School and Society / Edition 7

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Overview

Through the use of a consistent analytic framework, this text shows how and why certain school-society issues first arose in this country and how they have changed over time. Introduced and explained in detail in the first chapter, the text’s analytic framework focuses on the political economy, the dominant ideology, and existing educational practices that are prevalent in any given historical era. Readings at the end of each chapter are designed for the student to critique using the same analytic framework that the authors employ in the text. In its examination of the evolution of education in the United States, this book tells an engaging historical story.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780078024405
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 7/1/2012
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 504
  • Sales rank: 80,163
  • Product dimensions: 7.90 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Steven E. Tozer is Professor of Philosophy of Education at The University of Illinois, Chicago. At The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, he was Head of The Department of Curriculum and Instruction from 1990 to 1994. He has been Chair of The Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation in The American Education Studies Association and a member of The Board of Examiners for The National Council on Accreditation of Teacher Education. He has written regularly for numerous journals. Professor Tozer completed his Ph.D. at The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He has taught at the early childhood, elementary and secondary levels.

Guy Senese is Associate Professor at Northern Arizona University where he teaches Social Foundations of Education and Philosophy of Education. He received his Ph.D. in Education at The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He taught school in Champaign Illinois, and at the Rough Rock Demonstration School on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona.

Paul C. Violas (deceased) was formerly Professor of History of Education in The College of Education at The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He has received the College of Education Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, The College Career Teaching Award, and The University’s Luckman Award for Undergraduate Teaching. Professor Violas received his Ed.D. degree at The University of Rochester. He taught secondary school social studies for six years. He has been a regular contributor to journals.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiv

Part 1 Educational Aims in Historical Perspective 1

Chapter 1 Introduction: Understanding School and Society 2

Introduction: Conducting Inquiry into School and Society 4

The Place of Social Foundations in Teacher Education 4

The Meaning of Democracy in Educational Practice 5

Education of Diverse Students 5

Tools of Inquiry 6

Social Theory 6

Schooling 7

Training 7

Education 8

Political Economy 9

Ideology 9

Analytic Framework 10

Applying the Terms of Inquiry: An Illustration from History 11

Schooling and Culture in Classical Greece 11

Building a Philosophy of Education 15

Primary Source Reading: The Politics of Aristotle 17

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 20

Questions for Discussion and Examination 20

Online Resources 20

Chapter 2 Liberty and Literacy: The Jeffersonian Ideal 22

Introduction: Why Jefferson? 24

Political Economy of the Jeffersonian Era 25

Geography, Transportation, and Communication 25

Early American Governance 27

Ideology of the Jeffersonian Era 28

The Breakdown of Feudalism 28

The Classical Roots of Liberal Ideology 29

Jefferson as Classical Liberal 33

Jefferson and Intellectual Freedom 34

Jefferson, Democracy, and Education 35

Government by a "Natural Aristocracy" 36

Jefferson's Plan for Popular Education 36

Elementary School Districts 37

Grammar Schools 38

University Education 39

Self-Education 40

Jefferson's Views on Slavery, Native Americans, and Women 41

Building a Philosophy of Education 44

Primary Source Reading: From the Rights of Man 45

Primary Source Reading: Exchange between Benjamin Banneker and Thomas Jefferson 46

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 49

Questions for Discussion and Examination 49

Online Resources 49

Chapter 3 School as a Public Institution: The Common-School Era 50

Introduction: Schooling in New England 52

Political Economy of the Common-School Era 53

Demographic Changes 53

Political Developments 54

Economic Developments 55

Ideology and Religion 56

Consolidation of Classical Liberalism 57

Horace Mann: An Exemplar of Reform 58

Early Life 58

Mann's Political Career 59

Mann and the Common Schools 60

School Buildings 61

Moral Values 62

Lessons from the Prussian School System 64

School Discipline and the Pedagogy of Love 66

The Quality of Teachers 67

The Economic Value of Schooling 70

Opposition to Mann's Common-School Reforms 72

Accounting for the Success of the Common-School Reforms 74

Lessons from Horace Mann's Common-School Reforms 74

Building a Philosophy of Education 75

Primary Source Reading: Decentralization: Alternative to Bureaucracy? 77

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 80

Questions for Discussion and Examination 80

Online Resources 80

Chapter 4 Social Diversity and Differentiated Schooling: The Progressive Era 82

Introduction: "Traditional" versus "Progressive" Education 84

The Political Economy of the Progressive Era 86

Urbanization 86

Immigration 86

Industrialization 90

Worker Responses to Industrial Management 93

New Liberal Ideology 100

Natural Law 100

Scientific Rationality 101

From Virtue to Rational Ethics 101

Progress 101

Nationalism 102

Freedom 102

Progressive Education 105

Two Strands of Progressivism: Developmental Democracy and Social Efficiency 106

Deweyan Developmental Democracy 107

The Nature of the Child 108

A Unique Meaning for Progressive Education 109

Charles W. Eliot and Social Efficiency 109

Building a Philosophy of Education 116

Primary Source Reading: Education and Social Change 118

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 123

Questions for Discussion and Examination 123

Online Resources 123

Chapter 5 Diversity and Equity: Schooling Girls and Women 124

Introduction: Why a Separate Chapter on Females? 126

Ideological Origins in Early Christianity 127

Gender and Education in Colonial America 128

Private Schools 130

The Revolution and the Cult of Domesticity 130

Competing Ideological Perspectives in the Nineteenth Century 132

The Conservative and Liberal Positions 132

The Radical Position 134

Catharine Beecher: The Liberal Education of the Homemaker 134

Ideology and Life: Emma Willard 136

A New Vision for Women's Education 136

The Troy Female Seminary 138

Anna Julia Cooper 140

Higher Education for Women 141

Academies 141

Normal Schools 141

High Schools 142

Colleges 143

Women and Vocational Education 144

Domestic Science Training 144

Commercial Education 147

Building a Philosophy of Education 148

Primary Source Reading: Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions 149

