Scribes, Sages, and Seers: The Sage in the Eastern Mediterranean World

Overview

Interest in literature on wisdom derived from Israel and ancient Middle Eastern cultures has increased considerably in recent decades. Research findings from archaeological, theological, and cultural studies illustrate how sages decisively shaped the literature and language of a culture. Their influence extended to the arts, social and religious institutions, and the sciences. In ancient Israel and Judah, the Middle East , and in the Greco-Roman Empire, sages, similar to priests, prophets, and kings, made up ...
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Overview

Interest in literature on wisdom derived from Israel and ancient Middle Eastern cultures has increased considerably in recent decades. Research findings from archaeological, theological, and cultural studies illustrate how sages decisively shaped the literature and language of a culture. Their influence extended to the arts, social and religious institutions, and the sciences. In ancient Israel and Judah, the Middle East , and in the Greco-Roman Empire, sages, similar to priests, prophets, and kings, made up their own social class. The essays in this volume examine this particular group of wise men in context of their time. Unlike other studies, the focus here lies in the social aspect of this caste of sages.
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Table of Contents

Preface VII

I Introduction to Scribes, Sages, and Seers

Sages, Scribes, and Seers in Israel and the Ancient Near East: An Introduction Leo G. Perdue 1

II Scribes, Sages, and Seers in Ancient Egypt

Knowledge and Knowledgeable Men in Ancient Egypt: Queries and Arguments about an Unsettled Issue Thomas Schneider 35

III Scribes, Sages, and Seers in Ancient Mesopotamia

Scribes and Wisdom in Ancient Mesopotamia Bendt Alster 47

Tales of Two Sages - Towards an Image of the "Wise Man" in Akkadian Writings Victor Avigdor Hurowitz 64

IV Scribes, Sages, and Seers in Ugarit and Syria

Scribes, Sages, and Seers in Ugarit Ignagio M?rquez Rowe 95

The Aramaic Tradition: Ahikar Ingo Kottsieper 109

V Scribes, Sages, and Seers in First Temple Israel

Scribes, Sages, and Seers in the First Temple Katharine Dell 125

VI Scribes, Sages, and Seers in Second Temple Judah

The Authors of Job and Their Historical and Social Setting Konkad Schmid 145

Wisdom as a Hermeneutical Key to the Book of Psalms Manfred Oeming 154

Ezra - Priest and Scribe Reinhard G. Kratz 163

The Social World of Ecclesiastes Choon-Leong Seow 189

The Sociological Significance of the Scribe as the Teacher of Wisdom in Ben Sira Friederich V. Reiterer 218

VII Scribes, Sages, and Seers in The Greek and Roman Empires

The Sage behind the Wisdom of Solomon Michael Kolarcik, S.J. 245

Seers as Mantic Sages in Jewish Apocalyptic (Daniel and Enoch) Andreas Bedenbender 258

Sages and Scribes in the Qumran Literature Armin Lange 271

VIII Scribes, Sages, and Seers and the Transition to Rabbinic Judaism

Sages, Scribes, and Seers in Rabbinic Judaism G?nter Stenberger 295

Contributors 320

Abbreviations 322

Index of Biblical Texts 325

Index of Pseudepigrapha, Non-Biblical, Ancient Literature 331

Author Index 344

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