The Science of Bakery Products


Ever wondered why bread rises? Or why dough needs to rest? From cakes and biscuits to flat breads and standard loaves, the diversity of products is remarkable and the chemistry behind these processes is equally fascinating. The Science of Bakery Products explains the science behind bread making and other baked goods. It looks at the chemistry of the ingredients, flour treatments, flour testing and baking machinery. Individual chapters focus on the science of breads, pastry, biscuits, wafers and cakes. The book ...

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Ever wondered why bread rises? Or why dough needs to rest? From cakes and biscuits to flat breads and standard loaves, the diversity of products is remarkable and the chemistry behind these processes is equally fascinating. The Science of Bakery Products explains the science behind bread making and other baked goods. It looks at the chemistry of the ingredients, flour treatments, flour testing and baking machinery. Individual chapters focus on the science of breads, pastry, biscuits, wafers and cakes. The book concludes with a look at some experiments and methods and goes on to discuss some ideas for the future. The Science of Bakery Products is an interesting and easy to read book, aimed at anyone with an interest in everyday chemistry.

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Editorial Reviews

Oils and Fats International
"This inexpensive book should appeal to the non-specialist interested in the subject of bakery, as well as being useful to students, bakers and apprentices who want to understand the science behind what is one of the oldest human activities."
Materials Today
The range of topics touched on by Edwards is remarkable for a single author...a comprehensive review with a single style and approach, which makes his book very valuable.To have a book that makes a serious attempt at covering all of the science involved in bakery products is a great asset. It is certainly a book that I will refer to again, particularly for its extensive discussion of ingredient functionality.It is a book that could easily be used by schools as a resource for more advanced will do a great deal to attract some of the next generation of scientists towards the fascinating and rewarding world of bakery products.
Chemistry and Industry
"...a handy reference guide to bakery-related technical areas, and often giving answers to those questions we can be afraid to ask, as we think we should already have this knowledge."These gems, peppered throughout the book, bring what might be thought of as a dry subject to life, and this is a book that can be browsed and enjoyed."...I commend the author for the quality and scope of this book. It will make a significant contirbution to the library of books on bakery science and technology."
Chemistry World
The book was easy reading and informative....The science of bakery products is worth reading as a 'taster'.
From the Publisher
The book was easy reading and informative....The science of bakery products is worth reading as a 'taster'.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780854044863
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, The
  • Publication date: 6/28/2007
  • Pages: 274
