Secondary School Teaching: A Guide to Methods and Resources / Edition 4

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Overview

Thoroughly revised and updated, Secondary School Teaching: A Guide to Methods and Resources is a comprehensive guide to instructional methods and contains many practical exercises for active learning.

This text provides a sound introduction to the challenges of today's secondary schools, teachers' professional responsibilities, thinking and questioning, classroom environment, curriculum, planning instruction, assessment using inquiry, teacher talk, and games, learning alone and in groups, and professional development. A key strength of this text continues to be the expression of core themes. It provides future and current teachers with relevant guidelines, best options and practices, the most useful research findings, and current resources so that they can reflect and improve their effectiveness.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137049776
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 3/1/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 432
  • Sales rank: 134,916
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Richard Kellough is author and coauthor of more than 50 textbooks, including A Primer For New Principals: Guidelines For Success (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008), A Resource Guide For Teaching K-12, 6/E (Allyn & Bacon, 2011), Teaching Young Adolescents: Methods And Resources, 5/E (Pearson, 2008), Teaching And Learning K-8: A Guide To Methods And Resources, 9/E (Pearson, 2008), Your First Year Of Teaching: Guidelines For Success, 5/E (Pearson, 2009), Science K-8: An Integrated Approach, 11/E (Allyn & Bacon, 2008), and A Guide For Developing Interdisciplinary Thematic Units, 4/E (Pearson, 2008), as well As numerous journal articles. His many recognitions include being named a National Science Foundation Research Fellow at The University Of California, Davis, as well as listings in the International Authors And Writers Who's Who, Leaders In Eco Education, Men Of Achievement (Vol. 1), Dictionary Of International Biography, and Leaders In Education. His 46-year teaching career includes 13 years as a teacher of grades 7-12 (3 years as a teaching principal) and 34 years as university professor.

Coauthor of Teaching Young Adolescents: A Guide To Methods And Resources, 5/e (Allyn & Bacon, 2008), Noreen Kellough's 22-year teaching career includes 6 years of middle school foreign languages teaching, 6 years of high school teaching of French, and 12 years at the university level. At the college and university level she has taught Spanish at Los Rios Community College, was assistant clinical professor at University of the Pacific, and at California State University, Sacramento, taught

Italian, courses in teacher preparation. Until her retirement, she served as director of the children's reading program where she supervised the training of university students as tutors of reading for public school children. Recognitions include recipient of Outstanding Community Service Award (2004) from CSU,S, and 1995 delegate representing the U.S. in Berlin, Germany, at the Deutsche Schreberjugend International Youth Conference.

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: Secondary School Teaching Today: Recognizing and Understanding the Challenge

The Classroom in a Nation of Diversity and Shifting Demographics

Skill Areas Around Which This Resource Guide is Centered

The Realities of Teaching Today

A Rather Recent and in Our Opinion Unfortunate Addition to the Challenge

Orientation: No Single Shoe Fits All

Start of the School Year Orientation

The School Year and Teachers’ Schedules

Teaching Teams

The Community of Learners Concept

Nontraditional Scheduling

Quality Education for Every Student

Instruction that is Differentiated

Responsive Practices for Helping Each Student Succeed

Middle-Level Schools

High Schools

The Fundamental Characteristic of Quality Education

Committed Teachers

Reflective Decision Making

School Leadership

Effects of No Child Left Behind Legislation

Parents, Guardians, and the Community

Community Service Learning

The Emergent Overall Picture: Current Actions, Trends, Problems, and Issues

Key Trends and Positive Practices

Major Problems, Concerns, and Issues

Meeting the Challenge: Initial Guidelines for Recognizing and Providing for Student Differences Thereby Effectively Differentiating the Instruction

Reviewing The Developmental Characteristics of Young People of Particular Age Groups

Young Adolescents (Ages 9–14)

Older Adolescents (Ages 15–19)

Summary

Questions for Class Discussion

Exercises

References

CHAPTER 2: Teacher Professional Responsibilities

The Teacher as a Reflective Decision Maker

Decision-Making Phases of Instruction

Reflection, Locus of Control, Sense of Self-Efficacy, and Teacher Responsibility

Selected Legal Guidelines

Student Rights

Cellular Phones and Other Handheld Electronic Devices in the Classroom

Teacher Liability and Insurance

Student Safety Should Always be on Your Mind

Teaching Style

Multilevel Instruction, Individualized Instruction, and Differentiated Instruction: A Clarification of Terms

