Secondary and Middle School Methods, MyLabSchool Edition / Edition 1

Secondary and Middle School Methods, MyLabSchool Edition / Edition 1

by Allan C. Ornstein

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ISBN-10: 0205464777

ISBN-13: 9780205464777

Pub. Date: 12/23/2004

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Secondary and Middle School Methods prepares secondary school teachers and help experienced teachers improve their teaching and instruction by focusing on the methods and principles of teaching the “how-to” approach.

Combining a broad approach of methodology, from research to theory to practice, this text helps the prospective teacher


Secondary and Middle School Methods prepares secondary school teachers and help experienced teachers improve their teaching and instruction by focusing on the methods and principles of teaching the “how-to” approach.

Combining a broad approach of methodology, from research to theory to practice, this text helps the prospective teacher understand the essential methods and principles necessary for professional competence. The authors also address current issues in today's society, such as No Child Left Behind and teaching diverse learners, and examine the effects of federal legislation on students and teachers. In addition, an assortment of activities, tables, and topics for discussion prepare the reader for future application to secondary school settings serving diverse populations of students.

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Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
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Table of Contents

Each chapter begins with “Focus Questions” and concludes with “Summary,” “Problem For Discussion,” “Questions To Consider,” “Things To Do,” “Recommended Readings,” and “Key Terms.”

1. The Emerging Secondary School.

A Brief History of Secondary Schools: How Did Schools Get to This Point?

What Groups Shaped Schools?

What “Voices” Shaped Secondary Schools?

Selected Problems Confronting Secondary Schools.

Schools of the Future.

Table 1.1 The Development of American Secondary Schools.

Table 1.2 Evolution of Secondary School Curriculum 1800-1900.

Table 1.3 Secondary School Programs and Subjects Proposed by Committee of Ten, 1893.

Table 1.4 Vision Statement of the National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform.

Table 1.5 Progressive versus Traditional Schools.

Table 1.6 Essential Schools.

Table 1.7 Key Attributes of Effective, High Poverty, Title 1 Schools.

Table 1.8 Politically Expedient Interventions.

Case Study Big School vs. Small School.

2. Learning: A Developmental Approach.

Developmental Needs of Adolescents.

Cognitive Learning: Critical Thinking and Creativity.

Table 2.1 Erikson's Eight Ages of Man Descriptors.

Table 2.2 Piagetian Stages of Cognitive Development.

Table 2.3 Percentages of Students at Piaget's Cognitive Levels.

Table 2.4 Piaget's Concrete and Formal Operational Thinking.

Table 2.5 Where America Stands.

Table 2.6 25 Key Facts About American Children.

Table 2.7 Key Facts About Education.

Table 2.8 Supporting Development in Middle School.

Table 2.9 Determining a Middle School's Developmental Responsiveness.

Table 2.10 Critical Thinking Skills Underlying Intelligent Behavior.

Table 2.11 Teaching Behaviors That Correlate with Student Inquiry-Discovery Behaviors.

Figure 2.1 Language Minority Percentages.

Figure 2.2 Diversity of America's Children.

Figure 2.3 Racial and Ethnic Diversity.

Case Study 2.1 Differentiation of Instruction.

3. The Effective Teacher.

Review of Research on Teaching.

Teacher Effect on Student Achievement.

Teacher Styles.

Teacher Expectations.

Teacher Competencies.

Beginning Your Teaching Career.

Table 3.1 TIMMS International Comparisons.

Table 3.2 SAT Mean Scores by Family Income 2000 College Bound Seniors.

Table 3.3 Teaching Lower Achieving Students.

Table 3.4 Teacher Behavior with Low Achievers and High Achievers.

Table 3.5 Comparing Traditional and Differentiated Classrooms.

Table 3.6 Principals' Ranking of Effective Teacher Competencies.

Table 3.7 INTASC Teaching Standards.

Table 3.8 Conceptions of Self and Others.

Tips For Teachers 3.1: Observing Other Teachers.

Case Study 3.1 Culture's Role in Quality Teaching.

Case Study 3.2 Value Added Education.

4. Instructional Objectives.



Levels of Objectives.

Formulating Goals and Objectives.

Writing Your Own Goals and Objectives.

Table 4.1 National Standards for Selected Disciplines.

