Science and Psychiatry: Groundbreaking Discoveries in Molecular Neuroscience

Overview

Solomon Snyder has been instrumental in the establishment of modern psychopharmacology -- as a pioneer in the identification of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs and in the explanation of the actions of psychotropic agents. Science and Psychiatry is a collection of some of his best scientific papers, publications ranging over forty years that represent important advances in psychopharmacology and molecular biology. Audacious and unanticipated when they first appeared, these papers opened up new areas of ...

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Science and Psychiatry: Groundbreaking Discoveries in Molecular Neuroscience

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Overview

Solomon Snyder has been instrumental in the establishment of modern psychopharmacology -- as a pioneer in the identification of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs and in the explanation of the actions of psychotropic agents. Science and Psychiatry is a collection of some of his best scientific papers, publications ranging over forty years that represent important advances in psychopharmacology and molecular biology. Audacious and unanticipated when they first appeared, these papers opened up new areas of understanding and revolutionized the modern study of the brain. Republished here, they show why fundamental research into the "messengers of the mind" is as essential for clinicians as for researchers.

Many of these papers have clear clinical relevance, offering insight into modern neuroscience to help make sense of the bewildering array of available psychotropic medications and point the way toward more effective and safer agents. Others describe the underpinnings of psychopharmacology that practitioners need to know, especially regarding the role of receptors in drug action. Each of the nine groups of research articles is accompanied by a commentary by a well-known authority, putting the discoveries in perspective and providing a broad overview of subjects ranging from characterization of the enkephalins to serotonin receptor subtypes. The final set of papers focuses on apoptosis, the general process of cell suicide, where Snyder's work with bilirubin holds promise for treating neurodegenerative disorders. And in a closing piece, "The Audacity Principle in Science," Snyder speculates about factors conducive to creativity and efficacy in scientific discovery.

The articles particularly describe four groups of extraordinary discoveries for which Snyder is widely recognized: • Identification of opiate receptors, providing keys to understanding pain perception• Characterization of the IP3 receptor, exploring its role as a target for lithium treatment in manic-depressive disorders• Establishment of nitric oxide as a transmitter in the brain, radically transforming conceptualizations of neurotransmission• Discovery that D-serine is the normal stimulus for the glycine site of the NMDA receptor, providing new insight into the regulation of the receptor important for learning and memory Hailed as one of the preeminent scientists of the past twenty years, Snyder is a consummate researcher who confesses to remaining obsessed with the need to "think thoughts no one else has thought before." Science and Psychiatry clearly shows how that urge accounts for the diversity of challenges he has taken on as it conveys the origins of modern psychopharmacologic practice.

American Psychiatric Publishing

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Editorial Reviews

the American journals of Psychiatry

This book provides a very personal and readable introduction to the writings of one of the giants in modern psychiatry and neuroscience.

The American journals of Psychiatry
This book provides a very personal and readable introduction to the writings of one of the giants in modern psychiatry and neuroscience.
Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Michael Joel Schrift, D.O., M.A.(University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine)
Description: This magnificent book contains the pioneering scientific papers of Solomon H. Snyder, MD, whose work has been pivotal in placing psychiatry on a par with other medical sciences with important discoveries in neurochemistry and neuropharmacology. With commentaries by internationally recognized researchers in the field, along with a compilation of these landmark papers, this book is an outstanding tribute to Dr. Snyder's career and is a wonderful addition to the psychiatric literature.
Purpose: According to the author, this book "is an attempt to clarify for a diverse audience, but especially for the psychiatric community, why fundamental research into the 'messengers of the mind' is fun and important as much for clinicians as for researchers. The insights of modern neuroscience help make sense of the bewildering array of available psychotropic medications and also point toward novel, more effective, and safer agents." Indeed, this book with Dr. Snyder's contribution is a giant step toward this goal.
Audience: The intended audience includes psychiatrists, psychologists, and anyone interested in important discoveries in science and in particular, neuroscience.
Features: The areas covered by Dr. Snyder's seminal papers are concepts that we now take for granted, but Dr. Snyder was instrumental in making them part of the psychiatric zeitgeist and include discovery and characterization of the opiate receptor, characterization of the enkephalins, dopamine receptors and influences of neuroleptics, drug effects explained as actions on neurotransmitter receptors, drug actions and serotonin receptor subtypes, inositol phosphates and actions on lithium, nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter, D-Amino Acids as neurotransmitters, neural messengers of cell life and death, and what makes for creative discovery in science. Each section begins with a commentary from a noted protégé of Dr. Snyder's, including Eric R. Kandel, Eric J. Nestler, Charles B. Nemeroff, George Aghajanian, Carol A. Tamminga, Herbert Y. Meltzer, Robert M. Post, Ann Young, Joseph T. Coyle, Samuel Baronides, and Nancy C. Andreasen.
Assessment: This is essential reading for trainees in neuroscience, neuropharmacology, and psychiatry. Dr. Snyder and his work have made a significant impact on the lives of countless numbers of individuals. This book is a testament to his contributions.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781585622733
  • Publisher: American Psychiatric Publishing, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 3/28/2008
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 513
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Solomon H. Snyder, M.D., is Distinguished Service Professor of Neuroscience, Pharmacology, and Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University.

