Joseph J. Littrell, the original author of this text, taught industrial and vocational education to teachers in training at Arizona State University. Littrell began his career teaching industrial education in Nebraska and Oregon public schools. Later he taught engineering at the University of Missouri. He earned degrees from Peru State College in Nebraska, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Missouri.
James H. Lorenz is professor emeritus and chair of the department of engineering technology at Middle Tennessee State University. He has taught graduate and undergraduate teacher certification courses and undergraduate drafting courses for over 25 years. Lorenz conducts numerous in-service training programs for teachers and has directed SkillsUSA activities at district and state levels. He began his career teaching drafting, cooperative education and graphic arts at the secondary level. Lorenz holds degrees from the University of Wisconsin-Stout, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Georgia.
Harry T. Smith served as a professor emertitus of curriculum and instruction at Tennessee Technological University where he was the program supervisor of industrial education from 1975 to 2002. Smith’s primary responsibility was teaching instructional media technology and occupational education licensure courses to undergraduate and graduate students in the college of education. Earlier Smith taught industrial education at the secondary level in Missouri and the postsecondary level in Missouri and Michigan. Smith holds degrees from Northeast Missouri State, Central Missouri State, and Michigan State Universities.