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The Secret of Scent: Adventures in Perfume and the Science of Smell

Overview

One man's passion for perfume leads him to explore one of the most intriguing scientific mysteries: What makes one molecule smell of garlic while another smells of rose?

In this witty, engrossing, and wildly original volume, author Luca Turin explores the two competing theories of smell. Is scent determined by molecular shape or molecular vibrations? Turin describes in fascinating detail the science, the evidence, and the often contentious debate—from the beginnings of organic ...

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Overview

One man's passion for perfume leads him to explore one of the most intriguing scientific mysteries: What makes one molecule smell of garlic while another smells of rose?

In this witty, engrossing, and wildly original volume, author Luca Turin explores the two competing theories of smell. Is scent determined by molecular shape or molecular vibrations? Turin describes in fascinating detail the science, the evidence, and the often contentious debate—from the beginnings of organic chemistry to the present day—and pays homage to the scientists who went before. With its uniquely accessible and captivating approach to science via art, The Secret of Scent will appeal to anyone who has ever wondered about the most mysterious of the five senses.

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Editorial Reviews

Tim Radford
Turin writes brilliantly, with the easy confidence of the expert and the infectious enthusiasm of the true amateur.
BBC Radio 4
The best science book of the year so far.
Sunday Telegraph
A rich sensory trip … this indispensable guide to all things smelly is as good as it gets.
Kirkus Reviews
A behind-the-scenes look at perfume research and development; a demanding course in the chemistry of fragrance; and the story behind the development of a scientific theory about how humans detect odors. Biophysicist Turin, dubbed The Emperor of Scent in Chandler Burr's 2003 biography, now serves as chief scientist of a company that creates fragrance molecules to order. He derived his still-controversial theory that a substance's odor is based on the frequencies of its molecules' vibrations from a 1977 article by R.H. Wright, who in turn derived it from Malcolm Dyson's papers of the 1920s and '30s. The author gives full credit to both men, whose work was not recognized in their lifetimes, and makes clear that he too still struggles to have his vibration theory accepted by those who believe that molecules' shape gives them their odor. Although illustrated with diagrams and drawings, the chemistry sections may still daunt some general readers. Turin's metaphors help, however. What distinguishes this account, besides the author's wit and his enthusiasm for fragrance, is his florid writing about scents. Turin has a remarkable ability to detect and describe their complexity: For him, they are not simply odors; they speak and have personality and colors. "The voice of Nombre Noir was that of a child older than its years, at once fresh, husky, modulated and faintly capricious," he rhapsodizes. "There was a knowing naivety about it which made me think of Colette's writing in her Claudine books. It brought to mind a purple ink to write love letters with." Along with lily of the valley, sandalwood and musk, however, the author provides a heavy load of aldehydes, acetophenone and proteinsemiconductors. Occasionally impenetrable, but overall a fascinating tour of the world of fragrance, provided by a knowledgeable and passionate expert.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780061133848
  • Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers
  • Publication date: 10/23/2007
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 224
  • Sales rank: 253,931
  • Product dimensions: 5.31 (w) x 8.00 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Luca Turin holds a Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of London. Since 1996 he has worked on primary olfactory reception and the prediction of odor character. In 2001 he became chief technical officer of Flexitral, where he uses his theory of olfaction to design new fragrances and flavor molecules.

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Read an Excerpt

The Secret of Scent

Adventures in Perfume and the Science of Smell
By Luca Turin

Ecco

Copyright © 2006 Luca Turin
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-06-113383-3


Chapter One

Nombre Noir: how I got into perfume

In 1981, at the age of twenty-seven, I moved from London to Nice. I remember wondering how long it would take me to tune out the beauty of the place, the strangeness of its dream-come-true villas, the pearly quality of its morning light, the surprise vistas at every turn of the various corniches. The answer eventually came: I never got used to it. But I soon found out that, behind the dazzling concave smile of the Promenade des Anglais, the rest of the place was in need of major dental work, full of shabby remnants of the 1960s: millineries selling crosspoint patterns; dismal driving schools; Alsatian restaurants serving choucroute in the summer heat.

At some point in the past, perhaps due to the proximity of Grasse, the perfume business must have flourished. Every few blocks stood a sad little perfumery with shelves full of forgotten wonders gathering dust. Different professions seem to foster different attitudes. French bakers tend to be friendly, florists snobbish and curt, butchers salacious. Perfumeries in Nice were staffed by brassy middle-aged women in a permanent sulk. No doubt the fierce competition from department stores accounted for some of the bad mood. This made the job of ferreting out strange perfumes more interesting, a kind of reversecharm school. At around that time, I befriended a Belgian antiques restorer who scoured flea markets for furniture and picked up old (and cheap, in those days) perfumes for me. That started my perfume collection.

