Scattering of Light by Crystals

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This authoritative graduate-level text describes the phenomenon of inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation. Its experimental techniques are common to the study of all types of excitation, and it describes the main components of light-scattering apparatus in detail.

Chapter 1 surveys the scope of light-scattering experiments. The typical frequencies of excitations in crystals can usually be examined with Brillouin or ...

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Overview

This authoritative graduate-level text describes the phenomenon of inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation. Its experimental techniques are common to the study of all types of excitation, and it describes the main components of light-scattering apparatus in detail.

Chapter 1 surveys the scope of light-scattering experiments. The typical frequencies of excitations in crystals can usually be examined with Brillouin or Raman scattering; these techniques are described in Chapter 2. The remainder of the text presents a systematic account of the measurements and theories of light scattering by various solid-state excitations. Chapters 3 and 4 cover Raman scattering by nonpolar and polar optic vibrations; Brillouin scattering by acoustic vibrations is examined in Chapter 8. Vibrational effects associated with structural phase changes are treated in Chapter 5, and Raman scattering by magnetic and electronic excitation in crystals is discussed in Chapters 6 and 7.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471031918
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 10/1/1978
  • Pages: 360

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Basic Features and Formal Theory of Light Scattering 1
1.1 Historical Introduction 2
1.2 The Scattering Cross Section 4
1.2.1 Basic Definitions 4
1.2.2 Classical Theory of Elastic Scattering 8
1.3 Scope of Light-Scattering Experiments 11
1.4 Macroscopic Theory of Light Scattering 16
1.4.1 Susceptibility Derivatives 17
1.4.2 Radiation by the Stokes Polarization 21
1.4.3 The Cross Section 25
1.4.4 Fluctuation-Dissipation Theory 27
1.4.5 Relation between Stokes and Anti-Stokes Cross Sections 31
1.5 Microscopic Theory of Light Scattering 33
1.5.1 The Interaction Hamiltonians 33
1.5.2 Atomic-Scattering Cross Section 39
1.5.3 Scattering by Free Electrons 41
1.6 Symmetry Properties of Inelastic Cross Sections 43
Chapter 2 Experimental Aspects 53
2.1 Lasers 54
2.1.1 Conditions for Laser Operation 54
2.1.2 Optical Resonators and Mode Configurations 58
2.1.3 Gas Lasers 64
2.1.4 Dye Lasers 70
2.1.5 Solid-State Ionic Lasers 72
2.2 Spectrometers 74
2.2.1 Diffraction-Grating Instruments and Sample Illumination 75
2.2.2 The Fabry-Perot Spectrometer 80
2.3 Detection of Scattered Light 86
2.4 Measurement of Spectra 88
Chapter 3 Nonpolar Vibrational Scattering 95
3.1 First-Order Scattering 96
3.1.1 Vibrational Symmetries 96
3.1.2 Lattice Dynamics 99
3.1.3 Internal and External Vibrations 103
3.1.4 The Scattering Cross Section 107
3.1.5 Randomly Oriented Scatterers 112
3.1.6 Experiments on Crystals 117
3.2 Second-Order Scattering 121
3.2.1 Density of States and Selection Rules 121
3.2.2 Experiments and Calculations 124
3.3 Defect-Induced Scattering 131
3.3.1 Light Scattering by Point Defects 133
3.3.2 Mixed Crystals and Amorphous Solids 137
Chapter 4 Polar Vibrational Scattering 147
4.1 Macroscopic Theory 148
4.1.1 Lattice Dynamics of Polar Modes 148
4.1.2 The Scattering Cross Section 153
4.1.3 Properties of the Susceptibility Derivatives 156
4.1.4 Polar-Mode Scattering in Cubic Crystals 162
4.1.5 Polar-Mode Scattering in Uniaxial Crystals 169
4.1.6 Polar-Mode Scattering in Biaxial Crystals 175
4.1.7 Scattering by Powdered Crystals 177
4.2 Microscopic Theory 179
4.2.1 Electrons and Phonons in Crystals 180
4.2.2 The Scattering Cross Section 183
4.2.3 Resonance Scattering 186
4.3 Light Scattering by Polaritons 192
Chapter 5 Structural Phase Changes 201
5.1 Soft Modes 206
5.2 Experimental Examples 213
5.2.1 Quartz 213
5.2.2 Perovskites 214
5.2.3 Hydrogen-Bonded Ferroelectrics and Order-Disorder Transitions 219
5.2.4 Cooperative Jahn-Teller Effects 223
5.2.5 Acoustic Anomalies 228
5.2.6 Light Scattering Near Zero Frequency 232
Chapter 6 Magnetic Scattering 239
6.1 Scattering by Simple Paramagnets and Ferromagnets 240
6.1.1 Faraday Rotation 240
6.1.2 The Scattering Cross Section 243
6.1.3 Microscopic Theory 251
6.2 First-Order Light Scattering by Antiferromagnets 256
6.2.1 Antiferromagnetic Magnons 256
6.2.2 Antiferromagnetic Cross Section 262
6.3 Second-Order Light Scattering by Antiferromagnets 266
6.3.1 Scattering Mechanism 266
6.3.2 Magnon Interaction Effects 271
6.4 Magnetic Defect Scattering 276
6.4.1 Scattering by Point Defects 277
6.4.2 Scattering by Mixed Crystals 279
Chapter 7 Raman Scattering by Electrons 287
7.1 Light Scattering by Rare-Earth Ions 288
7.2 Light Scattering by Shallow Donors and Acceptors 293
7.2.1 Electronic Levels of Impurities in Semiconductors 293
7.2.2 Scattering by Donors 296
7.2.3 Scattering by Acceptors 298
7.3 Light Scattering by Conduction Electrons 301
7.3.1 Some Properties of Free Carriers 301
7.3.2 General Aspects of Light Scattering by a Plasma 305
7.3.3 Plasmon Scattering 310
7.3.4 Single-Particle Scattering 315
Chapter 8 Rayleigh and Brillouin Scattering 327
8.1 Kinematics of Brillouin Scattering and Determination of Elastic Constants 332
8.1.1 Centrosymmetric Crystals 332
8.1.2 Piezoelectric Crystals 336
8.2 Brillouin Scattering Cross Section 340
8.3 Some Experimental Examples 345
8.3.1 Rayleigh Scattering 345
8.3.2 Brillouin Scattering 348
Index 355
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