The Theoretical Origins of Teaching Styles and Their Relation to Constructivism

Commitment and Professionalism

Noninstructional Responsibilities

Instructional Responsibilities

Identifying and Building Your Instructional Competencies

Characteristics of the Competent Classroom Teacher: An Annotated List

Teacher Behaviors Necessary to Facilitate Student Learning

Three Basic Rules for Becoming a Competent Teacher

Facilitating Behaviors and Instructional Strategies: A Clarification

Structuring the Learning Environment

Accepting and Sharing Instructional Accountability

Demonstrating Withitness and Overlapping

Providing a Variety of Motivating and Challenging Activities

Modeling Appropriate Behaviors

Facilitating Student Acquisition of Data

Creating a Psychologically Safe Environment

Clarifying Whenever Necessary

Using Periods of Silence

Questioning Thoughtfully

Tools For Instruction

The Internet

Professional Journals and Periodicals

The ERIC Information Network

Copying Printed Materials

The Classroom Writing Board

The Classroom Bulletin Board and Other Nonprojected Visual Displays

The Community as a Resource

Guest Speaker or Presenter

Field Trips

Media Tools

Computers and Computer-Based Instructional Tools

Using Copyrighted Video, Computer, and Multimedia Programs

Distance Learning

Summary

Questions For Class Discussion

Exercises

References

CHAPTER 3: Thinking and Questioning: Skills for Meaningful Learning

Teaching Thinking for Intelligent Behavior

Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior

Direct Teaching for Thinking and Intelligent Behavior

Purposes for Using Questioning

Questions to Avoid Asking

Types of Cognitive Questions: A Glossary

Analytic Question

Clarifying Question

Convergent-Thinking Question

Cueing Question

Divergent-Thinking Question

Evaluative Question

Focus Question

Probing Question

Socratic Questioning

Levels of Cognitive Questions and Student Thinking

Guidelines for Using Questioning

Preparing Questions

Implementing Questioning

Using an Audience Response Student Clicker System

Questions From Students: The Question-Driven Classroom and Curriculum

Questioning: The Cornerstone of Critical Thinking, Real-World Problem Solving, and Meaningful Learning

Summary

Questions For Class Discussion

Exercises

References

CHAPTER 4: The Classroom Learning Environment

The Importance of Perceptions

Classroom Control–Its Meaning–Past and Present

Historical Meaning of Classroom Control

Today’s Meaning of Classroom Control and the Concept of Classroom

Management

Classroom Management: Contributions of Some Leading Authorities

Developing Your Own Effective Approach to Classroom Management

Providing a Supportive Learning Environment

Consider the Physical Layout

Create a Positive Ambiance

Behaviors to Avoid When Using Encouragement to Motivate Students

Get to Know Your Students as People

Preparation Provides Confidence and Success

Effective Organization and Administration of Activities and Materials

Natural Interruptions and Disruptions to Routine

Classroom Procedures and Guidelines for Acceptable Behavior

Starting the School Term Well

Procedures Rather Than Rules; Consequences Rather Than Punishment

The First Day

Procedural Matters: What Students Need to Understand Early On

Using Positive Rewards as Motivators

Managing Class Sessions

Opening Activities

Smooth Implementation of the Lesson

Transitions Within Lessons

Inappropriate Student Behavior

Transient Nondisruptive Behaviors

Disruptions to Learning

Defiance, Cheating, Lying, and Stealing

Bullying, Fighting, Sexual Misconduct, and Violence

Teacher Response to Student Misbehavior

Direct Versus Indirect Assertive Intervention Strategies: A Clarification

Order of Behavior Intervention Strategies

Teacher-Caused Student Misbehavior

Scenarios for Case Study Review

Preventing a Ship From Sinking is Much Easier Than is Saving a Sinking One: Mistakes to Avoid

Situational Case Studies for Additional Review

Summary

Questions for Class Discussion

Exercises

References

CHAPTER 5: The Curriculum: Selecting and Setting Learning Expectations

Program Organization: Providing Successful Transitions

Curriculum and Instruction: Clarification of Terms

Core Curriculum

Curriculum Content: Essential Versus Supplemental

Exploratory Opportunities

Co-Curricular Versus Extracurricular

Advisory/Homebase Program

Planning for Instruction: Three Levels

Teacher–Student Collaborative Team Planning

Reasons for Planning

Components of an Instructional Plan

Curriculum Content Selection: Documents that Provide Guidance

Curriculum Standards

Curriculum Standards and High-Stakes Testing

Student Textbooks

Benefit of Textbooks to Student Learning

Problems with Reliance on a Single Textbook

Guidelines for Textbook Use

Multitext and Multireadings Approach

Beginning to Think About the Sequencing of Content

Preparing for and Dealing with Controversy

Aims, Goals, and Objectives: The Anticipated Learning Outcomes

Instructional Objectives and Their Relationship to Aligned Curriculum and Authentic Assessment

