Scaling-Up: From Cell to Landscape

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The difficulty that humans have in perceiving and understanding large-scale phenomena is widely acknowledged. The need to study and understand processes associated with global environmental change has created an environment that has promoted unprecedented scientific co-operation between and within disciplines. The science of global change emphasises the need to understand the complex biophysical systems both in terms of components and as a whole. This has involved research at many levels of organisation, or scales, within each system. The need to link and integrate information between scales underlies the scientific approaches described in this 1997 book. The theory, practice and challenges of scaling are discussed using examples from current research, combining biology and geography to address issues at a range of scales, from local to global levels.

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Table of Contents

1. Tackling large scale problems by scaling up J. Grace, P. R. van Gardingen and J. Luan; 2. Scaling up and down: matching research with requirements in land management and policy through a system-based approach G. R. Squire and G. J. Gibson; 3. Scale and spatial dependence P. M. Atkinson; 4. Scaling remote sensing models C. E. Woodcock, J. B. Collins and D. L. B. Jupp; 5. Scaling of PAR adsorption, photosynthesis and transpiration from leaves to canopy B. Kruijt and S. Ongeri, P. G. Jarvis; 6. Scaling from plant to community and from plant to regional flora J. P. Grime, K. Thompson and C.W. MacGillivray; 7. Variation in stomatal characteristics at the whole-leaf level J. D. B. Weyers, T. Lawson and Z. Y. Peng; 8. Roots: measurement, function and dry matter budgets D. Atkinson and R. Fogel; 9. Producing large-area land cover maps from satellite sensor images: scaling issues and generalization techniques M. J. Barnsley, S. L. Barr and T. Tsang; 10. The carbon balance of tropical forests: from the local to the regional scale P. J. Curran, G. M. Foody, R. M. Lucas, M. Honzak and J. Grace; 11. Issues in the aggregation of surface fluxes from a heterogeneous landscape: from sparse canopies up to the GCM grid scale R. J. Harding, E. M. Blyth and C. M. Taylor; 12. Variability and scaling: matching methods and phenomena B. Marshall, J. W. Crawford and J. R. Porter; 13. Problems with using models to predict regional crop production G. Russell and P. van Gardingen; 14. Scaling behaviour of watershed processes R. B. Lammers, L. E. Band and C. L. Tague; 15. Observation and simulation of energy budgets at the surface of a prairie grassland R. J. Gurney and I. J. Sewell; 16. SiB2, a model for simulation of biological processes within a climate model J. A. Berry, G. J. Collatz, A. S. Denning, G. D. Colello, W. Fu, C. Grivet, D. A. Randall and P. J. Sellers; Index.

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