  • Product dimensions: 5.80 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1: History; 1.2: Language and Units; 1.3: Food Law; 1.3.1:Bread and Food Law; 1.3.2: Health and Safety; Chapter 2: Science; 2.1: Basic Science; 2.1.1: Stability; 2.1.2: Water Activity; 2.1.3: The Equilibrium Relative Humidity; 2.1.4: The Dew Point; 2.2: Colligative Properties; 2.2.1: Boiling Points; 2.2.2: Measuring Vacuum; 2.3: pH; 2.4: Polarimetry; 2.5: The Maillard Reaction; 2.5.1: Sulfur-containing Amino Acids; 2.5.2: Products from Proline; 2.5.3: Strecker Aldehydes; 2.6: Densimetry; 2.7: Refractive Index; 2.8: Buffers; 2.9: Analytical Chemistry; 2.9.1: Water Content; 2.9.2: Sugar Analysis; 2.10: Emulsions; 2.11: The Chemistry of Oils and Fats; 2.11: Classifications of Fatty Acids; 2.11.2: The Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils; 2.11.3: Fat Specifications; 2.11.4: Deterioration of Fats; 2.12: Water Migration; 2.12.1: Barrier Methods; 2.12: Matching the Water Activity; 2.13; The Science of Proteins; 2.13.1: History; 2.13.2: Classification of Cereal Proteins; 2.13.3: Glutenins; 2.14: The Science of Starch; 2.14.1: Gelatinization; 2.14.2: Retrogradation; 2.14.3: Starch Molecules; 2.14.4: A Comparison of the Structure of Amylose and Amylopectin; 2.14.5: Modified Starches; 2.15: Nutrition; 2.15.1: Nutritional Needs; 2.15.2: Food Groups; 2.15.3: The Glycemic; Index: 2.15.4:Trace Elements; 2.15.5: Vitamins; 2.15.6: Nutritional Labelling; 2.16: Food Allergy and Intolerance; 2.16.1: Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated Food Allergies; 2.16.2: Cell-mediated Food Allergies; 2.16.3: Food Intolerance; 2.17: The Science of Aerated Products; 2.17.1: Making the Bubbles or Leavening; 2.17.2: Stabilising the Foam; 2.17.3: Fat in Bread; Chapter 3: Raw Materials; 3.1: Grains; 3.1.1: Wheat; 3.1.2: Barley; 3.1.3: Rye; 3.1.4: Maize; 3.1.5: Dried Gluten; 3.1.6: Soy Beans; 3.1.7: Margarine; 3.2: Milling; 3.3: Grades of Flour; 3.3.1; Top Grade; 3.3.2: Baker's Grade; 3.3.3: Baker's Grade; 3.3.4: Euro Baker's Grade; 3.4: Types of Flour; 3.4.1: Chorleywood Bread Flour; 3.4.2: Patent Flours; 3.4.3: Soft Flours; 3.4.4: Wholemeal Flours; 3.4.5: Brown Flour; 3.4.6: Low Moisture Flour; 3.5: Leavening Agents ; 3.5.1: Air; 3.5.2: Water or Steam; 3.5.3 Yeast; 3.5.4: Chemical Leavening; 3.6: Flour Treatments; 3.6.1: Introduction; 3.6.2: Wholemeal Flour; 3.6.3: Bleaching; 3.6.4: Oxidative Improvers; 3.6.5: Reducing Agents; 3.6.6: Cake Flours; 3.6.7: Sources of Enzymes; 3.6.8: Potassium Bromate Health and Legislation; 3.7: Starch Excluding Flour; 3.8: Fats; 3.8.1: Fat-containing Ingredients; 3.8.2: Emulsifiers in Bread; 3.9: Emulsifiers; 3.9.1: Foams; 3.9.2: Lecithin; 3.9.3: Sucrose Esters E473; 3.9.4: Eggs; 3.9.5: Uses of Emulsifiers in Bakery Products; 3.10: Colours; 3.10.1: Technical Requirements of Colours in Bakery Products; 3.10.2: Synthetic Colours; 3.10.3: Natural Colours; 3.11: Falvours; 3.11.1: Natural Flavours; 3.11.2: The Image of Natural Products; 3.11.3: Nature Identical Flavourings; 3.11.4: Synthetic Flavours; 3.11.5: Dosing; 3.11.6: Developments in Flavours; 3.12 Antioxidants; 3.12.1: Synthetic Antioxidants; 3.12.2: Tocopherols; 3.13: Sugars; 3.13.1: Molasses and Treacle; 3.13.2: Invert Sugar; 3.13.3: Glucose Syrup (Corn Syrup); 3.13.4: Fructose; 3.13.5: Dextrose; 3.13.6: Lactose; 3.14: Dairy Ingredients; 3.14.1: Sweetened Condensed Milk; 3.14.2: Evaporated Milk (Unsweetened Condensed Milk); 3.14.3: Milk Powder; 3.14.4: Butter; 3.14.5: Butter Oil (Anhydrous Milk Fat); 3.14.6: Whey; 3.14.7: Vegetable Fats; 3.15: Gums and Gelling Agents or Hydrocolloids 3.15.1: Agar Agar E406; 3.15.2: Alginates E401; 3.15.3: Carrageenan; 3.15.4: Gelatine; 3.15.5: Gellan Gum (E418); 3.15.6: Gum Acacia also known as Gum Arabic E414; 3.15.7: Guar Gum; 3.15.8: Pectin; 3.15.9: Starch; 3.15.10: Locust Bean or Carob Bean Gum; 3.15.11: Xanthan Gum; 3.15.12: Egg Albumen; Chapter 4: Analytical Chemistry; 4.1: Introduction; 4.2: Methods; 4.2.1: The Kjeldahl Method; 4.2.2: Near-infrared Spectroscopy; 4.2.3: Water Measurement: Fat Content; 4.2.4: Chromatography; Chapter 5: Flour Testing; 5.1: Introduction; 5.1.1: Analytical tests; 5.1.2: Empirical tests; 5.1.3: Test Baking; 5.2: