Two-Phase Sampling for Stratification     116
Multiphase Sampling     118
Errors in Forest Surveys     120
Non-Sampling inventory errors     122
Nonobservation     122
Measurement Errors     123
Estimating Nonsampling Errors and Bias     125
Selection of Trees on Sampling Units     129
Tree Selection with Fixed-Area Sampling Units     130
Scaling of Individual Tree Data into Sample Plot Values     133
Point Sampling     134
Point Sampling Versus Fixed-Area Plots     140
Sampling at the Forest Edge     141
Sampling on Successive Occasions     143
Continuous Forest Inventory     144
Sampling with Partial Replacement of Sample Plots     147
Estimates for Subpopulations     149
Sampling for Rare and Elusive Populations     150
Adaptive Cluster Sampling     151
Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size     155
Line Transect Sampling     160
Capture-Recapture Sampling     166
Inverse Sampling     167
Double Sampling     168
Composite Sampling     170
Small-Area Estimation     173
Direct Small-Area Estimators     174
Synthetic Small-Area Estimators     175
Composite Small-Area Estimators     176
Model-Based Small-Area Estimation     177
Small-Area Estimation by Block Kriging     182
Empirical Bayesian Methods for Small-Area Estimation     185
k Nearest-Neighbor Prediction     187
Resampling for Nonlinear Inventory Statistics     191
The Bootstrap     192
The Jackknife Resampling     194
The Polya-Urn Resampling Scheme     195
Remote Sensing     197
Introduction     197
Basic Concepts     201
Electromagnetic Radiation     202
The Electromagnetic Spectrum     203
Interactions with the Atmosphere     205
Radiation-Target Interactions     207
Passive and Active Sensing     210
Characteristics and Analysis of Images     211
Image Resolution     212
Image Processing     214
Visual Computer-Aided Interpretation     220
The Instruments and Their Use     224
Coarse Spatial Resolution Sensors     227
Medium and High Spatial Resolution Sensors     227
Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors     229
Hyperspectral Sensors     230
Microwave Sensors     230
Laser Sensors     233
Accuracy Requirements     234
Accuracy of Position and of Classification     236
Testing the Accuracy of Borderlines     237
Geographic and Forest Information Systems     239
Introduction     239
Geographic Information Systems     240
Spatial Data     241
Spatial Analyses     245
Single-Layer Operations     246
Multilayer Operations     251
Pattern Analysis     254
Statistical Measures     254
Study of Spatial Arrangement     255
Spatial Autocorrelation     256
Network Analysis     257
Surface Analysis     258
Organization of Surface Information     259
Spatial Interpolation     259
Grid Analysis     261
Geostatistical Methods     262
Forest Information Systems     269
Methodical Components of Information Systems     273
Multiresource Forest Inventory     277
Introduction     277
Forest Production     278
From Tree Volume to Utilized Timber Volume     278
Access Studies     280
Nonwood Goods and Services     282
Historical Perspective     282
Definition of Nonwood Goods and Services     284
Classification Systems for Nonwood Goods and Services     286
National Nonwood Forest Product Accounting     286
End Use and Plant Use Classifications     287
Classification Based on Life Forms and Plant Parts     288
Classification According to Management Characteristics     288
The Assessment of Nonwood Goods and Services     288
Forest Ecosystems and Biological Diversity[superscript 2]     293
Biodiversity Indicators     298
Assessment of the Forest Edge     299
Sampling Diversity     300
Assessment of Rare Species by Adaptive Cluster Sampling     302
Plant Density Estimation     302
Assessment of Deadwood by Transect Relaskop Sampling and Guided Transect Sampling     303
Landscape Analysis     304
The Theory of Windows     305
Trees Outside Forests     312
Forest Fires     312
Assessment and Modeling of Wildfire Risks     313
Detecting Fires and Emissions      319
Mapping Burned Areas     321
Vegetation Indices and Forest Fires     325
Indices for Danger Assessment     325
References     327
Index     367
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