Table 4.2 Illinois Learning Goal 14A Social Science Performance Descriptors.

Table 4.3 Characteristics of Instructional Objectives at the Classroom Level.

Table 4.4 Big Picture of a Lesson Plan Approach.

Table 4.5 The Major Types and Subtypes of the Knowledge Dimension.

Table 4.6 The Six Categories of the Cognitive Process Dimension and Related Cognitive Processes.

Table 4.7 Taxonomy Table for a Middle School Science Standard.

Table 4.8 Steps for Writing Instructional General Objectives and Specific Learning Outcomes.

Figure 4.1 Relationships Between Education Aims, Goals, and Objectives.

Tips for Teachers 4.1 Stating Classroom Objectives.

Case Study: Math in Our Daily Lives for Middle School.

5. Instructional Materials.

Selecting Instructional Aids.

Presenting Instructional Materials.


Textbook and Pedagogical Aids.

Reading Across the Content Areas.

Meta-cognition and Text Structure.

Workbook Materials.

Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers.

Trade Books.

Simulations and Games.

Table 5.1 Questions to Consider in Selecting Instructional Materials.

Table 5.2 Questions to Consider When Reviewing Texts for Bias.

Table 5.3 A Closer Look at Readability Formulas.

Table 5.4 Levels of Cognition and Reading, With Implications for Using Textbook Aids.

Table 5.5 Text Information for Classrooms.

Figure 5.1 Fry Graph for Estimating Readability.

Tips for teachers 5.1 Appraising the Worth of a Textbook.

Tips for Teachers 5.2 Student Use of Textbook Aids.

Case Study 5.1 The Limitations of a Single Text.

6. Instructional Methods and Teaching Strategies.

Practice And Drill.


Lectures and Discussions.

Student-Centered Learning.

The Instructional Debate.

Table 6.1 Practice and Drill Activities.

Table 6.2 Writing Levels.

Table 6.3 Questions Related to the Cognitive Taxonomy.

Table 6.4 Sample Convergent and Divergent Questions.

Table 6.5 Guidelines for Giving Praise.

Table 6.6 Cuing for Reading Success.

Table 6.7 A Concept Attainment Lesson.

Table 6.8 Brief Descriptions of Comprehensive School Reform Models.

Figure 6.1 Example of the Classification Hierarchy Form to Show “Links.”

Figure 6.2 Organization of a Hierarchic Lecture.

Figure 6.3 Types of Graphic Organizers.

Tips for Teachers 6.1 Don'ts in Asking Questions.

Tips for Teachers 6.2 Do's in Asking Questions.

Case Study 6.1 Question-Asking Reflection.

7. Instructional Grouping.

Classroom Seating Arrangements.

Whole-Group Instruction.

Small-Group Instruction.

Individualized Instruction.

Classroom Climate.

Table 7.1 Students Assigned to Small Classes Were More Likely to Take the ACT or SAT College Entrance Exams.

Figure 7.1 Four Seating Patterns (Ornstein, 1992) p. 477.

Figure 7.2 Three Modified Seating Patterns (Ornstein, 1992) p. 478.

Tips for Teachers 7.1 Solutions for Students Who Are Tardy.

Tips for Teachers 7.2 Basic Rules of Group Participation.

Tips for Teachers 7.3 Different Group Designs for Different Classroom Conditions.

Case Study 7.1 Building Self-Esteem Through Instructional Grouping.

8. Educational Technology.

Chalkboard and Display Board.

Overhead Projectors/Data/Video Projectors.


Television aAnd Videos.


Telecommunication Systems.

Technology as Tool and Teacher.

Table 8.1 Curriculum Standards NETS for Teachers.

Table 8.2 Instruction and Program Evaluation Guidelines for Software Materials.

Table 8.3 Internet Safety Guidelines for Teens.

Table 8.4 Technological Skills for the Worker of the Future.

Figure 8.1 Reflections of a First Year Teacher, Chad Raisch—Middle Grades Social Studies Teacher.

Tips for Teachers 8.1 Minimum Criteria Checklist for Evaluating Instructional Courseware.

Tips for Teachers 8.2 Do's of Email.

Tips for Teachers 8.3 The Forces of Change and the New Role of Technology.

Case Study 8.1 Competitive High Schools Improve Math and Science with Technology.

Case Study 8.2 Computer Work Stations.