Early the following year, during one of my periodic visits to the Galeries Lafayette, I noticed a shiny black arch in the corner of the perfume floor. This was the brand-new walk-in stand for a Japanese company I'd never heard of called Shiseido, and it showcased their first 'western' fragrance: Nombre Noir. I still remember the black-clad sales attendant spraying it from a black glass octagonal sampler on to my hand.

The fragrance itself was, and still is, a radical surprise. A perfume, like the timbre of a voice, can say something quite independent of the words actually spoken. What Nombre Noir said was 'flower'. But the way it said it was an epiphany. The flower at the core of Nombre Noir was half-way between a rose and a violet, but without a trace of the sweetness of either, set instead against an austere, almost saintly background of cigar-box cedar notes. At the same time, it wasn't dry, and seemed to be glistening with a liquid freshness that made its deep colours glow like a stained-glass window.

The voice of Nombre Noir was that of a child older than its years, at once fresh, husky, modulated and faintly capricious. There was a knowing naivety about it which made me think of Colette's writing style in her Claudine books. It brought to mind a purple ink to write love letters with, and that wonderful French word farouche, which can mean either shy or fierce or a bit of both. I immediately bought a very expensive half-ounce in a little square black bottle. It bore the initials SL for a mysterious name: 'Serge Lutens'. A few months later my girlfriend took it with her when we parted, and soon after the fragrance was discontinued. Little did I know at the time that I would have to wait twenty years before smelling it again.

I had always liked perfumes, but this was love. I had just then got my first real job, and thanks to the election of François Mitterrand as President, France embarked on a brief but intense period of profligate hiring of civil servants. The 1982 vintage was to become legendary: never, before or since, has it been so easy to get lifetime tenure as a scientist. I had a proper job, I had time on my hands, access to an excellent library, and I did what scientists are supposed to do: start thinking. It was Nombre Noir that got me started on a long journey towards the secret of smell, a journey that would take fifteen years.

The secret is this: though we now know almost everything there is to know about molecules, we don't know how our nose reads them. Hundreds of times each week chemists somewhere on earth make a new molecule. In the days before safety officers, chemists used to routinely smell and taste the fruits of their efforts. They no longer do. My colleague Daniel Boerger thinks those who did died early and failed to propagate their genes, and the species homo chemicus var. gustans has disappeared. Still, if it is powerful enough, and they either open the vial deliberately or forget to close it, they will smell it. Every time it is an absolute mystery what each molecule is going to smell like. It is as if each new molecule were an inscribed clay tablet with a word written in an unknown script, and a smell to go with it, like banana or rose or musk. The pile of tablets is now enormous, so big in fact that no one can have smelled more than a small fraction of the total, and we still don't understand how the things are written. The smell is encoded in the molecule using a cipher. This mysterious cipher is what this book is about. Like all good mysteries, it is hidden in plain sight. It has, if anything, deepened as our knowledge of smell has increased. Like most enticing enigmas, it is simply stated: what is this chemical alphabet that our noses read so effortlessly from birth?

Part of the reason for the lack of interest in the subject must be that smell science produces little that is useful to the sober pursuits of medicine and technology. There are few diseases of smell, and those that exist are usually incurable and get little sympathy. And though it is big business, fragrance is a low-tech, frivolous and fickle world....

(Continues...)



Excerpted from The Secret of Scent by Luca Turin Copyright © 2006 by Luca Turin. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
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Table of Contents

Nombre noir : how I got into perfume 3
A recipe 8
How perfumes are composed 11
What perfumes are not about : memory and sex 14
What perfumes are about : beauty and intelligence 16
A visit to the perfume museum 18
Royal fern 21
Why 'natural' does not always mean good 23
Why 'chemical' does not always mean bad 25
Feynman's answer 28
The beginnings of smell : chemical words 33
Smell becomes perfume : chemical poems 36
Reading the poem line by line 38
How molecules are made 40
A problem of nomenclature 43
The landscape of smell 46
A bit of biology 82
Locks and keys 85
Who turns the key? 87
Membrane receptors 88
Fishing for receptors 90
Seeing atoms 91
Evolution as the great locksmith 94
The smell alphabet 97
The primary smells 100
The smell in the mirror 102
Some strange clues 108
Malcolm Dyson 114
His big idea 118
Molecular chords 120
The smell of rocket fuel in the morning 121
Robert H. Wright 126
The revival of vibration 130
Searching for the way it works 132
New problems 135
The fall of vibration 137
Mirrors again 141
Physics to the rescue 143
Jaklevic and Lambe 144
Giaever's leap 146
The search for ripples 149
A close brush with smell 151
Clifton Meloan 153
John Blaha's observation 157
Where I come in : the polarograph 159
Protein semiconductors 165
The perfume guide 167
Funding from the blue 169
Revelation in Portugal 172
Experiments in a locked room 175
The future of fragrance 189
Potato crisps and other art forms 191
The future tout court 192
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