Primary Source Reading: The Education of the Girl 151

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 155

Questions for Discussion and Examination 155

Online Resources 155

Chapter 6 Diversity and Equity: Schooling and African Americans 156

Introduction: Common Schools in the South 158

Political-Economic Dimensions of Reconstruction and Redemption 158

Redemption 159

Reconstruction, Redemption, and African American Schooling 160

Schooling in the Black Belt 161

Booker T. Washington's Career 168

Washington and Schooling in the Black Belt 169

An Ideology of African American Inferiority 172

A Liberal Justification for Racial Oppression: Darwinian Evolution 172

Avoiding the Issue of Political Power 173

A Liberal Faith: Social Progress through the Marketplace 174

The Washington Solution 176

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois 179

Building a Philosophy of Education 181

Primary Source Reading: Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others 184

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 190

Questions for Discussion and Examination 190

Online Resources 190

Chapter 7 Diversity and Equity: Schooling and American Indians 192

Introduction: Assimilation through Scientific Management 194

Pluralism versus Assimilationism 195

Political-Economic Foundations of Indian Schooling 197

A World before Europeans 197

The Ambiguous and Paradoxical 197

Treaties and the "Trust Relationship" 198

Ideology 200

Traditional Knowledge versus Science and Progress 200

Schooling the Native American 201

Social Education, from Land Allotment to Boarding Schools 202

The Progressive Reform Movement 202

Scientific Management and Educational Reform 203

"Progressive" Indian Education: Early Years 204

The Influence of John Collier 205

Collier's Early Career 206

Collier as Commissioner of Indian Affairs 207

Willard Walcott Beatty: Progressive Education for Native Americans 210

Schooling and Assimilation of the Indian Child 212

Afterword: The Case of the Navajo 212

Building a Philosophy of Education 214

Primary Source Reading: The Hopi Way (1944) 214

Primary Source Reading: Statements by Three American Indian Educators 216

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 221

Questions for Discussion and Examination 221

Online Resources 221

Chapter 8 National School Reform: The Early Cold War Era 222

Introduction: The Best and Brightest... 224

Political Economy and Ideology of the Early Cold War Era 225

U.S. Fear of Soviet Communism 225

New Liberal Ideology in the Cold War Era 227

James Bryant Conant 230

Standardized Testing and Student Selection 231

Who Merits a College Education? 232

School Reform Reports and Social Stratification 233

Education in a Divided World 234

School Reform in the Postwar Era 235

The Great Talent Hunt 237

Slums and Subversives 240

Building a Philosophy of Education 243

Primary Source Reading: Excerpts from "Education for All" 246

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 249

Questions for Discussion and Examination 249

Online Resources 249

Part 2 Educational Aims in Contemporary Society 251

Chapter 9 Liberty and Literacy Today: Contemporary Perspectives 252

Introduction: Revisiting Literacy 254

A Brief Historical Perspective 256

Literacy and Power: Literacy as a Social Construction 257

Ideological Hegemony Theory: Democracy and the Consolidation of Economic Power 258

Mass Media and Ideological Hegemony 260

The Paradox of Media Property Rights and Public Information Rights: From NBC to GE to Comcast 261

Communications Technologies: From Jefferson's "Free Marketplace of Ideas" to the "Information Marketplace" 263

The Rise of Social Media 264

Contemporary Perspective on Literacy: Conventional Literacy 268

Functional Literacy 269

Limitations of the Functional Literacy Perspective 270

Critical Literacy 271

Critical Literacy Method 272

Cultural Literacy: Arguments for High-Status Curriculum 274

Cultural Literacy: Whose Interests Are Served? 274

Schooling and Ideological Hegemony 276

Building a Philosophy of Education 279

Primary Source Reading: The Future of Reading 281

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 286

Questions for Discussion and Examination 286

Online Resources 286

Chapter 10 Teaching in a Public Institution: The Professionalization Movement 288

Dominant Ideology and the Teacher's Professional Authority 290

1 Using the Authority of the Rules to Educate 293

2 The Authority of the Expert 293

3 Pedagogical Authority: The Authority of Community 293

The Professional Teacher: Remembering Horace Mann 295

Professionalization of Teaching: Historical Perspective 296

Common-School Reform 296

Progressive Era Reform 297

Conant Era Reform 297

Professionalism and Contemporary School Reform 298

Comparing Teaching to Other Professions 299

Professionalism versus Neoliberal Market Competition 300

Traditional Criteria for the Professions 303

Teaching as a Public Profession 304

Teaching "Job" versus Teaching Profession: The Issue of Professional Control 305

Political-Economic Dimensions of Teaching as a Public Profession 306

Public Control versus Professional Autonomy 311

Who Controls the Schools? Who Should? 311

Statutory Control Structure 313

Who Controls the Schools? Extralegal Influences 315

Professional Satisfaction and Professional Ethics 316

Teaching and Teacher Learning as Collaborative Activities 319

Democratic Ethics and the Profession of Teaching 320

Building a Philosophy of Education 320

Primary Source Reading

Making Teaching a Profession 322

Developing Your Professional Vocabulary 323

Questions for Discussion and Examination 323

Online Resources 323

Chapter 11 Differentiated Schooling, Labor Market Preparation, and Contemporary School Reform: The Post-Cold War Era 324

Introduction: The Purposes of Schooling 326

The Future of the Workplace 328

Future Jobs 328

Educating for the Workplace 329

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