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Scanning Probe Microscopy

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More About This Textbook

Overview

Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is the enabling tool for nono(bio)technology, which has opened new vistas in many interdisciplinary research areas. Concomitant with the developments in SPM instrumentation and techniques are new and previously unthought-of opportunities in materials nanofabrication and characterisation. In particular, the developments in addressing and manipulating matter at the level of single atoms or molecules, and studies of biological materials (e.g. live cells, or cell membranes) result in new and exciting discoveries.

The rising importance of SPM demands a concise treatment in the form of a book which is accessible to interdisciplinary practitioners. This book highlights recent advances in the field of SPM with sufficient depth and breadth to provide an intellectually stimulating overview of the current state of the art. The book is based on a set of carefully selected original works from renowned contributors on topics that range from atom technology, scanning tunneling spectroscopy of self-assembled nanostructures, SPM probe fabrication, scanning force microscopy applications in biology and materials science down to the single molecule level, novel scanning probe techniques, and nanolithography.

The variety of topics underlines the strong interdisciplinary character of SPM related research and the combined expertise of the contributors gives us a unique opportunity to discuss possible future trends in SPM related research. This makes the book not merely a collection of already published material but an enlightening insight into cutting edge research and global SPM research trends.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789814324762
  • Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 12/15/2010
  • Pages: 276
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Nanotip Technology for Scanning Probe Microscopy Moh'd Rezeq Christian Joachim 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Field Electron Microscope (FEM) and Tip Characterization 4

1.3 Field Ion Microscopy (FIM) 7

1.4 Preparation and Characterization of an Atomically Clean Tip in an FIM 10

1.5 Brief Review of Previous Nanotip Fabrication Methods 13

1.5.1 Field-surface melting method and build-up method 13

1.5.2 Deposition of an external metal atom on tips sharpened by ion sputtering 14

1.5.3 Pd-coated tungsten single atom apex 14

1.5.4 Field-enhanced diffusion growth technique 15

1.6 Mechanisms of Nitrogen Adsorption on Metal Surfaces 15

1.7 Controlled Field-Assisted Etching Method for Tip Sharpening 19

1.7.1 Experimental setup and results 19

1.7.2 Tip apex modeling and nanotip reconstruction 23

1.7.3 Controllability and reproducibility of the technique 26

1.8 Field Emission Characteristics of Single Atom Tips 28

1.9 Applications of Nanotips in Scanning Probe Microscopy and Future Trends 29

1.10 Conclusion 30

2 In Situ STM Studies of Molecular Self-Assembly on Surfaces Wei Chen Andrew T. S. Wee 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.1.1 Self-assembly on surface nanotemplates or nanostructured surfaces 38

2.1.2 Self-assembled 2D molecular nanostructures via directional noncovalent or covalent intermolecular interactions 39

2.2 In Situ Ultrahigh Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 40

2.3 Self-Assembled C60 Nanostructures on Molecular Surface Nanotemplates 40

2.4 Hydrogen-Bonded 2D Binary Molecular Networks 46

2.5 Conclusion and Perspectives 49

3 Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy on Hybrid Metal/Organic/Semiconductor Interfaces Cedric Troadec Kuan Eng Johnson Goh 57

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 General Introduction to Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy 59