9. Using Tests to Inform Teacher Decision-Making About Student Learning.

Criteria for Selecting Tests.

Standardized and Non-standardized Tests.

Classroom Tests.

Administering And Returning Tests.

Table 9.1 Key Differences Between Assessment of and for Learning.

Table 9.2 Comparison Of Norm-Reference And Criterion-Reference Tests.

Table 9.3 Arguments Against High Stake Testing.

Table 9.4 Reasons for Selecting Short-Answer or Essay Tests.

Table 9.5 Sample Thought Questions and Cognitive Levels of Teaching.

Table 9.6 Test Wise Strategies.

Table 9.7 Test-Giver's List of Things to Do.

Tips for Teachers 9.1 No Child Left Behind.

Tips for Teachers 9.2 Overview of Writing Test Items.

Tips for Teachers 9.3 Preparing Students for Tests.

Case Study 9.1 Accepting Test Grades.

10. Evaluating Learning Performance of Students.

Reasons for Evaluation.

Types of Evaluation.

Evaluation Methods and Approaches.


Records and Reports of Performance.

Coordinated Assessment Systems.

Communication With Parents and Other Stakeholders.

Table 10.1 Self-Monitoring Using Behavioral Logs.

Table 10.2 Types of Evaluation.

Table 10.3 Illustration of a Lesson with Performance Task Required.

Table 10.4 Sample Check List for Student with Disabilities in Inclusion Setting.

Table 10.5 Rating Scale for Peer Assessment.

Table 10.6 Common Evaluation Errors.

Table 10.7 Examples of Absolute and Relative Standards of Grading.

Table 10.8 An Example of a Coordinated Assessment System.

Tips for Teachers 10.1 Steps in Developing Scoring Guides, Rubrics, and Performance Criteria.

Tips for Teachers 10.2 Time-Saving Grading Methods.

Tips for Teachers 10.3 Guide to Discussion During a Parent-Teacher Conference.

Case Study 10.1 Grading “Standards.”

11. Instructional Planning.

How Teachers Plan.

Unit Plans.

Lesson Plans.

Table 11.1 Levels of Teacher Planning.

Table 11.2 Beginning of the Year Decisions.

Table 11.3 Mapping: Identifying Major Content, Concepts, Skills, and Values.

Table 11.4 Unit Plan Components.

Table 11.5 Idol's Nine Simple Rules for Making Adaptations.

Table 11.6 Setting Up for Success with English Language Learners.

Table 11.7 Sample Menu for a Homework Assistance Center.

Table 11.8 Lesson Plan Components for Teacher-Directed Approach .

Table 11.9 Effective Instructional Strategies and Techniques for Students with Learning Disabilities.

Figure 11.1 Forces in Curriculum Development.

Tips for Teachers 11.1 Planning a course.

Tips for Teachers 11.2 Organizing and Implementing Unit Plans.

Case Study 11.1 Teaching Everything.

12. Professional Growth.

Competing Agendas for Teacher Preparation.

Helping The Beginning Teacher Regardless of the Agenda.

Support From Colleagues for Beginning Teachers.


Peer Evaluation and Assistance.

Supervisory Evaluation and Assistance.

Student Evaluation.

Professional Associations and Activities.

Employment Opportunities.

The Job Ahead.

Table 12.1 INTASC Principles.

Table 12.2 Pathwise(r) Criteria).

Table 12.3 The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Propositions.

Table 12.4 Realities of Teaching Urban, Low-Achieving Students, with Potential Solutions.

Table 12.5 Behaviors Toward Academically At-Risk Students.

Table 12.6 Recommendations on Charter Schools by the NBCSL.

Table 12.7 Professional Teaching Organizations.

Figure 12.1 Performance of White Students.

Figure 12.2 Performance of African American Students.

Figure 12.3 Performance of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners.

Figure 12.4 Vouchers in Milwaukee.

Figure 12.5 The Arizona Charter Experience.

Tips for Teachers 12.1 Improving Your Teaching.

Tips for Teachers 12.2 Artifacts for Teaching Portfolios.

Tips for Teachers 12.3 Professional Development for Teachers.

Tips for Teachers 12.4 Questions Interviewers Ask Teacher Candidates.

Case Study 12.1 El Paso Closing The Gap.

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