Science Instruction in the Middle and Secondary Schools: Developing Fundamental Knowledge and Skills for Teaching / Edition 6

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Overview

This science methods textbook is designed to prepare middle and high school science teachers to help students become scientifically and technologically literate by first helping them understand the elements of science reform and then supporting their efforts.

Features new to the fifth edition include:

  • Open cases and vignettes that illustrate how science teachers help students construct their own understanding
  • "Stop and Reflect" exercises throughout each chapter to help readers contextualize and reflect upon what was read
  • Expanded coverage of teaching students with special needs and equity in science teaching and learning
  • Discussion of a variety of alternative and authentic assessment methods
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
New edition of a text providing far more than simply a cookbook of activities for science teachers. Coverage includes discussion on the nature of science, national standards and innovative programs, the nature of adolescent learners and their schools, teaching strategies and classroom management, planning, assessment, and professional development. Vignettes and open cases highlight particular teaching situations. A "stop and reflect" feature aims to help teachers help students do just that. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131916562
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 6/15/2005
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 320
  • Product dimensions: 8.28 (w) x 10.82 (h) x 0.67 (d)

Table of Contents

Ch. 1 Thoughts and actions of beginning science teachers 2
Ch. 2 The purpose of teaching science 14
Ch. 3 Planning to teach science 28
Ch. 4 Teaching science 44
Ch. 5 Managing the science learning environment 56
Ch. 6 Assessing science lessons 74
Ch. 7 The nature of science 88
Ch. 8 Diverse adolescent learners and their schools 106
Ch. 9 Learning in middle grades and secondary schools 124
Ch. 10 Inquiry and teaching science 142
Ch. 11 Discussion, demonstration, and lecture 162
Ch. 12 Science, technology, and society 182
Ch. 13 Laboratory work and fieldwork 200
Ch. 14 Safety in the laboratory and classroom 224
Ch. 15 Computers and electronic technologies 246
Ch. 16 Long-term planning and assessment 262
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Preface

Since the late 1980s, science education reform has been underway in the United States. It is a movement aimed at providing the highest quality of science education for all students. A major recommendation of the reform is to focus less on teaching more science content, and spend more time engaging students in exploring science phenomena. Science reformers believe greater learning takes place when students construct their own understanding of conceptual ideas by building on what they know and by finding personal meaning from their science course experiences.

This science methods textbook is designed to support the science education reform by assisting educators to prepare science teachers, who in turn must educate students to become scientifically and technologically literate for the 21st century. This goal presents a tremendous challenge for science teachers, because there is no simple curricular formula or set of instructional strategies that will ensure students will develop a firm understanding of science, mathematics, and technology. Increasing the challenge for science teachers is the fact that many students find science courses difficult and uninteresting. Further, some segments of our society are not only underrepresented in the scientific and engineering professions but also receive a less-than-adequate science education.

New to This Edition

Many of the chapters have been modified for this fifth edition. For example, Chapter One, "The Nature of Science," has incorporated many statements from the national science education reform documents to provide amore comprehensive and up-to-date view of science and what scientists do in their work. Chapter Two, "Historyof Science Education, National Standards, and Innovative Programs," presents a more comprehensive rationale for the science education reform and includes a summary of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Sections in Chapter Three, "The Nature of Diverse Adolescent Learners and Their Schools," that address the teaching of students with special needs and equity in science teaching and learning have been updated and expanded. And in Chapter Four, "Learning in Middle Grades and Secondary Schools," you will find a clear conception of teaching science by inquiry and teaching science as inquiry, and discussion about which of these ideas is being promoted in the science education reform.