Learning Targets and Goal Indicators

Overt and Covert Performance Outcomes

Balance of Behaviorism and Constructivism

Teaching Toward Multiple Objectives, Understandings, and Appreciations: The Reality of Classroom Instruction

Preparing Instructional Objectives

Components of a Complete Objective Classifying Instructional Objectives The Domains of Learning and the Developmental Needs of Students

Cognitive Domain Hierarchy

Affective Domain Hierarchy

Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy

Using the Taxonomies

Observing for Connected (Meaningful) Learning: Logs, Portfolios, and Journals

Character Education and the Domains Of Learning

Learning That Is Not Immediately Observable

Integrated Curriculum

Level 1 Curriculum Integration

Level 2 Curriculum Integration

Level 3 Curriculum Integration

Level 4 Curriculum Integration

Level 5 Curriculum Integration

Integrated Curriculum in a Standards-Based Environment

Planning for Instruction: A Seven-Step Process

The Syllabus

Use and Development of a Syllabus

Content of a Syllabus

Summary

Questions for Class Discussion

Exercises

References

CHAPTER 6: Planning the Instruction

The Instructional Unit

Planning and Developing any Unit of Instruction

Unit Format, Inclusive Elements, and Time Duration

Theoretical Considerations for the Selection of Instructional Strategies

Decision Making and Strategy Selection

Direct and Indirect Instruction: A Clarification of Terms

Degrees of Directness

Principles of Classroom Instruction and Learning: A Synopsis

Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge

Direct Versus Indirect Instructional Modes: Strengths and Weaknesses of Each

Selecting Learning Activities that are Developmentally Appropriate

Styles of Learning and Implications for Teaching

Learning Modalities

Learning Styles

The Three-Phase Learning Cycle

Learning Capacities: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

The Learning Experiences Ladder

Direct, Simulated, and Vicarious Experiences Help Connect Student Learning

Planning and Developing an Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit

Specific Guidelines for Developing an Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit

Developing the Learning Activities: The Heart and Spirit of the ITU

The Common Thread

Initiating Activities

Developmental Activities

Culminating Activity

Preparing the Lesson Plan

Rationale for Preparing Written Plans

Assumptions about Lesson Planning

A Continual Process

Well Planned but Open to Last-Minute Change

The Problem of Time

The Pressure of Standards-Based and High-Stakes Testing and the Felt Need to “Cover” the Prescribed Curriculum

Caution about “The Weekly Planning Book”

Constructing a Lesson Plan: Format, Elements, and Samples

For Guidance, Reflection, and Reference

Basic Elements in a Lesson Plan

Descriptive Data

Goals and Objectives

Setting the Learning Objectives

A Common Error and How to Avoid It

No Need to Include All Domains and Hierarchies in Every Lesson

Rationale

Procedure

Assignments

Special Considerations, Notes, and Reminders

Materials and Equipment to be Used

Assessment, Reflection, and Revision

Summary

Questions for Class Discussion

Exercises

References

CHAPTER 7: Assessing and Reporting Student Achievement

Purposes and Principles of Assessment

The Language of Assessment

Assessment and Evaluation

Measurement and Assessment

Validity and Reliability

Authentic Assessment: Advantages and Disadvantages

Diagnostic, Formative, and Summative Assessment

Assessing Student Learning: Three Avenues

Assessing What a Student Says and Does

Assessing What a Student Writes

Assessment for Affective and Psychomotor Domain Learning

Student Involvement in Assessment

Using Portfolios

Using Checklists

Maintaining Records of Student Achievement

Recording Teacher Observations and Judgments

Grading and Marking Student Achievement

Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Grading

Determining Grades

Testing for Achievement

Standardized (Formal) Versus Nonstandardized (Informal) Tests

Purposes for Informal Testing

Frequency for Informal Testing

Anxiety: Symptom Recognition and Helping Students (and Yourself) Deal with It

Test Construction

Administering Tests

Controlling Cheating

Determining the Time Needed to Take a Test

Preparing Assessment Items

Classification of Assessment Items

Performance Testing

General Guidelines for Preparing for Informal Assessment of Student Learning

Attaining Content Validity

Assessment Items: Descriptions, Examples, and Guidelines for Preparing and Using 12 Types

Arrangement

Completion Drawing

Completion Statement

Correction

Essay

Grouping

Identification

Matching

Multiple Choice

Performance

Short Explanation

True–False

Reporting Student Achievement

The Grade Report

Teacher Parental/Guardian Connections

Contacting Parents/Guardians

Meeting Parents/Guardians

Parent/Guardian Conference

Dealing with an Angry Parent or Guardian

Summary

Questions for Class Discussion

Exercises

References

CHAPTER 8: The Thinking Curriculum: Using Teacher Talk, Demonstrations, Inquiry, and Games

