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History and geography have conspired to define the tables of Spain and Portugal. For centuries, the Iberian Peninsula, a patchwork of rugged mountains and dramatic seacoasts, green valleys and arid plains, saw waves of invaders - Phoenicians, Celts, Greeks, Romans, Visogoths, Moors - wash over its shores, each new arrival leaving its culinary footprints. The Phoenicians planted the first vineyards. The Greeks established olives and olive oil, wheat, and honey. The Celts raised pigs, leading to a rich tradition of sausage and ham, and the Romans put in ore vineyards, olive trees, and wheat. The Moors, who were Arabs and their Berber cohorts, grew rice in Valencia, sugarcane in Levante, and almonds, citrus, eggplants (aubergines), spinach, and artichokes in the Algarve and Andalusia. Indeed, the impact of the Moors, who arrived in the eighth century, cannot be underestimated. Their culinary influences are evident everywhere today, from the use of cumin, saffron, nutmeg, and black pepper to the bread-based soups, egg-based sweets, and nut-thickened sauces that are signature dishes in Portugal and Spain.