Secret Reports on Nazi Germany: The Frankfurt School Contribution to the War Effort

Overview

During the Second World War, three prominent members of the Frankfurt School—Franz Neumann, Herbert Marcuse, and Otto Kirchheimer—worked as intelligence analysts for the Office of Strategic Services, the wartime forerunner of the CIA. This book brings together their most important intelligence reports on Nazi Germany, most of them published here for the first time.

These reports provide a fresh perspective on Hitler's regime and the Second World War, and a fascinating window on ...

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Secret Reports on Nazi Germany: The Frankfurt School Contribution to the War Effort

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Overview

During the Second World War, three prominent members of the Frankfurt School—Franz Neumann, Herbert Marcuse, and Otto Kirchheimer—worked as intelligence analysts for the Office of Strategic Services, the wartime forerunner of the CIA. This book brings together their most important intelligence reports on Nazi Germany, most of them published here for the first time.

These reports provide a fresh perspective on Hitler's regime and the Second World War, and a fascinating window on Frankfurt School critical theory. They develop a detailed analysis of Nazism as a social and economic system and the role of anti-Semitism in Nazism, as well as a coherent plan for the reconstruction of postwar Germany as a democratic political system with a socialist economy. These reports played a significant role in the development of postwar Allied policy, including denazification and the preparation of the Nuremberg Trials. They also reveal how wartime intelligence analysis shaped the intellectual agendas of these three important German-Jewish scholars who fled Nazi persecution prior to the war.

Secret Reports on Nazi Germany features a foreword by Raymond Geuss as well as a comprehensive general introduction by Raffaele Laudani that puts these writings in historical and intellectual context.

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Editorial Reviews

Foreign Affairs - William E. Scheuerman
[F]ascinating. . . . [T]his new volume . . . conveniently collects a substantial chunk of the original documents penned by Neumann and his research team.
From the Publisher
"[F]ascinating. . . . [T]his new volume . . . conveniently collects a substantial chunk of the original documents penned by Neumann and his research team."—William E. Scheuerman, Foreign Affairs

"[A] fascinating collection. . . . The history of wartime intelligence is a developing field, and this material is a welcome addition."Library Journal

"[S]ome of the most brilliant analysis of Nazi Germany ever written and a valuable lesson in postwar planning. . . . [A] rich and multi-layered collection of political essays that will be of enduring interest to students of military intelligence, Marxism, Nazi Germany and the Allied effort in the Second World War."—John Bew, New Statesman

"Editor Laudani laces the reports throughout the forward, introduction, and short biographies, placing them in the larger context of critical theory and as tools for assessing postwar liberal democracy. Overall, the reports offer highly readable, objective assessments and possible reforms."Choice

"[A] highly valuable source for anyone interested in intellectual history, the history of ideas, the history of the Second World War, Nazi Germany or wartime intelligence. . . . The texts presented within this volume will most certainly remain essential reading material for anyone dealing with the so-called Frankfurt School, as well as for those scholars and students dealing with wartime intelligence structures, Nazi Germany and the Second World War."—Goran Miljan, European Review of History

"Secret Reports on Nazi Germany is a work of immense scholarly value that can serve as an important resource for scholars and students interested in the Second World War, U.S. postwar policy, the origins of the Cold War, critical theory, and the politics of exile. Most important, the reports in this collection provide a critical starting point for tracing the historiography on Nazism in the United States."—Anne Berg, H-Net Reviews