Teacher Talk: Formal and Informal

Cautions in Using Teacher Talk

Teacher Talk: General Guidelines

Teacher Talk: Specific Guidelines

Demonstration

Reasons for Using Demonstrations

Guidelines for Using Demonstrations

Inquiry Teaching and Discovery Learning

Problem Solving

Inquiry Versus Discovery

True Inquiry

The Critical Thinking Skills of Discovery and Inquiry

Integrating Strategies for Integrated Learning

Educational Games

Classification of Educational Games

Functions of Educational Games

Summary

Questions for Class Discussion

Exercises

References

CHAPTER 9: Mastery Learning and Differentiated Instruction

Today’s Emphasis: Quality Learning for Every Student

Assumptions About Mastery, or Quality, Learning

Elements of Any Mastery Learning Model: The Cycle of Teaching

Strategies for Personalizing (Individualizing) the Instruction Now!

Working with and Individualizing the Learning Experiences for Specific Learners

Recognizing and Working with Students with Special Needs

Recognizing and Working with Students of Diversity and Differences

Language-Minority Students

Recognizing and Working with Students Who are Gifted

Curriculum Tracking

Meaningful Curriculum Options: Multiple Pathways to Success

Recognizing and Working with Students Who Take More Time but are Willing to Try

Recognizing and Working with Recalcitrant Learners

Recognizing and Working with Abused Children

Learning Alone

Summary

Questions For Class Discussion

References

CHAPTER 10: Organizing and Guiding Student Learning in Groups

Learning in Pairs

The Learning Center

Learning in Small Groups

Purposes for Using Small Groups

Cooperative Learning

The Cooperative Learning Group (CLG)

The Theory and Use of Cooperative Learning

Roles Within the Cooperative Learning Group

What Students and the Teacher Do When Using Cooperative Learning Groups

When to Use Cooperative Learning Groups

Cooperative Group Learning, Assessment, and Grading

Why Some Teachers Experience Difficulty Using CLGs

Learning in Large Groups

Student Presentations

Whole-Class Discussion

Equality in the Classroom

Ensuring Equity

Learning from Assignments and Homework

Purposes for Assignments

Guidelines for Using Assignments

Opportunities for Recovery

How to Avoid Having So Many Papers to Grade that Time for Effective Planning is Restricted

Project-Centered Learning: Guiding Learning from Independent and Group Investigations, Papers, and Oral Reports

Values and Purposes of Project-Centered Learning

Guidelines for Guiding Students in Project-Centered Learning

Writing as a Required Component of Project-Centered Learning

Assessing the Final Product

Writing Across the Curriculum

Kinds of WritingPreventing Plagiarism

Journals and Blogs

A Collection of 130 Annotated Motivational Teaching Strategies with Ideas for Lessons, Interdisciplinary Teaching, Transcultural Studies, and Student Projects

The Visual and Performing Arts

Family and Consumer Economics, Foods, and Textiles

English, Languages, and the Language Arts

Mathematics

Physical Education

Science

Social Studies/History

Vocational Career Education

Summary

Questions For Class Discussion

Content Area Websites

References

CHAPTER 11: Professional Development: A Continuing Process

Professional Development Through Student Teaching or Internship

Whether Student Teaching or Intern Teaching, It Is the Real Thing

Getting Ready for the Beginning Teaching Experience

First Impressions

Continuing to Get Ready

Student Teaching from the Cooperating Teacher’s Point of View

Comments from the University Supervisor

What to do Before an Observation

What to do During an Observation

What to do During an Observation Conference

What to do After the Supervisor Leaves

Finding a Teaching Position

Guidelines for Locating a Teaching Position

The Professional Career Portfolio (Or How to Get Hired by Really Trying)

Resources for Locating Teaching Vacancies

The Professional Résumé

The In-Person Interview

Professional Development Through Reflection and Self-Assessment

Professional Development Through Mentoring

It is Helpful to Have a Mentor, Sometimes More Than One

When Should I Seek Help?

Coping Strategies: Avoiding Feelings of Aloneness

Make Career Plans: A Life Plan Map

Professional Development Through Inservice and Graduate Study

Professional Development Through Participation in Professional Organizations

Professional Development Through Communications with Teachers

Professional Development Through Off-Teaching Work Experience

Professional Development Through Micro Peer Teaching

Questions for Class Discussion

Summary

References

GLOSSARY

SUBJECT INDEX

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 28, 2011

    VERY Recommended

    For those who will be teachers or thinking about being teachers, this is a great book for reference to that career.

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