Significant improvements have also been made to chapters that address teaching strategies, classroom management, planning, and assessment. Chapter Seven, "Science, Technology, and Society" has been modified to include a more thorough discussion of options for incorporating STS in the middle grades and secondary curricula. In the section on evolution and creationism also found in this chapter, seven of the most notable events and court cases are summarized concerning this ongoing controversy, including the recent Kansas Board of Education action to de-emphasize evolution in the state's curriculum. Chapter Ten, "Computers and Electronic Technology," has been rewritten to highlight uses of the Internet to support student science learning. The new title and contents of Chapter Eleven, - "Managing the Learning Environment," reflect the changing emphasis in classroom management from a paradigm of student obedience to one of student responsibility. Chapter Twelve, "Planning and Teaching Science Lessons," has been altered considerably to focus more on direct teaching exercises that are often conducted in science methods courses in order to provide feedback to prospective science teachers on their ability to teach interactive lessons to peers or students. And Chapter Fourteen, "Assessing Learning Outcomes," stresses an expanded view of assessment consistent with the current reform movement. Discussed in this chapter are a variety of alternative and authentic methods that can be used by teachers to assess learning outcomes in science and Web-based sources for locating student assessment tasks and scoring rubrics.

Unique Text Features

Certain text features are unique to this secondary science methods text. For example, open cases and vignettes highlight the work of science teachers as they help students construct their own science understandings. These records of classroom events have been placed in boxes at various places throughout each chapter. "Stop and Reflect" exercises have been positioned at the end of certain sections within each chapter to help readers contextualize what they read and think critically about its classroom applications.

This methods textbook is in some ways an historical document, the product of almost 50 years of science education experience. During these years, many changes have occurred in the profession and in schools. Nevertheless, other aspects have remained constant. Science teachers who are knowledgeable and enthusiastic about their work and who make science relevant and interesting seem to produce positive results through their teaching. We have tried to emphasize in this textbook what effective science teachers have always displayed in their teaching as well as to incorporate the latest findings of research on science teaching and learning.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many people have contributed to this textbook since its original publication which was written by Walter A. Thurber and Alfred T. Collette. We very much appreciate their efforts. We would especially like to thank those who assisted us with the fifth edition: Dale Taggart for examining the Nature of Science chapter, and David Jackson for providing feedback on the Computers and Electronic Technology chapter; Virginia Tucker and Lisa Kenyon for their recommendations on the cell lesson plan; Gerald Skoog for his expert review of the evolution and creationism section in the Science-Technology-Society chapter; and Angela Lorio, Teri Daniel, and Sandy Olson for their assistance with photographs of teachers and students, as well as Shawn Glynn for several fine photographs that appear in this edition. We wish to also thank Dava Coleman for suggesting improvements to several of the chapters, and Barbara Chiappetta for her help in preparing the chapters for submission to the publisher. Finally, we wish to extend thanks to the many science educators who have told us about their experiences using earlier editions of this book. Their stories, rich with personal experiences about the growth of beginning science teachers, inspire us to continue to improve upon the work begun by our mentors, Thurber and Collette, more than 40 years ago.

Finally, we thank the reviewers of our manuscript for their comments and insights: Paul Adams, Fort Hays State University; Shelley White Fones, Clemson University; Julie Luft, The University of Arizona; Ann Haley MacKenzie, Miami University; Harold McKenna, The City College of New Jersey; and Dana L. Zeidler, The University of South Florida.

Eugene L. Chiappetta
and Thomas R. Koballa, Jr.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Since the late 1980s, science education reform has been underway in the United States. It is a movement aimed at providing the highest quality of science education for all students. A major recommendation of the reform is to focus less on teaching more science content, and spend more time engaging students in exploring science phenomena. Science reformers believe greater learning takes place when students construct their own understanding of conceptual ideas by building on what they know and by finding personal meaning from their science course experiences.

This science methods textbook is designed to support the science education reform by assisting educators to prepare science teachers, who in turn must educate students to become scientifically and technologically literate for the 21st century. This goal presents a tremendous challenge for science teachers, because there is no simple curricular formula or set of instructional strategies that will ensure students will develop a firm understanding of science, mathematics, and technology. Increasing the challenge for science teachers is the fact that many students find science courses difficult and uninteresting. Further, some segments of our society are not only underrepresented in the scientific and engineering professions but also receive a less-than-adequate science education.

