The Sea Knows No Boundaries

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Set against the backdrop of ongoing geopolitical conflict of the twentieth century, the history of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) illustrates the complexity of forging international collaboration to tackle environmental resource issues and pursue scientific knowledge. Originally brought together to address the problem of overfishing in the North Atlantic, ICES founders envisioned an international scientific collaboration that would achieve knowledge impossible from investigations by a single nation. In describing the successes and failures of the scientific and management approaches that ICES pursued, Helen Rozwadowski has used the organization as a lens to reveal the ways in which humans have changed the marine environment over the last century, and especially the ways in which they have sought to control and modify those changes.

ICES is the world's oldest international marine scientific organization. Formed in 1902 by eight northern European nations, it now has nineteen member nations from both Europe and North America and has evolved from a "gentlemen's agreement" renewed through diplomatic channels into a modern intergovernmental organization. From the start, ICES scientists embraced the idea that their work could solve practical fisheries problems, and ICES is one of the few scientific forums in which virtually all areas of marine science are represented. The Sea Knows No Boundaries contains vivid portraits of many key figures in ICES history, including Fridtjof Nansen, a Norwegian marine scientist who went on to lead famous polar explorations; the autocratic British Fisheries Secretary Henry Maurice; the Icelandic educator Arni Fridriksson, who hired and trained a generation of scientists; and the renowned Norwegian oceanographer, Harald Sverdrup, who brought European oceanography to the United States.

Commissioned for the organization's centenary, the book is the result of an exhaustive review of organizational archives and interviews with many of its present and past participants. Rozwadowski's history of ICES provides unique insight into the relationship between fisheries science and biological oceanography.

Helen M. Rozwadowski, an award-winning environmental historian, is undergraduate coordinator and adjunct professor in the School of History, Technology, and Society, Georgia Institute of Technology.

"The Sea Knows No Boundaries is a fascinating discussion of the vagaries of international cooperation against the backdrop of the 20th century's two world wars and their resulting diplomatic problems. . . . It is a "must read" for marine policy scholars, for historians of oceanography and the life sciences, and for environmental historians. - Keith Benson, co-editor of Oceanographic History: The Pacific and Beyond

"A fascinating and extremely captivating book, which covers not only the development if ICES but also the development of fisheries science as a whole." - Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780295982595
  • Publisher: University of Washington Press
  • Publication date: 1/28/2002
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 448
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction 1
1 Forging International Science of the Sea, to 1902 9
2 A Rising Enterprise, 1902-1927 42
3 A Proactive Role within "Bounds Set by Nature," through 1946 77
4 Hydrography or Fisheries Hydrography: The Struggle to Link Fish to Their Ocean Environment, to the Mid-1970s 111
5 "The Central Problem of the Council, Unravelled": Fisheries Science in the Postwar World, 1946-1964 146
6 "Which Master to Serve": Stock Assessment Science and the Growth of a Formal Scientific Advisory Role, 1960s-1980s 177
7 "A Natural and Inevitable Task for ICES": The Rise of Environmental Science and Action, 1966 Forward 212
8 Framework of Nature 245
Abbreviations in Notes 275
Notes 276
Bibliography 370
Index 393
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