American Psychiatric Publishing

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Table of Contents

Foreword. Introduction. Part I: Discovery and Characterization of the Opiate Receptor. Commentary: radioligand binding methodologies: new inventions, new directions. Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Opiate agonists and antagonists discriminated by receptor binding in brain. Historical review: opioid receptors. Part II: Characterization of the Enkephalins. Commentary: the discovery of endogenous opiates and their receptors: a Snyderian saga of skill and judgment. Opiate receptor in normal and drug-altered brain function. Morphine-like peptides in mammalian brain: isolation, structure elucidation, and interactions with the opiate receptor. Opioid peptide enkephalin: immunohistochemical mapping in rat central nervous system. Part III: Dopamine Receptors and Influences of Neuroleptics. Commentary: dopamine receptor binding and its therapeutics. Dopamine receptor binding predicts clinical and pharmacological potencies of antischizophrenic drugs. Antischizophrenic drugs: chronic treatment elevates dopamine receptor binding in brain. Dopamine receptors, neuroleptics, and schizophrenia. Part IV: Drug Effects Explained as Actions on Neurotransmitter Receptors. Commentary: perspectives on simplicity and discovery. Antischizophrenic drugs and brain cholinergic receptors: affinity for muscarinic sites predicts extrapyramidal effects. Tricyclic antidepressants: therapeutic properties and affinity for alpha-noradrenergic receptor binding sites in the brain. Part V: Drug Actions and Serotonin Receptor Subtypes. Commentary: clinical data stimulation of basic research: the far-reaching clinical significance of serotonin receptor subtype identification. Long-term antidepressant treatment decreases spiroperidol-labeled serotonin receptor binding. Two distinct central serotonin receptors with different physiological functions. Part VI: Inositol Phosphates and Actions of Lithium. Commentary: lithium, second messengers, and downstream effects. Lithium blocks a phosphoinositide-mediated cholinergic response in hippocampal slices. Solubilization, purification, and characterization of an inositol trisphosphate receptor. Second messenger systems and psychoactive drug action: focus on the phosphoinositide system and lithium. Purified inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor mediates calcium flux in reconstituted lipid vesicles. Part VII: Nitric Oxide as a Neurotransmitter. Commentary: just say "yes": Snyder's approach to the difficult problem of NO. Nitric oxide mediates glutamate-linked enhancement of cGMP levels in the cerebellum. Cloned and expressed nitric oxide synthase structurally resembles cytochrome p450 reductase. Behavioral abnormalities in male mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Part VIII: Amino Acids as Neurotransmitters. Commentary: disruptive science: incongruent findings lead to novel insights into how the brain works. d-Aspartate localizations imply neuronal and neuroendocrine roles. Serine racemase: a glial enzyme synthesizing d-serine to regulate glutamate-N-methyl-d-aspartate neurotransmission. Serine racemase: activation by glutamate neurotransmission via glutamate receptor interacting protein and mediation of neuronal migration. Part IX: Neural Messengers of Cell Life and Death. Commentary: beyond neurotransmitters. Cytochrome c binds to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, amplifying calcium-dependent apoptosis. Bilirubin benefits: cellular protection by a biliverdin reductase antioxidant cycle. S-nitrosylated GAPDH initiates apoptotic cell death by nuclear translocation following Siah1 binding. Part X: What Makes for Creative Discovery in Science? Commentary: what creates creative science and scientists? The audacity principle in science. Index.

American Psychiatric Publishing

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