New to This Edition

Many of the chapters have been modified for this fifth edition. For example, Chapter One, "The Nature of Science," has incorporated many statements from the national science education reform documents to provide amore comprehensive and up-to-date view of science and what scientists do in their work. Chapter Two,"History of Science Education, National Standards, and Innovative Programs," presents a more comprehensive rationale for the science education reform and includes a summary of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Sections in Chapter Three, "The Nature of Diverse Adolescent Learners and Their Schools," that address the teaching of students with special needs and equity in science teaching and learning have been updated and expanded. And in Chapter Four, "Learning in Middle Grades and Secondary Schools," you will find a clear conception of teaching science by inquiry and teaching science as inquiry, and discussion about which of these ideas is being promoted in the science education reform.

Significant improvements have also been made to chapters that address teaching strategies, classroom management, planning, and assessment. Chapter Seven, "Science, Technology, and Society" has been modified to include a more thorough discussion of options for incorporating STS in the middle grades and secondary curricula. In the section on evolution and creationism also found in this chapter, seven of the most notable events and court cases are summarized concerning this ongoing controversy, including the recent Kansas Board of Education action to de-emphasize evolution in the state's curriculum. Chapter Ten, "Computers and Electronic Technology," has been rewritten to highlight uses of the Internet to support student science learning. The new title and contents of Chapter Eleven, - "Managing the Learning Environment," reflect the changing emphasis in classroom management from a paradigm of student obedience to one of student responsibility. Chapter Twelve, "Planning and Teaching Science Lessons," has been altered considerably to focus more on direct teaching exercises that are often conducted in science methods courses in order to provide feedback to prospective science teachers on their ability to teach interactive lessons to peers or students. And Chapter Fourteen, "Assessing Learning Outcomes," stresses an expanded view of assessment consistent with the current reform movement. Discussed in this chapter are a variety of alternative and authentic methods that can be used by teachers to assess learning outcomes in science and Web-based sources for locating student assessment tasks and scoring rubrics.

Unique Text Features

Certain text features are unique to this secondary science methods text. For example, open cases and vignettes highlight the work of science teachers as they help students construct their own science understandings. These records of classroom events have been placed in boxes at various places throughout each chapter. "Stop and Reflect" exercises have been positioned at the end of certain sections within each chapter to help readers contextualize what they read and think critically about its classroom applications.

This methods textbook is in some ways an historical document, the product of almost 50 years of science education experience. During these years, many changes have occurred in the profession and in schools. Nevertheless, other aspects have remained constant. Science teachers who are knowledgeable and enthusiastic about their work and who make science relevant and interesting seem to produce positive results through their teaching. We have tried to emphasize in this textbook what effective science teachers have always displayed in their teaching as well as to incorporate the latest findings of research on science teaching and learning.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many people have contributed to this textbook since its original publication which was written by Walter A. Thurber and Alfred T. Collette. We very much appreciate their efforts. We would especially like to thank those who assisted us with the fifth edition: Dale Taggart for examining the Nature of Science chapter, and David Jackson for providing feedback on the Computers and Electronic Technology chapter; Virginia Tucker and Lisa Kenyon for their recommendations on the cell lesson plan; Gerald Skoog for his expert review of the evolution and creationism section in the Science-Technology-Society chapter; and Angela Lorio, Teri Daniel, and Sandy Olson for their assistance with photographs of teachers and students, as well as Shawn Glynn for several fine photographs that appear in this edition. We wish to also thank Dava Coleman for suggesting improvements to several of the chapters, and Barbara Chiappetta for her help in preparing the chapters for submission to the publisher. Finally, we wish to extend thanks to the many science educators who have told us about their experiences using earlier editions of this book. Their stories, rich with personal experiences about the growth of beginning science teachers, inspire us to continue to improve upon the work begun by our mentors, Thurber and Collette, more than 40 years ago.

Finally, we thank the reviewers of our manuscript for their comments and insights: Paul Adams, Fort Hays State University; Shelley White Fones, Clemson University; Julie Luft, The University of Arizona; Ann Haley MacKenzie, Miami University; Harold McKenna, The City College of New Jersey; and Dana L. Zeidler, The University of South Florida.

Eugene L. Chiappetta
and Thomas R. Koballa, Jr.

Read More Show Less

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