3.3 BEEM in Hybrid Metal/Organic/Semiconductor Devices 62

3.3.1 Chemisorbed molecule 62

3.3.2 Physisorbed molecule 64

3.4 BEEM on Hybrid Au/Pentacene/n-Si Interfaces 64

3.4.1 Density plots of barrier height and transmission 66

3.5 Conclusions and Outlook 69

4 Force-Extension Behavior of Single Polymer Chains by AFM Marina I. Giannotti Edit Kutnyánszky G. Julius Vancso 75

4.1 Introduction 76

4.2 AFM-Based Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy (SMFS) 77

4.3 Elasticity of Individual Macromolecules 80

4.3.1 Fitting the theoretical models to the experimental data 83

4.4 Single Chain AFM Force Spectroscopy of Stimulus-Responsive Polymers 85

4.4.1 Single chain behavior of stimulus-responsive polymers 85

4.4.2 Single molecule optomechanical cycle 94

4.4.3 Realization of a redox-driven single macromolecule motor 96

4.5 Conclusions and Outlook 98

5 Probing Human Disease States Using Atomic Force Microscopy Ang Li Chwee Teck Lim 107

5.1 AFM as an Imaging Tool for Biological Applications 108

5.1.1 Basic and advanced imaging modes 108

5.1.2 Current state of technical developments for biological applications 110

5.1.3 AFM imaging study of malaria and Babesia-infected red blood cells 113

5.1.3.1 Malaria pathology: surface morphology as an indicator of the disease state and association with pathology 113

5.1.3.2 Methods and results 113

5.1.3.3 Discussion 114

5.1.4 AFM imaging study of other diseases 115

5.2 AFM as a Force-Sensing Tool (Nano- and Micromechanical Property Measurements Using AFM) 117

5.2.1 Force measurement and property-mapping techniques 117

5.2.2 Nanoindentation of cancer cells as an example 119

5.2.2.1 Background 119

5.2.2.2 Method and results 119

5.2.2.3 Discussion 122

5.2.3 General applications in disease studies using AFM-based force spectroscopy and nanoindentation techniques 122

5.3 Outlook and Insights 123

6 Conducting Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquids Nitya Nand Gosvami Sean J. O'Shea 129

6.1 Introduction 130

6.2 Introduction to Conducting Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) 133

6.3 Analysis of C-AFM Data 134

6.4 Boundary Lubrication Studies Using C-AFM 137

6.5 Squeeze-out of Confined Branched Molecules 143

6.6 Conclusions and Outlook 147

7 Dynamic Force Microscopy in Liquid Media Wulf Hofbauer 153

7.1 Introduction 154

7.2 Instrumentation for Operation in Liquid 155

7.2.1 Cantilever readout 156

7.2.1.1 Effects of laser coherence 157

7.2.1.2 Effect of the laser numerical aperture 159

7.2.1.3 Characterization of noise levels 160

7.2.2 Cantilever excitation 162

7.2.3 Resonance tracking 167

7.2.3.1 Self-excitation 167

7.2.3.2 Excitation by a phase-locked loop 168

7.2.4 Frequency modulation vs. phase modulation 170

7.3 Application Examples 171

7.3.1 Molecular resolution imaging of self-assembled monolayers 171

7.3.2 Spectroscopy and structure of the liquid-solid interface 173

7.3.2.1 Crystalline structure of n-dodecanol on graphite 174

7.3.2.2 Dissipation 177

7.3.2.3 Role of tip shape 181

7.4 Outlook: From Simple Organics to Biology 183

8 Fabrication of Bio- and Nanopatterns by Dip Pen Nanolithography Qiyuan He Xiaozhu Zhou Freddy Y. C. Boey Hua Zhang 187

8.1 Introduction 187

8.2 Biomolecules 189

8.2.1 DNA 189

8.2.2 Proteins 189

8.2.3 Enzymes 191

8.2.4 In situ growth of peptides 191

8.2.5 Other biomolecules 192

8.3 Variant Possibility of DPN 193

8.3.1 Nanoparticles 193

8.3.2 CNTs 194

8.4 Extension of DPN Capability 195

8.4.1 Electrochemistry 195

8.4.2 "Click" chemistry 195

8.4.3 Photomask 196

8.4.4 Modification of DPN probes 197

8.5 Higher Throughput 197

8.5.1 Parallel DPN 197

8.5.2 Polymer pen lithography 198

8.6 Conclusion 199

9 Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Nano-Oxidation Xian Ning Xie Hong Jing Chung Andrew T. S. Wee 205

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Mechanism of Nano-oxidation 207

9.3 Materials Used in Nano-oxidation 208

9.4 Spreading Modes of OH-Oxidants 209

9.5 Aspect Ratio of Nano-oxide 212

9.6 Media Used for Nano-oxidation 214

9.7 Physichemical Properties of Nano-oxide 216

9.8 Applications of Nano-oxidation 217

9.9 Concluding Remarks 218

10 Nanolithography of Organic Films Using Scanning Probe Microscopy Jegadesan Subbiah Sajini Vadukumpully Suresh Valiyaveettil 223

10.1 Introduction 223

10.1.1 Principles of AFM lithography 225

10.1.2 Mechanical probe nanolithography 226

10.1.2.1 Nanofabrication using self-assembled monolayers 227

10.1.2.2 Scanning probe anodization 228

10.1.2.3 Thermomechanical writing 228

10.1.2.4 Dip pen nanolithography 229

10.1.3 Biased probe nanolithography 231

10.1.3.1 Electrostatic nanolithography 231

10.1.4 Electrochemical nanolithography 238

10.1.4.1 Nanopatterning of PVK films 238

10.1.4.2 Nanopatterning of carbazole monomer 241

10.1.4.3 Conductive and thermal properties of patterned films 242

10.1.4.4 Nanopatterning of electroactive copolymer film 243

10.2 Applications and Challenges of AFM Nanolithography 247

Index 255

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