Library Journal
Editor Laudani (history & human cultures, Univ. of Bologna) provides researchers and other readers with a fascinating collection of primary sources: intelligence reports produced by German Jewish refugees—Neumann, Herbert Marcuse, and Otto Kirschheimer—when they worked for the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (the precursor to the CIA) in its Central European research division. Laudani argues that the documents are significant in part because all three men were members of the famed neo-Marxist Frankfurt School, and thus their insights into such topics as the nature of totalitarian regimes, plans for postwar de-Nazification, and the legal and philosophical basis of the Nuremberg war crimes tribunals shaped postwar political theories. VERDICT The history of wartime intelligence is a developing field, and this material is a welcome addition. If Laudani is correct that many of these reports (most of which are published here for the first time) had a limited impact on policy formulations, then a more forceful assertion as to their historical significance for the nonspecialist is required. While each document is given a brief editorial explanation, the collection would have benefited from a more detailed introduction providing the context and significance of the material. Recommended for specialists.—Frederic Krome, Univ. of Cincinnati Clermont Coll.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780691134130
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Publication date: 7/14/2013
  • Pages: 704
  • Sales rank: 1,451,557
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Franz Neumann (1900-1954) was a labor lawyer and political activist in Germany before the Nazi period, and was a professor of political science at Columbia University after his work in the OSS and at the Nuremberg Trials. Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979) was a philosopher who made important contributions to the Frankfurt School critical theory of society. He taught at Brandeis and San Diego universities after his work in the OSS. Otto Kirchheimer (1905-1965) worked for the OSS until 1952. Later he was professor of political science at the New School for Social Research and Columbia. Raffaele Laudani is assistant professor of the history of political thought at the University of Bologna.

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Table of Contents

Foreword, by Raymond Geuss ix
Acknowledgments xv
Notes on the Texts xvii
On the Authors xxi
Introduction 1

Part I THE ANALYSIS OF THE ENEMY
1 Franz Neumann - Anti-Semitism: Spearhead of Universal Terror 27
2 Herbert Marcuse - Possible Political Changes in Nazi Germany in the Near Future 31
3 Herbert Marcuse - Changes in the Reich Government 38
4 Franz Neumann and Paul Sweezy - Speer's Appointment as Dictator of the German Economy 48
5 Herbert Marcuse and Felix Gilbert - The Significance of Prussian Militarism for Nazi Imperialism: Potential Tensions in United Nations Psychological Warfare 61
6 Herbert Marcuse - German Social Stratification 74
Part II PATTERNS OF COLLAPSE
7 Franz Neumann - German Morale after Tunisia 95
8 Herbert Marcuse (assisted by Franz Neumann and Hans Meyerhoff) - Morale in Germany 100
9 Franz Neumann, Herbert Marcuse, and Felix Gilbert - Possible Patterns of German Collapse 106
10 Franz Neumann - The Social and Political Effects of Air Raids on the German People: A Preliminary Survey 118
11 Franz Neumann - The Attempt on Hitler's Life and Its Consequences 133
Part III POLITICAL OPPOSITION
12 Franz Neumann - The Free Germany Manifesto and the German People 149
13 Herbert Marcuse - The German Communist Party 167
14 Herbert Marcuse - The Social Democratic Party of Germany 199
Part IV DENAZIFICATION AND MILITARY GOVERNMENT
15 Otto Kirchheimer - The Abrogation of Nazi Laws in the Early Period of MG 229
16 Herbert Marcuse - Dissolution of the Nazi Party and Its Affiliated Organizations 253
17 Franz Neumann - German Cartels and Cartel-Like Organizations 264
18 Herbert Marcuse - Policy toward Revival of Old Parties and Establishment of New Parties in Germany 285
19 Otto Kirchheimer - General Principles of Administration and Civil Service in Germany 301
20 Otto Kirchheimer - Administration of German Criminal Justice under Military Government 318
21 Franz Neumann - The Problem of Inflation in Germany 345
Part V A NEW GERMANY IN A NEW EUROPE
22 Franz Neumann and Paul Sweezy - The Adaptation of Centralized European Controls of Raw Materials, Industry, and Transport 397
23 Franz Neumann - The Revival of German Political and Constitutional Life under Military Government 412
24 Franz Neumann - The Treatment of Germany 436
Part VI TOWARD NUREMBERG
25 Otto Kirchheimer and John Herz - The "Statement on Atrocities" of the Moscow Tripartite Conference 451
26 Franz Neumann - Problems Concerning the Treatment of War Criminals 457
27 Otto Kirchheimer and John Herz - Leadership Principle and Criminal Responsibility 464
28 Herbert Marcuse - Nazi Plans for Dominating Germany and Europe: The Nazi Master Plan 475
29 Otto Kirchheimer - Nazi Plans for Dominating Germany and Europe: Domestic Crimes 522
Part VII A NEW ENEMY
30 Herbert Marcuse - Status and Prospects of German Trade-Unions and Works Councils 557
31 Herbert Marcuse - The Potentials of World Communism 591

Notes 611
Index 659

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