Empirical Testing Regimes; 5.2.1: The Haberg Falling Number; 5.2.2: Chopin Alveograph; 5.2.3: Brabender Instruments; 5.2.4: The Mixograph; 5.2.5: The Grade Colour; 5.2.6: The Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Test; 5.2.7: The Cookie Flour Test; Chapter 6: Bakery Machinery; 6.1: Introduction; 6.2: Mixing; 6.2.1: Bread Dough Mixers; 6.2.2: Biscuit Dough Mixers; 6.2.3: Cake Mixers; 6.2.4: Pastry Mixers; 6.3: Measuring and Weighing Ingredients; 6.4: Proving and Retarding; 6.5: Shaping and Panning; 6.6: Scaling; 6.7: Baking; 6.8: Extrusion; 6.8.1: Classification of Extruders; 6.8.2: Extrusion Cooking; Chapter 7: Bread Making; 7.1: The Chemistry of Dough Development; 7.2: The Making of Bread; 7.2.1: Unleavened Bread; 7.2.2: Sour Dough Bread; 7.2.3: Bulk Fermentation; 7.2.4: Sponge Batter or Sponge Dough of Flour Brew; 7.2.5: Chorleywood Bread Process; 7.2.6: Activated Dough Development (ADD); 7.2.7: The Spiral Mixer Process; 7.2.8:Other Mechanical Dough Developments Methods; 7.2.9: Continuous Processes; 7.2.10: Emergency No Time Process; 7.2.11: Gas Injection Process; 7.2.12: Part-baked Loaves; 7.2.13: French Bread; 7.3: Other Breads; 7.3.1: Brown and Wholemeal; 7.3.2: Wheatgerm Breads; 7.3.3: High Protein Breads; 7.3.4: High Fibre and Multi-grain Breads; 7.3.5: Soft Grain Breads; 7.3.6: Ethnic Multigrain Breads; 7.3.7: Slimming and Health High Fibre Breads; 7.3.8: Bread with Added Malt Grains; 7.3.9: Bread Containing Cereals other than Wheat; 7.3.10 Crispbread; 7.3.11: Bread for Special Dietry Needs; 7.3.12: War and famine Breads; 7.4: Other Variants of Bread; 7.4.1: Flat Breads; 7.4.2: Pitta Bread; 7.4.3: Muffins; 7.4.4: Crumpets; 7.4.5: Pizza; 7.4.7: Rich Dough Products; 7.4.8: Hot Cross Buns; 7.4.9: Danish Pastries; 7.4.10: Pretzels; 7.4.11: Not Baked; Chapter 8: Products Other Than Bread; 8.1: Puff Pastry; 8.1.1: Methods; 8.1.2: Types of Flour; 8.1.3: The Type of Fat; 8.1.4: Additives; 8.1.5: Re-work; 8.2: Short Pastry; 8.3: Hot Water Pastry; 8.4: Science of Biscuits; 8.4.1: Flour for Biscuits; 8.4.2: Fats; 8.4.3: Sugars; 8.4.4: Milk and Other Dairy Ingredients; 8.4.5: Other Cereal Ingredients; 8.4.6: Mixing Biscuits; 8.4.7: Types of Dough; 8.4.8: Shaping Biscuits; 8.4.9: Baking Biscuits; 8.4.10: Packaging; 8.5: Science of Wafers; 8.5.1: Raising Agents; 8.5.2: Flour for Wafers; 8.5.3: Production Process; 8.5.4: Maturing Wafers; 8.6: Cakes; 8.6.1: Introdcution; 8.6.2: Shelf Life; 8.6.3: Rich Fruit Cakes; 8.6.4: Long-life Sponge cakes; 8.6.5: Making Sponge Cakes; 8.6.6: A Comparison of Cake Making Methods; 8.7: Miscellaneous Chemically Leavened Products; 8.7.1: Doughnuts; 8.7.2: Eclairs; 8.7.3: French Crullers; 8.7.4: Soda Bread; Chapter 9: Bread-making Experiments; 9.1: Introduction; 9.2: Health and Safety; 9.3: Yield; 9.4: Loaf testing; 9.4.1: Tasting; 9.5: Bread making; 9.5.1: Recipe; 9.5.2: Straight Method; 9.5.3: Proving; 9.5.4: Knock Back; 9.5.5: Scaling and Dividing; 9.5.6: Second Proving; 9.5.7: Baking; 9.6: Sponge Batter; 9.6.1; Proving; 9.7: Variations to the Recipe; 9.7.1: Variation 1: Compare the Effect of Leaving out the Sugar; 9.7.2: Variation 2: Compare the Effect of Using Vegetable Oil Instead of Hard Fat; 9.7.3: Variation 3: Compare the Effect of Using No Fat Instead of Hard Fat; 9.7.4: Variation 4 Leave Out the Salt; 9.7.5 Variation 5: Proving in the Sponge Batter Method; 9.7.6: Variation 6: Hand Mixing vs Machine Mixing; 9.7.7: Variation 7: Comparison of Two Different Flours; 9.7.8: Variation 8: Testing Different Levels of Water Addition; 9.7.9: Variation 9: Wholemeal Flours; 9.8: Report Writing; Chapter 10: The Future; 10.1: General Outlook; 10.2: Dietary Trends; Glossary; Bibliography; Subject Index

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